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Life On The Edge: The Cambrian Marine Realm And Oxygenation, Sara Pruss, Benjamin C. Gill 2024 Smith College

Life On The Edge: The Cambrian Marine Realm And Oxygenation, Sara Pruss, Benjamin C. Gill

Geosciences: Faculty Publications

The beginning of the Phanerozoic saw two biological events that set the stage for all life that was to come: (a) the Cambrian Explosion (the appearance of most marine invertebrate phyla) and (b) the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE), the subsequent substantial accumulation of marine biodiversity. Here, we examine the current state of understanding of marine environments and ecosystems from the late Ediacaran through the Early Ordovician, which spans this biologically important interval. Through a compilation and review of the existing geochemical, mineralogical, sedimentological, and fossil records, we argue that this interval was one of sustained low and variable marine …


Building And Using A Hydrology Experiment For Place-Based Learning With Native American Students, Michaela Shallue 2024 Utah State University

Building And Using A Hydrology Experiment For Place-Based Learning With Native American Students, Michaela Shallue

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Fall 2023 to Present

Geoscience has a known diversity problem, specifically a participation gap of ethnic minority representation, and it is especially severe regarding Native American representation. To address this participation gap, an identity gap needs to be addressed first. Native students need to visualize themselves as geoscientists before they can commit to geoscience programs and careers. This project uses a hands-on, place-based learning activity as an opportunity for Native students to better see themselves as geoscientists.

A portable rainfall simulator was constructed, calibrated, and refined for use in teaching concepts about rainfall, runoff, and erosion. It was employed in place-based learning exercises with …


Arkansas Soil Erosion And Conservation Methods In Ornamental Landscapes, Abby J. Cutsinger 2024 Arkansas Tech University

Arkansas Soil Erosion And Conservation Methods In Ornamental Landscapes, Abby J. Cutsinger

ATU Research Symposium

This study will attempt to identify the best soil erosion mitigation methods for Arkansas ornamental landscape settings by comparing the strengths and weaknesses of known techniques. Since soil is not a renewable resource, we must apply conservation practices wherever possible, not just in agricultural settings. To determine the most effective erosion prevention techniques, this study will review soil studies conducted by the NRCS and NASA, as well as articles on best practices observed in ornamental landscape and agricultural industries. These are analyzed by comparing and contrasting techniques against known problems with Arkansas soil to determine which methods are most effective. …


Evaluating Reclaimed Mines And Heavy Metal Soil Contamination, Torin A. Matthews 2024 Arkansas Tech University

Evaluating Reclaimed Mines And Heavy Metal Soil Contamination, Torin A. Matthews

ATU Research Symposium

Arkansas has a rich history of lead and zinc mining. While there are still some active mines, many historical mines have been abandoned and/or reclaimed. Although most reclamation procedures result in the burial and containment of target minerals, accessory minerals and elements can be leached out of waste materials/tailings piles and include heavy metals (i.e., Pb, As, Cd). We aim to evaluate the soil and watershed of a few abandoned/reclaimed mines in Pope County, AR, for the presence of heavy metals/source minerals. Soil and stream sediment geochemistry will be conducted using a portable x-ray fluorescence analyzer. Field work and sampling …


Dispersion Of Artificial Tracers In Ventilated Caves, Claudio Pastore, Eric Weber, Frédéric Doumenc, Pierre-Yves Jeannin, Marc Lütscher 2024 Swiss Institute for Speleology and Karst Studies (SISKA), La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland

Dispersion Of Artificial Tracers In Ventilated Caves, Claudio Pastore, Eric Weber, Frédéric Doumenc, Pierre-Yves Jeannin, Marc Lütscher

International Journal of Speleology

Artificial CO2 was used as a tracer along ventilated karst conduits to infer airflow and investigate tracer dispersion. In the karst vadose zone, cave ventilation is an efficient mode of transport for heat, gases and aerosols and thus drives the spatial distribution of airborne particles. Modelling this airborne transport requires geometrical and physical parameters of the conduit system, including the cross-sectional areas, the airflow and average air speed, as well as the longitudinal dispersion coefficient which describes the spreading of a solute. Four gauging tests were carried out in one mine (artificial conduit) and two ventilated caves (natural conduits). …


Reflectance Spectroscopy Datasets For The Validation Of Tanager, Kristiana Lapo, Kathleen Hoza, Sammy Theuer, Melissa S. Rice 2024 Western Washington University

Reflectance Spectroscopy Datasets For The Validation Of Tanager, Kristiana Lapo, Kathleen Hoza, Sammy Theuer, Melissa S. Rice

