Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Geology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

4984 Full-Text Articles 6550 Authors 735745 Downloads 125 Institutions

All Articles in Geology

Faceted Search

4984 full-text articles. Page 1 of 113.

Tube Coalescence In The Jingfudong Lava Tube And Implications For Lava Flow Hazard Of Tengchong Volcanism, Zhengquan Chen, Yongshun Liu, Haiquan Wei, Jiandong Xu, Wenfeng Guo 2016 Key Laboratory of Active Tectonics and Volcano, Institute of Geology

Tube Coalescence In The Jingfudong Lava Tube And Implications For Lava Flow Hazard Of Tengchong Volcanism, Zhengquan Chen, Yongshun Liu, Haiquan Wei, Jiandong Xu, Wenfeng Guo

International Journal of Speleology

Tube-fed structure occurs as a general phenomenon in Tengchong basic lavas, such as lava tubes, lava plugs and tube-related collapse depressions. We deduced the development of Laoguipo lava flows, which is the longest lava tube (Jingfudong lava tube) evolved in Tengchong volcanic area. Following the detailed documentation of the tube morphology of the Jingfudong lava tube, we propose that the Jingfudong lava tube was formed through vertical coalescence of at least three tubes. The coalescence and bifurcation process are re-constructed by interpretation of tube floor continuity, the distribution of remnant tubes and the scales of lava tube branches (shapes of ...


Determining The Viability Of Recent Storms As Modern Analogues For North-Central Gulf Of Mexico Paleotempestology Through Sedimentary Analysis And Storm Surge Reconstruction, Joshua Caleb Bregy 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Determining The Viability Of Recent Storms As Modern Analogues For North-Central Gulf Of Mexico Paleotempestology Through Sedimentary Analysis And Storm Surge Reconstruction, Joshua Caleb Bregy

Master's Theses

The northern Gulf of Mexico has been devastated by recent intense storms. Camille (1969) and Katrina (2005) are two notable hurricanes that made landfall in virtually the same location in Mississippi. However, fully understanding the risks and processes associated with hurricane impacts is impeded by a short and fragmented instrumental record. Paleotempestology could potentially use modern analogues from intense storms in this region to extend the hurricane record back to pre-observational time. Existing empirically based models can back-calculate surge heights over coastal systems as a function of transport distance, particle settling velocity, and gravitational acceleration. We collected cores in a ...


Subsidence Monitoring In Hampton Roads Using Satellites, Ben Hamlington 2016 Old Dominion University

Subsidence Monitoring In Hampton Roads Using Satellites, Ben Hamlington

July 29, 2016: The Latest in Sea Level Rise Science

No abstract provided.


Design Of A Conditioner For Smoothing Wind Turbine Output Power, Murali Bottu, Mariesa Crow, A. Curt Elmore 2016 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Design Of A Conditioner For Smoothing Wind Turbine Output Power, Murali Bottu, Mariesa Crow, A. Curt Elmore

Mariesa Crow

As a result of wind speed intermittency, highly variable wind power output can adversely impact local loads. We propose a conditioner to smooth the variable wind power by utilizing the energy of an ultracapacitor. The conditioner is based on a single phase voltage source inverter (VSI) connected between the grid interconnection point and the ultracapacitor. The shunt VSI injects or absorbs active power from the line to smooth the wind power by utilizing the short term storage capabilities of the ultracapacitor. The ultracapacitor is connected to the DC link through a DC-DC converter, which maintains the voltage of the DC ...


Observational Evidence Confirms Modelling Of The Long-Term Integrity Of Co2-Reservoir Caprocks, N. Kampman, A. Busch, P. Bertier, J. Snippe, S. Hangx, V. Pipich, Z. Di, G. Rother, J. F. Harrington, James P. Evans, A. Maskell, H. J. Chapman, M. J. Bickle 2016 Shell Global Solutions International

Observational Evidence Confirms Modelling Of The Long-Term Integrity Of Co2-Reservoir Caprocks, N. Kampman, A. Busch, P. Bertier, J. Snippe, S. Hangx, V. Pipich, Z. Di, G. Rother, J. F. Harrington, James P. Evans, A. Maskell, H. J. Chapman, M. J. Bickle

Geology Faculty Publications

Storage of anthropogenic CO2 in geological formations relies on a caprock as the primary seal preventing buoyant super-critical CO2 escaping. Although natural CO2 reservoirs demonstrate that CO2 may be stored safely for millions of years, uncertainty remains in predicting how caprocks will react with CO2-bearing brines. This uncertainty poses a significant challenge to the risk assessment of geological carbon storage. Here we describe mineral reaction fronts in a CO2 reservoir-caprock system exposed to CO2 over a timescale comparable with that needed for geological carbon storage. The propagation of the reaction front is retarded by ...


