Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Geology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

5,052 Full-Text Articles 6,498 Authors 690,763 Downloads 118 Institutions

All Articles in Geology

Faceted Search

5,052 full-text articles. Page 1 of 117.

Alluvial Sedimentation Associated With Logging In Low Gradient Watersheds In Desoto National Forest, Mississippi, Andrew W. Simmons 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Alluvial Sedimentation Associated With Logging In Low Gradient Watersheds In Desoto National Forest, Mississippi, Andrew W. Simmons

Master's Theses

Forestry and related businesses are an important factor of Mississippi’s economy, contributing between $11 and $14 billion annually (Mississippi Forestry Commission, 2006). The timber industry is not only important in Mississippi but is an important sector of the economy throughout the Gulf Coast region. While providing positive economic benefits to the region, the forestry industry can also negatively affect soil properties, hillslope stability, and increase sedimentation rates in local streams and rivers. The aim of this research is to determine if forestry removal causes an increase of soil erosion and how it affects floodplain sedimentation in the low gradient ...


Dating Late Quaternary Alluvial Fills In The Platte River Valley Using Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dating, Jacob C. Bruihler 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Dating Late Quaternary Alluvial Fills In The Platte River Valley Using Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dating, Jacob C. Bruihler

Theses and Dissertations in Geography

Alluvial fills underlying the Platte River Valley in Nebraska record the geologic history of the Platte River in the late Quaternary. This study investigated the alluvium underlying the valley near the cities of North Platte and Kearney, Nebraska. Data obtained from sediment cores drilled in the alluvial deposits was used to investigate the changes in Platte River dynamics on a glacial – interglacial timescale. Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating was used to determine burial ages of recovered sediments and to quantify the thicknesses of the late Pleistocene and Holocene alluvial fills at each study area. Our geochronology depicts considerable differences in ...


Effects Of Changes In Moisture Source And The Upstream Rainout On Stable Isotopes In Precipitation – A Case Study In Nanjing, Eastern China, Y. Tang, H. Pang, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Shuang-Ye Wu, S. Hou 2016 Nanjing University

Effects Of Changes In Moisture Source And The Upstream Rainout On Stable Isotopes In Precipitation – A Case Study In Nanjing, Eastern China, Y. Tang, H. Pang, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Shuang-Ye Wu, S. Hou

Shuang-ye Wu

In the Asian monsoon region, variations in the stable isotopic composition of speleothems have often been attributed to the "amount effect". However, an increasing number of studies suggest that the "amount effect" in local precipitation is insignificant or even non-existent. To explore this issue further, we examined the variability of daily stable isotopic composition (δ18O) in precipitation from September 2011 to November 2014 in Nanjing, eastern China. We found that intra-seasonal variations of δ18O during summer were not significantly correlated with local rainfall amount but could be linked to changes in the moisture source location and rainout processes in the ...


Paleogeographic, Paleoceanographic, And Tectonic Controls On Early Late Ordovician Graptolite Diversity Patterns, Daniel Goldman, Shuang-Ye Wu 2016 University of Dayton

Paleogeographic, Paleoceanographic, And Tectonic Controls On Early Late Ordovician Graptolite Diversity Patterns, Daniel Goldman, Shuang-Ye Wu

Shuang-ye Wu

The Katian Age (early Late Ordovician) was a time of significant decline in marine biodiversity, but whether this decline was a real phenomenon or an artifact of the relatively few studies devoted to this interval requires further research. We examined the pattern of graptolite faunal changes across the boundary between the Climacograptus bicornis and Diplacanthograptus caudatus graptolite zones in North America and on several other continents.

A sharp decline in species diversity occurs in the Appalachian Basin. Scores for normalized diversity dropped from 20 in the C. bicornis Zone to 7 in the D. caudatus Zone. Only 11% of the ...


Reconstruction Of The Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) Palaeotopography In The Upper Yangtze Region, Linna Zhang, Junxuan Fan, Qing Chen, Shuang-Ye Wu 2016 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences

Reconstruction Of The Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) Palaeotopography In The Upper Yangtze Region, Linna Zhang, Junxuan Fan, Qing Chen, Shuang-Ye Wu

Shuang-ye Wu

Reconstruction of the Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) palaeotopography in South China is important for understanding the distribution pattern of the Hirnantian marine depositional environment. In this study, we reconstructed the Hirnantian palaeotopography in the Upper Yangtze region based on the rankings of the palaeo-water depths, which were inferred according to the lithofacies and biofacies characteristics of the sections. Data from 374 Hirnantian sections were collected and standardized through the online Geobiodiversity Database. The Ordinary Kriging interpolation method in the ArcGIS software was applied to create the continuous surface of the palaeo-water depths, i.e. the Hirnantian palaeotopography. Meanwhile, the line transect ...