Geology Faculty Publications

The Three-Axis N-sample Automated Goniometer for Evaluating Reflectance (TANAGER) is a custom goniometer designed to rapidly acquire spectra of natural rock surfaces across the full scattering hemisphere. TANAGER interfaces with a Malvern Panalytical ASD Fieldspec 4 Hi-Res reflectance spectrometer to collect data from 350-2500 nm at a range of incidence, emission and azimuth angles. To validate the accuracy and repeatability of data collected with TANAGER - and to characterize any instrument noise, artifacts or sample heating effects - we collected spectra from three categories of targets: (1) powdered calcium sulfate (anhydrite), (2) naturally weathered basalt surfaces, and (3) color calibration …


Unearthing The Past: A Comprehensive Study Of Natural And Anthropogenic Changes At An Archaeological Site Through Hydrogeologic Connectivity Utilizing Gis, Mehlich Ii Phosphorus Extractant, And Ph, Dana L. F. Herren 2024 Jacksonville State University

Unearthing The Past: A Comprehensive Study Of Natural And Anthropogenic Changes At An Archaeological Site Through Hydrogeologic Connectivity Utilizing Gis, Mehlich Ii Phosphorus Extractant, And Ph, Dana L. F. Herren

Theses

This thesis aims to thoroughly analyze the Mehlich II Phosphorus Extractant and pH levels at the Bains Gap Village Site in Anniston, AL., while examining the impact of various environmental factors and human activities on them. Phosphorus is often used in archaeology as an indicator of human activity. Soil core samples were collected to analyze anomalies in phosphorus levels.

To establish any relationships, phosphorus and pH levels from soil cores were correlated with findings from past excavation units and features. The potential effects of hydrogeologic connectivity on soil phosphorus and pH levels were investigated. Geospatial technologies were used to manage …


Enhancing Landslide Susceptibility Modelling Through A Novel Non-Landslide Sampling Method And Ensemble Learning Technique, Chao Zhou, Yue Wang, Ying Cao, Ramesh P. Singh, Bayes Ahmed, Mahdi Motagh, Yang Wang, Ling Chen, Guangchao Tan, Shanshan Li 2024 China University of Geosciences Wuhan

Enhancing Landslide Susceptibility Modelling Through A Novel Non-Landslide Sampling Method And Ensemble Learning Technique, Chao Zhou, Yue Wang, Ying Cao, Ramesh P. Singh, Bayes Ahmed, Mahdi Motagh, Yang Wang, Ling Chen, Guangchao Tan, Shanshan Li

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

In recent years, several catastrophic landslide events have been observed throughout the globe, threatening to lives and infrastructures. To minimize the impact of landslides, the need of landslide susceptibility map is important. The study aims to extract high-quality non-landslide samples and improve the accuracy of landslide susceptibility modelling (LSM) outcomes by applying a coupled method of ensemble learning and Machine Learning (ML). The Zigui-Badong section of the Three Gorges Reservoir area (TGRA) in China was considered in the present study. Twelve influencing factors were selected as inputs for LSM, and the relationship between each causal factor and landslide spatial development …


Investigating Gulf Coast Aquifer System: Stratigraphy Reconstruction, Inverse Modeling, And Groundwater Stress Assessment, Shuo Yang 2024 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Investigating Gulf Coast Aquifer System: Stratigraphy Reconstruction, Inverse Modeling, And Groundwater Stress Assessment, Shuo Yang

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The Mississippi Embayment aquifer system (MEAS) and the Coastal Lowlands aquifer system (CLAS) provide substantial groundwater resources for human activities in the U.S. Gulf Coastal Plain. However, the overexploitation has led to groundwater depletion in the MEAS and the CLAS, threatening sustainable groundwater use. Such concern highlights the crucial need for an advanced understanding of stratigraphy and groundwater in these aquifer systems, which is essential for effective regional groundwater management. This dissertation presents a comprehensive investigation of MEAS and CLAS in the Louisiana and southwestern Mississippi region, encompassing three fundamental dimensions: stratigraphy reconstruction, groundwater modeling, and groundwater stress assessments. A …


Comparative Life Cycle Assessment Of Copper Production, Xiaohan Wu 2024 Purdue University

Comparative Life Cycle Assessment Of Copper Production, Xiaohan Wu

Graduate Industrial Research Symposium

Copper demand will surge significantly in the context of global renewable energy technology implementation, but its production is an energy-intensive process. It is crucial to choose the best production method to reduce environmental damage in terms of the enormous copper supply. This research develops a multi-criteria life cycle assessment model for the three main copper production routes- pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, and bioleaching. We complied material and energy flow data to assess each route's life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, cost, and resource efficiency. Results indicate bioleaching emits the least GHG emissions (4.09 kg-CO2 eq/kg copper) among the three routes. Hydrometallurgy is …


Lower Bound On Preserved Flood Duration In Fluvial Bedform Stratigraphy (Experimental Dataset), Robert C. Mahon, Vamsi Ganti, Madeline M. Kelley, Debsmita Das, Victoria Sanchez, Giancarlo Portocarrero, Mayson Fredricks 2024 University of New Orleans