A Molluscan Record Of Monsoonal Precipitation Along The Western Shoreline Of The Late Maastrichtian Western Interior Seaway, Scott Allen Ishler 2016 University of South Florida

A Molluscan Record Of Monsoonal Precipitation Along The Western Shoreline Of The Late Maastrichtian Western Interior Seaway, Scott Allen Ishler

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Global warming in response to increasing levels of atmospheric CO2 concentration (pCO2) has generated concern over the effects of increasing surface temperature on the hydrologic cycle. Investigating precipitation dynamics during past ‘greenhouse’ intervals provide important insights necessary to better constrain potential future climate scenarios. The Late Cretaceous greenhouse is characterized by elevated pCO2 and surface temperatures, with a prolonged cooling trend which initiated in the late Campanian and an associated 4th-order sea-level regression recorded in the Western Interior Seaway (WIS), providing an opportunity to examine the hydrologic cycle under conditions of changing temperature and sea-level. This study uses a sclerochronologic ...


Stratigraphy And Sedimentology Of The Cretaceous Mowry Shale In The Northern Bighorn Basin Of Wyoming: Implications For Unconventional Resource Exploration And Development, Jordan M. Bremer 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Stratigraphy And Sedimentology Of The Cretaceous Mowry Shale In The Northern Bighorn Basin Of Wyoming: Implications For Unconventional Resource Exploration And Development, Jordan M. Bremer

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

The Mowry Shale (Albian-Cenomanian) is an extensive mudrock dominated unit historically believed to represent a single, long-term deep water sequence within the Western Cordilleran Foreland Basin of North America. While the Mowry Shale has received study for almost a century, detailed stratigraphic context is still lacking. Such an understanding will be required as the formation is increasingly explored as an unconventional resource play.

This study examines the stratigraphy of the interval between the Muddy sandstone and the Frontier Formation, focusing on the Mowry Shale both at outcrop and in the subsurface of the Bighorn Basin of northwestern Wyoming. Detailed measured ...


Linking In-Situ Data With Remote Sensing To Analyze Tropical Glacier Stability And Retreat In The Cordillera Blanca, Peru, Chandler H. Santos 2016 Western Kentucky University

Linking In-Situ Data With Remote Sensing To Analyze Tropical Glacier Stability And Retreat In The Cordillera Blanca, Peru, Chandler H. Santos

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Glaciers are a major source of freshwater around the world, but they are melting at an increased rate due to atmospheric warming resulting from anthropogenic climate change. In addition to temperature increases, light-absorbing particulates on glaciers also are contributing to glacial melt. This research examines how black carbon, released into the air through partial combustion of biofuels, is affecting the surface albedo of glaciers. I also delineate possible sources of black carbon in the Cordillera Blanca region of Peru. Ground data were collected each year from 2011 to 2013 during the local dry season. Effective black carbon (eBC) values were ...


Devonian Hydrocarbon Production In South Central Kentucky: A Gis Study, Andrew David Reeder 2016 Western Kentucky University

Devonian Hydrocarbon Production In South Central Kentucky: A Gis Study, Andrew David Reeder

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Historically, Devonian Corniferous hydrocarbon production in south-central Kentucky has been a major contributor to the total hydrocarbon resources within Butler, Edmonson, and Warren counties. The Corniferous adds to the already large hydrocarbon totals produced from the Illinois Basin; however, this hydrocarbon contribution does not come without major pitfalls and inconsistencies. The south-central Kentucky Devonian Corniferous rocks comprise a diverse and complex hydrocarbon system made up of multiple migration pathways, trapping mechanisms, and seals. The multiple Corniferous units all derive production from the same source rock: the New Albany Shale.

A Geographic Information System (GIS) containing data on surface elevations, structure ...


Karst Landscape Influence On The Planetary Boundary Layer Atmosphere, Zachary S. Sullivan 2016 Western Kentucky University

Karst Landscape Influence On The Planetary Boundary Layer Atmosphere, Zachary S. Sullivan

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Karst landscapes cover approximately 20% of the ice-free land area worldwide. The soluble nature of the bedrock within a karst landscape allows for the formation of caverns, joints, fissures, sinkholes, and underground streams, which affect the hydrological behavior of the region. Currently, the Noah Land-Surface Model (Noah- LSM), coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, does not provide a representation of the physical behavior of a karst terrain. Previous research has attempted to model karst behavior through soil moisture and land cover/land use changes to determine the influence this unique landscape may have on atmospheric phenomenon. This ...