Upper Albian To Lower Cenomanian Calcareous Nannofossil Biostratigraphy Of The Proto-North Atlantic, Shamar Chin 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Upper Albian To Lower Cenomanian Calcareous Nannofossil Biostratigraphy Of The Proto-North Atlantic, Shamar Chin

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Lower Cenomanian calcareous nannofossil assemblages from Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Sites 137 and 547 in the proto-North Atlantic Ocean were analyzed quantitatively to examine the fidelity of the widely used CC and UC calcareous nannofossil Zonal schemes. Datasets from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) holes 1050C and 1052E (Blake Nose) and Tanzania Drilling Project (TDP) Site 24 were integrated into this dataset. Four biozones spanning the upper Albian through middle Cenomanian were determined using the method of unitary associations (UA). Data were also used from these sequences to generate a ranking and scaling (RASC) optimum sequence. A new reliability index ...


Preliminary Correlation And Isopach Map Of Pennsylvanian And Permian Sandstones Of The Western United States, John H. Whitmore 2016 Cedarville University

Preliminary Correlation And Isopach Map Of Pennsylvanian And Permian Sandstones Of The Western United States, John H. Whitmore

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Using the COSUNA data compiled by the AAPG in the 1980’s, Permian and Pennsylvanian sandstones were correlated across western North America. Stratigraphic sections and thickness information were obtained from charts and spreadsheets available from that data set. An isopach map was constructed from the thickness data of sandstones usually found below a Guadalupian Limestone. In particular, this project was concerned with sandstones that could be lithostratigraphically correlated with the Leonardian Coconino Sandstone of the Grand Canyon region of northern Arizona. These sandstones are mostly Lower Permian (Leonardian and Wolfcampian) but some are Upper Pennsylvanian, especially in the northern part ...


Correlation Of Basal Cambrian Sandstones Across North America, Joshua W. Perez 2016 Cedarville University

Correlation Of Basal Cambrian Sandstones Across North America, Joshua W. Perez

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

A thin, widespread sequence of siliciclastic strata ranging from lower to upper Cambrian age overlies Precambrian crystalline and metamorphic basement rock bounded by the Great Unconformity. This sequence is mainly comprised of basal Cambrian sandstones which can be subdivided into three distinct suites of lithofacies transitioning in age across most of North America. From the west, which is most notable for the Tapeats sandstone of Arizona and Nevada, lies gravelly to boulder sized conglomerates directly overlying basement rock. Eastward, the lower to middle Cambrian consists of a variety of ledge-forming sandstones which contain various areas rich in cross bedded, as ...


The Petrology And Geochemistry Of The Independence Dike Swarm, Owen’S Valley, California, Sean B. O'Donnell 2016 Cedarville University

The Petrology And Geochemistry Of The Independence Dike Swarm, Owen’S Valley, California, Sean B. O'Donnell

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Petrologic studies are important because they provide insights into the conditions under which rocks form. The Late Jurassic Independence Dike Swarm is a series of vertical igneous dikes that crop out in eastern and southern California, and range from mafic to felsic in composition. In order to examine their petrology and geochemistry, surface samples were collected from four different dike outcrops within Owen’s Valley, CA. The samples were examined through thin-section analysis under a petrographic microscope, X-ray diffraction analysis, and X-ray fluorescence analysis. Mineral composition, mineral size, major, trace, and rare earth element concentrations were collected from these analyses ...


Growth Of Synthetic Silver Wires From Natural Acanthite, Calvin J. Anderson 2016 Cedarville University

Growth Of Synthetic Silver Wires From Natural Acanthite, Calvin J. Anderson

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Wire silver is an unusual crystal habit of native silver which is intimately associated with acanthite (Ag2S). These delicate wires have been collected for several centuries, but much remains unknown regarding their growth mechanism and crystal structure. This study has successfully produced synthetic silver wires from natural acanthite in order to investigate the nature of their crystallinity.

Chunks of crude acanthite crystals from the Hongda mine, Shanxi Province, China, were trimmed into roughly 1 cm chunks for growth experiments. Preexisting silver wires, which appeared to be natural, were avoided.

Several techniques were explored with varying degrees of success. Attempts using ...


Identifying The Ordinary High Water Mark Through The Use Of Uavs, Victoria Couser 2016 Cedarville University

Identifying The Ordinary High Water Mark Through The Use Of Uavs, Victoria Couser

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

The accurate determination of the Ordinary High Water Mark (OHWM) on streams and shorelines has taken on an increased importance since the recent redefinition of “Waters of the United States” by the U.S EPA. The redefinition has increased the amount of land and water over which the federal government has jurisdiction. The OHWM helps define the limits of those jurisdictional waters. Accurate, consistent, and efficient OHWM delineation practices are thus essential to proper and effective implementation of these laws and regulations by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Regulatory Program and other agencies.

Through this research it is ...


Laboratory Determination Of Porosity For A Vugular Carbonate Core Section By Water Immersion Method - Is It Effective Porosity?, Nolan Shula 2016 Cedarville University

Laboratory Determination Of Porosity For A Vugular Carbonate Core Section By Water Immersion Method - Is It Effective Porosity?, Nolan Shula

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Porosity is one of the most vital characteristics in hydrocarbon reservoir evaluations, affecting the methods implemented in the completion process and the efficiency of the production process. Several methods are used for porosity calculations, but due to both lithologic and downhole drilling factors, these values can range more than ± 5%. Also, most limestone reservoirs contain multiple-porosity systems, which lead to effective porosity concerns, especially when secondary porosity is a significant factor. Therefore, through both geophysical wireline log analysis and basic laboratory analyses, this project compared total and effective porosity values of a vugular Onondaga Limestone pinnacle reef core section from ...