Lower Bound On Preserved Flood Duration In Fluvial Bedform Stratigraphy (Experimental Dataset), Robert C. Mahon, Vamsi Ganti, Madeline M. Kelley, Debsmita Das, Victoria Sanchez, Giancarlo Portocarrero, Mayson Fredricks

Lower Bound on Preserved Flood Duration in Fluvial Bedform Stratigraphy (experimental dataset)

This data is collected to assess the role of hydrograph timescale relative to dune migration on the preservation of cross sets in the stratigraphic record. The data presented here are of dune evolution under steady-state conditions, as well as three hydrographs of the same magnitude but varying timescales.

Methodology:

We collected data from four experiments tracking bedform evolution in a 22-m-long, 0.56-m-wide, 0.9-m-deep flume at the University of New Orleans Dynamics of Sedimentation laboratory. We conducted an equilibrium experiment (discharge value 0.027 m3/s) and three flood experiments, which were characterized by a symmetrical flood wave. In all flood experiments, the …


Publications And Other Works By R. F. Diffendal, Jr., Robert F. Diffendal Jr. 2024 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Publications And Other Works By R. F. Diffendal, Jr., Robert F. Diffendal Jr.

School of Natural Resources: Faculty Publications

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Updated March 2024


Deep Structure Of Siletzia In The Puget Lowland: Imaging An Obducted Plateau And Accretionary Thrust Belt With Potential Fields, Megan L. Anderson, Richard J. Blakely, Ray E. Wells, Joe D. Dragovich 2024 Washington Geological Survey

Deep Structure Of Siletzia In The Puget Lowland: Imaging An Obducted Plateau And Accretionary Thrust Belt With Potential Fields, Megan L. Anderson, Richard J. Blakely, Ray E. Wells, Joe D. Dragovich

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Detailed understanding of crustal components and tectonic history of forearcs is important due to their geological complexity and high seismic hazard. The principal component of the Cascadia forearc is Siletzia, a composite basaltic terrane of oceanic origin. Much is known about the lithology and age of the province. However, glacial sediments blanketing the Puget Lowland obscure its lateral extent and internal structure, hindering our ability to fully understand its tectonic history and its influence on modern deformation. In this study, we apply map-view interpretation and two-dimensional modeling of aeromagnetic and gravity data to the magnetically stratified Siletzia terrane revealing its …


Brief Communication: Recent Estimates Of Glacier Mass Loss For Western North America From Laser Altimetry, Brian Menounos, Caitlyn Forentine, Alex A. Gardner, Andrew G. Fountain 2024 University of Northern British Columbia

Brief Communication: Recent Estimates Of Glacier Mass Loss For Western North America From Laser Altimetry, Brian Menounos, Caitlyn Forentine, Alex A. Gardner, Andrew G. Fountain

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Glaciers in western North American outside of Alaska are often overlooked in global studies because their potential to contribute to changes in sea level is small. Nonetheless, these glaciers represent important sources of freshwater, especially during times of drought. Differencing recent ICESat-2 data from a digital elevation model derived from a combination of synthetic aperture radar data (TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X), we find that over the period 2013–2020, glaciers in western North America lost mass at a rate of 12:3+3:5 Gt yr-1. This rate is comparable to the rate of mass loss (11:71:0 Gt yr1) for the period 2018– 2022 calculated …


Joint Map Of Hardin County, Kentucky, Steven L. Martin, Emily Morris 2024 University of Kentucky

Joint Map Of Hardin County, Kentucky, Steven L. Martin, Emily Morris

Map and Chart--KGS

New field mapping of joints with previously published joint and fault locations. This fracture map can be used as a critical data source for hydrological, karst or geotechnical applications. Joint orientations were measured in 2009, 2022 and 2023, and are combined with joint and fault locations for Hardin County, Kentucky from 1:24,000-scale USGS geologic quadrangle maps that were published from 1962 to 1977. The geologic quadrangle maps for the county were digitized from 2002 to 2007.

The geology of Hardin County consists of Upper Devonian New Albany Shale overlain by Lower to Upper Mississippian-age sequences of limestone, dolomite, sandstone and …


Controls On Plastic Debris Capture In Urban Stormwater Drains Of London, Canada: A Study Within The Great Lakes Watershed, Nina Kozikowski 2024 Western University

Controls On Plastic Debris Capture In Urban Stormwater Drains Of London, Canada: A Study Within The Great Lakes Watershed, Nina Kozikowski

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Land-based sources are the greatest contributors of plastic pollution in aquatic environments. Prior to this investigation, there were no available studies concerning the number and types of plastic debris items between 1 mm and 5 mm captured in urban stormwater drains. The present study examined macroplastic (>5 mm) and large microplastic (1-5 mm) debris that accumulated in LittaTrapTM devices at six drain sites over four seasonal periods in London, Ontario, Canada. Macroplastics (MaPs) and microplastics (MPs) were found in all 36 samples, and the totals ranged from 5-158 MaPs and 18-359 MPs per trap. Out of the 118 …


Cambrian Trilobites From The Nounan Dolomite And Lower St. Charles Formation (Upper Marjuman To Lower Sunwaptan; Miaolingian To Furongian Series), Smithfield Canyon, Northern Utah, Frederick A. Sundberg, Hannah R. Cothren, Carol M. Dehler 2024 University of New Mexico

Cambrian Trilobites From The Nounan Dolomite And Lower St. Charles Formation (Upper Marjuman To Lower Sunwaptan; Miaolingian To Furongian Series), Smithfield Canyon, Northern Utah, Frederick A. Sundberg, Hannah R. Cothren, Carol M. Dehler

Geosciences Faculty Publications

The trilobite faunas that occur with the Steptoean Positive Isotope Carbon Excursion (SPICE) at Smithfield Canyon, Utah, have been reported, but not illustrated. Given the importance of the SPICE at this section for international correlations, the trilobites from new collections from the upper Nounan Dolomite to lower St. Charles Formation at Smithfield Canyon are reported herein and integrated with the previously reported taxa. Trilobite assemblages indicate that the upper Cedaria to the Ellipsocephaloides biozones (Miaolingian Series, Guzhangian Stage to Furongian Series, Jiangshanian Stage) are present stratigraphically below or above the SPICE.

Some of the taxa reported herein may represent new …


2023’S Billion-Dollar Disasters List Shattered The Us Record With 28 Big Weather And Climate Disasters Amid Earth’S Hottest Year On Record, Shuang-Ye Wu 2024 University of Dayton

2023’S Billion-Dollar Disasters List Shattered The Us Record With 28 Big Weather And Climate Disasters Amid Earth’S Hottest Year On Record, Shuang-Ye Wu

Geology Faculty Publications

The U.S. set an unwelcome record for weather and climate disasters in 2023, with 28 disasters that exceeded more than US$1 billion in damage each.

While it wasn’t the most expensive year overall – the costliest years included multiple hurricane strikes – it had the highest number of billion-dollar storms, floods, droughts and fires of any year since counting began in 1980, with six more than any other year, accounting for inflation.


A Bayesian Inversion For Emissions And Export Productivity Across The End-Cretaceous Boundary, Alexander A. Cox 2024 Dartmouth College

A Bayesian Inversion For Emissions And Export Productivity Across The End-Cretaceous Boundary, Alexander A. Cox

Dartmouth College Master’s Theses

The end-Cretaceous mass extinction was marked by both the Chicxulub impact and the ongoing emplacement of the Deccan Traps flood basalt province. Both of these events perturbed the environment by the emission of climate-active volatiles, primarily CO2 and SO2. To understand the mechanism of extinction, we must disentangle the timing, duration, and intensity of volcanic and meteoritic environmental forcings. In this thesis, we used a parallel Markov chain Monte Carlo approach to invert for the aforementioned volatile emissions, export productivity, and remineralization from 67 to 65 million years ago using the LOSCAR (Long-term Ocean-atmosphere-Sediment CArbon cycle Reservoir) model. The parallel …


Petrologic Relationship Between Lamprophyres, Carbonatites, And Heavy Rare-Earth Element Enriched Breccias At Hicks Dome, Jarek Trela, Jared T. Freiburg, Esteban Gazel, Laurence Nuelle, Anton H. Maria, David H. Malone, John M. Molinarolo 2024 Illinois State Geological Survey

Petrologic Relationship Between Lamprophyres, Carbonatites, And Heavy Rare-Earth Element Enriched Breccias At Hicks Dome, Jarek Trela, Jared T. Freiburg, Esteban Gazel, Laurence Nuelle, Anton H. Maria, David H. Malone, John M. Molinarolo

Faculty Publications-- Geography, Geology, and the Environment

New petrological, geochemical, and PT modelling results from igneous samples clarify how carbonatite-lamprophyre magmatism, fluorite and rare earth element (REE) enrichment are petrogenetically related in southern Illinois. PT modelling reveals that igneous rocks derive from a deep mantle carbonated source, that is consistent with trace element signatures for a fluorine-rich transition zone origin. Major element systematics suggests liquid-immiscibility with lamprophyric melts as the origin for Ca-carbonatites. Heavy REE (HREE) enrichments in Hicks Dome breccias likely formed through preferential partitioning and transport of HREE by brine-melts, exsolved from a deep carbonatite body. Brine-melts redistributed HREEs throughout the …


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