The Role Of Diagenesis In Reservoir Development Of The Big Clifty (Jackson) Sandstone In South-Central Kentucky, Kort H. Butler 2016 Western Kentucky University

The Role Of Diagenesis In Reservoir Development Of The Big Clifty (Jackson) Sandstone In South-Central Kentucky, Kort H. Butler

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The Big Clifty is a Chesterian-age Mississippian sandstone member of the Golconda Formation that extends from south-central Kentucky into adjacent Illinois and Indiana. Asphaltic deposits and conventional petroleum plays are distributed along the Pennyrile Fault System and Plateau in the southeastern portion of the Illinois basin. In south-central Kentucky anomalous oil-saturation geometries are observed in cored sections of the Big Clifty from wells in Warren and Butler counties along the margin of the Pennyrile Plateau. Petrographic study of the cores has revealed several diagenetic processes that have contributed to, or are directly responsible for, the anomalous oil saturation geometries and ...


Trajectory Analysis Of Black Carbon In The Arctic Region, Kimberly Gottschalk 2016 Portland State University

Trajectory Analysis Of Black Carbon In The Arctic Region, Kimberly Gottschalk

PSU McNair Scholars Online Journal

Black carbon (BC) is a troubling particulate. Commonly known as soot, BC forms through the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biofuels, and biomass. It has a very low albedo compared to natural particulates making it a very efficient absorber of solar radiation. As BC is deposited on snow and ice, albedo is decreased - enhancing solar heating and increasing meltwater production. With rising air temperatures, melting rates of polar ice are increasing and are being enhanced by BC, leading to accelerated global sea level rise.

This study aimed to document sources and deposition areas of BC in the Arctic. Utilizing HySplit ...


Shell Bluff – A Fossiliferous Ridge, The Site Of The Extinct Oyster Crassostrea Gigantissima And History Of Its Identification, elliott o. edwards jr. 2016 Bartram Trail Conference

Shell Bluff – A Fossiliferous Ridge, The Site Of The Extinct Oyster Crassostrea Gigantissima And History Of Its Identification, Elliott O. Edwards Jr.

Georgia Journal of Science

Shell Bluff is described by geologists as stratigraphically one of the most important exposures in the Georgia Coastal Plain because the bluff is home to the large oyster, Crassostrea gigantissima, now extinct. Native Americans inhabited this area prior to Hernando DeSoto and his men who visited the area in 1540. They were probably the first Europeans to visit Shell Bluff. John and son William Bartram visited the bluff in 1764 and John described the bluff in his journal and the existence of large oysters. The British naturalist, John Finch, described a fossil oyster taken from the site in 1824 as ...


The Terroir Of Pinot Noir Wine In The Willamette Valley, Oregon - A Broad Analysis Of Vineyard Soils, Grape Juice And Wine Chemistry, Kathryn Nora Barnard 2016 Portland State University

The Terroir Of Pinot Noir Wine In The Willamette Valley, Oregon - A Broad Analysis Of Vineyard Soils, Grape Juice And Wine Chemistry, Kathryn Nora Barnard

Dissertations and Theses

Terroir is determined by a combination of factors in the vineyard including the grape varietal, geology and soil, soil hydrology, physiography, and climate. Although most studies have examined regional differences in wine flavors and associated provenance of wine based on chemistry, few have examined the chemistry of the soil and the ability to trace that chemistry to grape juice and, finally, to the wine. This dissertation examines what soil physical and chemical differences specific to this region might influence grape juice chemistry and wine chemistry.

Wine-grapes in the Willamette Valley, Oregon, are grown on three major soil parent materials: volcanic ...


Quartz Crystal Preferred Orientation And Recrystallization Patterns From Naturally Deformed Rocks Under Constriction, Riley Quine 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Quartz Crystal Preferred Orientation And Recrystallization Patterns From Naturally Deformed Rocks Under Constriction, Riley Quine

Materials Engineering

This study analyzes crystal preferred orientation (CPO) patterns within constrictional quartz-rich gneisses. Quartz deformation and CPO patterns are an area of interest because quartz is one of the most prevalent minerals in earth's crust. Understanding the typical way that quartz crystals reorient under different states of strain can provide geologists with an additional tool for understanding paleo-strain. Temperature and strain geometry are two dominant factors that control the orientation of quartz crystals within a rock. Temperature determines which slip planes are active and slip planes typically reorient so that they are perpendicular to maximum stress. Previous workers have suggested ...