On The Aquatic Habits Of Sauropods – An Antiquated Theory In Need Of Revival?, Michael D. Sprague 2016 Cedarville University

On The Aquatic Habits Of Sauropods – An Antiquated Theory In Need Of Revival?, Michael D. Sprague

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

When sauropods were first discovered, they were thought to have been restricted to life in the water due to their immense size. This image of sauropods was dismissed in the 1950’s when it was determined that the lungs would have been placed under massive amounts of pressure at these depths, rendering breathing nearly impossible (Kermack, 1951). However, these experiments failed to consider pneumaticity of sauropod vertebrae and were later dismissed. Sauropods possessed pneumatic features in all their presacral vertebrae, originally identified as weight-saving structures. These features kept the strength and integrity of the bone while dramatically reducing its weight ...


Preliminary Correlation And Isopach Map Of Navajo-Aztec-Nugget Sandstones, Western United States, Emily Jackson 2016 Cedarville University

Preliminary Correlation And Isopach Map Of Navajo-Aztec-Nugget Sandstones, Western United States, Emily Jackson

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Lower and middle Jurassic sandstones across western North America were correlated using stratigraphic thickness and lithofacies data obtained from the AAPG-produced Correlation of Stratigraphic Units of North America (COSUNA) data charts and spreadsheets. An isopach map and a series of stratigraphic cross-sections were created to display the lateral and horizontal extent of the correlated formations. The goal was to determine lateral equivalents of the primarily lower Jurassic Navajo Sandstone from Utah, Arizona, and Colorado. The Nugget Sandstone of Wyoming, Utah, and southern Idaho, and the Aztec Sandstone of southeastern California and southern Nevada were determined to be laterally equivalent to ...


What Data Analytics Can Do For You!, Leyla Zhuhadar, J. Kirk Atkinson, Albert Meier, Ouida Meier 2016 WKU Initiative for Applied Data Analytics, Western Kentucky University

What Data Analytics Can Do For You!, Leyla Zhuhadar, J. Kirk Atkinson, Albert Meier, Ouida Meier

Mammoth Cave Research Symposia

No abstract provided.


Use Of Multiphysics Simulation To Model Environmental Conditions Associated With Bat Hibernacula Including Preliminary Indication Of Impacts On Saltpeter Vats In Mammoth Cave, Aaron Bird, Rick Olson, Rick Toomey, Aaron Addison, Rachel Bosch 2016 CD-adapco

Use Of Multiphysics Simulation To Model Environmental Conditions Associated With Bat Hibernacula Including Preliminary Indication Of Impacts On Saltpeter Vats In Mammoth Cave, Aaron Bird, Rick Olson, Rick Toomey, Aaron Addison, Rachel Bosch

Mammoth Cave Research Symposia

No abstract provided.


The Effect Of Faulting On Past And Present Hydrogeology In Long Cave, Mammoth Cave National Park, Rick Olson, Rick S. Toomey 2016 Science and Resources Management Division, Mammoth Cave National Park

The Effect Of Faulting On Past And Present Hydrogeology In Long Cave, Mammoth Cave National Park, Rick Olson, Rick S. Toomey

Mammoth Cave Research Symposia

No abstract provided.


An Overview Of The Reverse Flow Patterns Of River Styx In Mammoth Cave, Kentucky: 2009-2012, Shannon R. Trimboli, Kim Weber, Susan Ryan, Rick S. Toomey 2016 Mammoth Cave International Center for Science and Learning, Ogden College of Science and Engineering, Western Kentucky University

An Overview Of The Reverse Flow Patterns Of River Styx In Mammoth Cave, Kentucky: 2009-2012, Shannon R. Trimboli, Kim Weber, Susan Ryan, Rick S. Toomey

Mammoth Cave Research Symposia

No abstract provided.


Measurement Of Inorganic Carbon Fluxes From Large River Basins In South Central Kentucky Karst, Connor Salley, Chris Groves 2016 Crawford Hydrology Lab, Western Kentucky University

Measurement Of Inorganic Carbon Fluxes From Large River Basins In South Central Kentucky Karst, Connor Salley, Chris Groves

Mammoth Cave Research Symposia

No abstract provided.


Tracing Carbon In Karst Environments In South-Central Kentucky To Identify Changes In Groundwater Dynamic Under Varying Land Uses, Chelsea Ballard, Jason Polk, Kegan McClanahan 2016 Western Kentucky University

Tracing Carbon In Karst Environments In South-Central Kentucky To Identify Changes In Groundwater Dynamic Under Varying Land Uses, Chelsea Ballard, Jason Polk, Kegan Mcclanahan

Mammoth Cave Research Symposia

No abstract provided.


Digital Commons powered by bepress