Structure And Geochronology Of The White Fork Pluton, Southern Sierra Nevada, Ian Richard Mahaffey 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Structure And Geochronology Of The White Fork Pluton, Southern Sierra Nevada, Ian Richard Mahaffey

Natural Resources Management and Environmental Sciences

The Sierra Nevada batholith represents an archetypal continental arc, although the style of deformation throughout the history of the arc is only poorly understood, in part due to the voluminous nature of Late Cretaceous magmatism that has overprinted earlier structures. The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of pre-Late Cretaceous deformation in the Sierra Nevada batholith through a structural and geochronological study of the Jurassic White Fork pluton. A Jurassic age for the White Fork pluton is indicated by its inclusion of numerous 148 Ma Independence dikes, and geochronology on the White Fork pluton is limited ...


Channel Flow Studies Using Driftwood Density Analysis In Elger Bay, Camano Island, Wa, Rebeca Becerra, Jasmine Bates, Clairissa De La Vergne 2016 CWU

Channel Flow Studies Using Driftwood Density Analysis In Elger Bay, Camano Island, Wa, Rebeca Becerra, Jasmine Bates, Clairissa De La Vergne

Symposium Of University Research and Creative Expression (SOURCE)

Previous studies on Elger Bay, Camano Island, WA hypothesized that the bay has been emptying of stored driftwood since the 1970's. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a research project using a combination of field data and historical imagery analysis with Google Earth and ArcGIS to mathematically compare the density of driftwood. Changes in driftwood area may indicate changes in sea level rise, bay subsidence, and/or anthropogenic activity. We found that the maximum driftwood extent was actually closer to the 1950's than the 1970's. In addition to overall extent we investigated the overall channel flow along ...


The Spatial Distribution And Origins Of Sandstone Monoliths In The Swauk Watershed, Kittitas County, Wa, Rebeca Becerra, Daniel O'Dell 2016 CWU

The Spatial Distribution And Origins Of Sandstone Monoliths In The Swauk Watershed, Kittitas County, Wa, Rebeca Becerra, Daniel O'Dell

Symposium Of University Research and Creative Expression (SOURCE)

Large groups of gigantic sandstone and conglomerate monoliths populate the Swauk Watershed of northern Kittitas County. These monoliths rest on side slopes in the watershed and distinctively project from their surroundings. The origins of these features are unknown. We studied these monoliths in the field by mapping their spatial distribution, describing their morphology and composition, and measuring their orientation and sizes in order to determine their origins. We used Google Earth and topographic maps to locate the monoliths and map their distribution. Interpretations were based from field work data and past research. Our field results show commonalities between the features ...


Cone In Cone Concretions Of The Stanley Group In Southeastern Oklahoma, Kyle B. Ayres 2016 Stephen F Austin State University

Cone In Cone Concretions Of The Stanley Group In Southeastern Oklahoma, Kyle B. Ayres

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cone in cone concretions found in the Stanley Group of Southeastern Oklahoma have a variety of external and internal attributes which allow diagenetic and theoretical models of formation to be hypothesized. Stanley Group carbonate cone in cone concretions are initially formed in sulfur reducing horizons at shallow burial depths in a poorly circulated possibly deep trough containing siliceous sediments and organic matter. Collected concretions near the town of Smithville, Oklahoma displayed four different external morphologies and four variations of mineral constituents. All concretions contained microscopic cones which initiated diffusion and/or fluid patterns and is an early cementation process that ...


An Investigation Of Hydrogeologic, Stratigraphic, And Structural Controls On Acer Grandidentatum Communities In A Karst Landscape, Owl Mountain Province, Fort Hood Military Installation, Texas, Melinda S. Faulkner 2016 Stephen F Austin State University

An Investigation Of Hydrogeologic, Stratigraphic, And Structural Controls On Acer Grandidentatum Communities In A Karst Landscape, Owl Mountain Province, Fort Hood Military Installation, Texas, Melinda S. Faulkner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Owl Mountain Province is located within the Fort Hood Military Installation, an approximately 880 km2 installation established in the 1940s in Bell and Coryell counties, Texas, which has undergone extensive land use changes associated with military training, maintaining much of the vegetation in early succession. This study investigates thelithologic, stratigraphic, and structural controls on the hydrologic, hydrogeologic, and geomorphologic evolution of the Owl Mountain Province as expressed by mesic vegetation communities, including Pleistocene relicts Acer grandidentatum, within karst terrains. These systems exhibit complexly overprinted speleogenetic evolutions within a dynamic groundwater regime resulting from regional climate shifts throughout the Neogene ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress