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Mg Records Of Two Stalagmites From B7-Cave (Northwest Germany) Indicating Long-Term Precipitation Changes During Early To Mid-Holocene, Dana F. C. Riechelmann, Klaus Peter Jochum, Detlev K. Richter, Denis Scholz 2023 Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany

Mg Records Of Two Stalagmites From B7-Cave (Northwest Germany) Indicating Long-Term Precipitation Changes During Early To Mid-Holocene, Dana F. C. Riechelmann, Klaus Peter Jochum, Detlev K. Richter, Denis Scholz

International Journal of Speleology

Two stalagmites from B7-Cave in northwest Germany, which is part of the same cave system as the intensively studied Bunker Cave, were re-dated by multi collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) 230Th/U-dating. Furthermore, the concentration of Mg, Sr, Ba, P, Y, Zn, and Al were determined at high-resolution by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). Stalagmite B7-1 grew from 10.8 to 5.8 ka BP. Stalagmite B7-7 grew during three growth phases from 11.0 to 6.2, 3.13 to 2.86 (late Bronze Age), and 1.27 to 1.15 ka BP (early Medieval Period). Aluminium is a proxy for detrital …


Cryogenic Ridges: A New Speleothem Type, Bogdan P. Onac, Daniel M. Cleary, Oana A. Dumitru, Victor J. Polyak, Ioan Povara, Jonathan G. Wynn, Yemane Asmerom 2023 University of South Florida, USA

Cryogenic Ridges: A New Speleothem Type, Bogdan P. Onac, Daniel M. Cleary, Oana A. Dumitru, Victor J. Polyak, Ioan Povara, Jonathan G. Wynn, Yemane Asmerom

International Journal of Speleology

Cryogenic cave carbonates have been described from several formerly or presently glaciated karst caves. In most of these occurrences, they precipitated as loose grains or aggregates with various morphologies and sizes. Here, we report on a new speleothem type (cryogenic ridges) identified in Sohodoalele Mici Cave (SW Romania) within a large chamber near the entrance shaft. This study was motivated by the presence of a network of calcite ridges over the stalactites’ surface and by the observation that during winter, these speleothems are covered by a thin ice layer. The higher δ18O (−3.5 to –1‰) and …


Carbon Cycling And Critical Zone Dynamics In An Urbanized Karst Groundwater System, Amy Hourigan 2022 Western Kentucky University

Carbon Cycling And Critical Zone Dynamics In An Urbanized Karst Groundwater System, Amy Hourigan

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are correlated to rising global temperatures. Investigating the cumulative global carbon cycling processes is important to understand and quantify the global carbon cycle. By investigating basic geochemical parameters, EpCO2, DIC, and δ13CDIC, at four sites along Lost River Cave (LRC), in Bowling Green, Kentucky, concentrations, fluxes and sources of C dissolved in groundwater were determined. Urban karst groundwater systems, compared to more natural karst landscapes, typically exhibit widespread impervious, heat-absorbing surfaces, urban heat island effects, and increased anthropogenic groundwater inputs and localized CO2 emissions. Carbonate hydrogeochemical …


Sub-Recent Microfauna Within Allogenic Sediments At The Bottom Of A Deep Cave, Njemica (Biokovo Mt., Croatia), Tomislav Kurečić, Valentina Hajek Tadesse, Lara Wacha, Marija Horvat, Nina Trinajstić, Ivan Mišur 2022 Croatian Geological Survey, Department of Geology, Milana Sachsa 2, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia

Sub-Recent Microfauna Within Allogenic Sediments At The Bottom Of A Deep Cave, Njemica (Biokovo Mt., Croatia), Tomislav Kurečić, Valentina Hajek Tadesse, Lara Wacha, Marija Horvat, Nina Trinajstić, Ivan Mišur

International Journal of Speleology

Clastic sediments deposited at the bottom of the vertical, nearly 1000 m deep Njemica Cave (Biokovo Mountain, Croatia) were analysed. Owing to the vertical morphology of the cave, the occurrences of clastic sediments are sparse. Small, up to decimetre-thick, undisturbed sediment accumulations situated near the siphon lake revealed interesting palaeontological and mineralogical data. These data are used as a useful proxy for discussing depositional processes, the provenance of the sediments and paleo-habitats of the subterranean fauna.

The sub-recent assemblages of ostracods were discovered within the sediment, and they were shown to be correlative to the known endemic species in the …


Hydrogeologic Investigation Of A Covered Karst Terrain, Joseph Peter Honings 2022 Louisiana State University at Baton Rouge

Hydrogeologic Investigation Of A Covered Karst Terrain, Joseph Peter Honings

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Increasing demand for water for agricultural use within the Dougherty Plain of the Southeastern United States has depleted surface water bodies. In karstic landscapes, such as the Dougherty Plain in southwest Georgia where the linkages between surface and ground waters are close, there is a need to understand the physical characteristics of the subsurface that allow these close linkages. Having a better understanding of the subsurface characteristics will aid numerical modeling efforts that underpin policy decisions and economic analyses. Two common features on this karstic landscape are draws and geographically isolated wetlands. Using LiDAR, aerial imagery, and ground-penetrating radar, this …


Flow Regime Evolution Of A Major Cave System In The Eastern Alps (Hirlatzhöhle, Dachstein), Lukas Plan, Gottfried Buchegger, Eva Kaminsky, Gabriella Koltai, Tanguy Racine, Jacek Szczygieł 2022 Karst- and Cave Group, Natural History Museum Vienna, Austria

Flow Regime Evolution Of A Major Cave System In The Eastern Alps (Hirlatzhöhle, Dachstein), Lukas Plan, Gottfried Buchegger, Eva Kaminsky, Gabriella Koltai, Tanguy Racine, Jacek Szczygieł

International Journal of Speleology

The 116 km-long and 1560 m-deep Hirlatzhöhle is one of the major cave systems in the Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA; Austria). It is located in the NW part of the Dachstein, an extensive karst massif encompassing 576 km² with its highest point at 2995 m a.s.l. In contrast to most other caves in the NCA, Hirlatzhöhle comprises old (epi)phreatic passages located up to 1 km above the base level as well as two modern major drainage systems. The aim of this study is to define the palaeo- and the active flow conditions in combination with speleogenesis, and the age of …


Airflow Dynamics In Wind Cave And Jewel Cave: How Do Barometric Caves Breathe?, Annika K. Gomell, Andreas Pflitsch 2022 Ruhr-Universitat Bochum

Airflow Dynamics In Wind Cave And Jewel Cave: How Do Barometric Caves Breathe?, Annika K. Gomell, Andreas Pflitsch

International Journal of Speleology

Recent research on air pressure propagation through barometric caves has revealed various speleoclimatological processes, which cause a more complex relationship between surface air pressure changes and resulting pressure gradients between cave and surface air than previously assumed. So far, however, studies on barometric cave airflow have only been based on surface air pressure measurements. Thus, this study investigates and compares airflow at the openings of Wind Cave and Jewel Cave – two major barometric cave systems in South Dakota, USA – as a response to surface air pressure changes and air pressure gradients. Based on high-resolution long-term air pressure measurements …


Speleothems In Sandstone Crevice And Boulder Caves Of The Elbe River Canyon, Czech Republic, Jiří Adamovič, Jaroslav Kukla, Michal Filippi, Roman Skála, Noemi Mészárosová 2022 Institute of Geology, Czech Acad. Sci.

Speleothems In Sandstone Crevice And Boulder Caves Of The Elbe River Canyon, Czech Republic, Jiří Adamovič, Jaroslav Kukla, Michal Filippi, Roman Skála, Noemi Mészárosová

International Journal of Speleology

A variety of speleothems are present in crevice and boulder caves developed in Cretaceous sandstones of the Elbe River Canyon in northern Czech Republic. A set of complementary instrumental mineralogical methods was applied to characterize the speleothems and cave dripwaters, including X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis, Raman spectroscopy and optical emission spectrometry. Four morphological types were distinguished and characterized in terms of their mineral and chemical composition: 1, rusty brown mud-dominated coatings with micro-gours, composed of a mixture of clay minerals; 2, white “chalky” coatings (moonmilk) composed of calcite with minor gypsum; 3, cauliflower-shaped coralloids composed of …


Empirical Roughness Coefficients For Moderate Floods In An Open Conduit Cave: Fullers Stream Canyon, Culverson Creek Cave System, West Virginia, Lydia T. Albright, Gregory S. Springer 2022 Ohio University, USA

Empirical Roughness Coefficients For Moderate Floods In An Open Conduit Cave: Fullers Stream Canyon, Culverson Creek Cave System, West Virginia, Lydia T. Albright, Gregory S. Springer

International Journal of Speleology

Open conduit modeling of cave stream floods can yield useful information about water velocities and shear stresses, which can in turn be used to estimate sediment transport capabilities. All such calculations require roughness coefficients for estimating energy losses and a priori knowledge of either discharge or flow depths to set model boundary conditions. However, the difficulties associated with observing in-cave floods generally preclude measuring discharge; roughness coefficients must be assumed based on channel properties. To overcome these challenges, we monitored stream flow depths in Fullers Cave, Greenbrier County, West Virginia using pressure transducers, and simultaneously measured stage and discharge in …


Sulfuric Acid Speleogenesis And Surface Landform Evolution Along The Vienna Basin Transfer Fault: Plavecký Karst, Slovakia, Pavel Bella, Helena Hercman, Šimon Kdýr, Petr Mikysek, Petr Pruner, Juraj Littva, Jozef Minár, Michal Gradzinski, Wojciech Wróblewski, Marek Velšmid, Pavel Bosak 2022 State Nature Conservancy of the Slovak Republic, Slovak Caves Administration, Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovakia

Sulfuric Acid Speleogenesis And Surface Landform Evolution Along The Vienna Basin Transfer Fault: Plavecký Karst, Slovakia, Pavel Bella, Helena Hercman, Šimon Kdýr, Petr Mikysek, Petr Pruner, Juraj Littva, Jozef Minár, Michal Gradzinski, Wojciech Wróblewski, Marek Velšmid, Pavel Bosak

International Journal of Speleology

Hypogene caves in the Plavecký hradný vrch Hill (Western Slovakia, Central Europe) were formed by waters ascending along faults in fractured Triassic carbonates related to the horst-graben structure at the contact of the Malé Karpaty Mountains and the NE part of the Vienna Basin. The Plavecká jaskyňa and Pec caves mostly contain horizontal passages and chambers with flat corrosion bedrock floors, fissure discharge feeders, wall water-table notches, replacement pockets, as well as a few other speleogens associated with sulfuric acid speleogenesis. The low-temperature sulfuric acid development phases of the Plavecká Jaskyňa are also indicated by the presence of sulfate minerals …


Hydrodynamic Model For Independent Cold And Thermo-Mineral Twin Springs In A Stratified Continental Karst Aquifer, Camou, Arbailles Massif, Pyrénées, France, Philippe Audra, Jean-Yves Bigot, Dimitri Laurent, Nathalie Vanara, Didier Cailhol, Gérard Cazenave 2022 University Côte d'Azur, France

Hydrodynamic Model For Independent Cold And Thermo-Mineral Twin Springs In A Stratified Continental Karst Aquifer, Camou, Arbailles Massif, Pyrénées, France, Philippe Audra, Jean-Yves Bigot, Dimitri Laurent, Nathalie Vanara, Didier Cailhol, Gérard Cazenave

International Journal of Speleology

The Camou springs (Arbailles Massif, French Western Pyrenees) display an unusual close association of a typically cold karstic spring that drains the Urgonian western limb of the Arbailles, and a thermo-mineral spring (33.5°C; salinity 17.7 g/L). The latter gains its mineralization at the contact of Triassic evaporites mainly through a deep loop in the Apanicé syncline. The fast upflow of this deep water occurs at the cross of large active lines (the North-Pyrenean thrust located at depth, and the Saison transverse fault). Cave diving in the nearby Maddalen Cave allowed reaching the phreatic passage at the origin of the cold …


Modeling Air Pressure Propagation Through Wind Cave And Jewel Cave: How Can Air Pressure Signals Inside Barometric Caves Be Predicted From Surface Pressure Measurements?, Annika K. Gomell, Andreas Pflitsch 2022 Ruhr-Universitat Bochum, Germany

Modeling Air Pressure Propagation Through Wind Cave And Jewel Cave: How Can Air Pressure Signals Inside Barometric Caves Be Predicted From Surface Pressure Measurements?, Annika K. Gomell, Andreas Pflitsch

International Journal of Speleology

Recent speleoclimatological research has shed new light on air pressure dynamics inside barometric caves by identifying pressure-modifying processes and resulting systematic differences between cave and surface air pressure. Based on these new findings, a multi- step quantitative model is developed and explored to predict air pressure inside Wind Cave and Jewel Cave – two major barometric cave systems in the Black Hills of South Dakota, USA – from external surface measurements. Therefore, each identified speleoclimatological pressure process is translated into a mathematical operation. Model evaluation based on Pearson correlation and mean (absolute) deviation between model outputs and control measurements yields …


Guano-Derived Morphologies And Associated Minerals Found In Cova De Sa Guitarreta, Llucmajor, Balearics, Antonio Merino Juncadella, Joan J. Fornós, Antoni Mulet, Joaquín Ginés 2022 Universitat de les Illes Balears, Spain

Guano-Derived Morphologies And Associated Minerals Found In Cova De Sa Guitarreta, Llucmajor, Balearics, Antonio Merino Juncadella, Joan J. Fornós, Antoni Mulet, Joaquín Ginés

International Journal of Speleology

Cova de sa Guitarreta is located in the southern part of Mallorca Island (western Mediterranean). It was formed presumably by hypogenic processes in Upper Miocene reefal calcarenites. The cave hosts an important breeding colony of bats during the end of spring and early summer. Its microclimate is influenced by the presence of a thermal phreatic water table (27.7ºC) as well as by bat populations remaining in the cave along the reproductive season. The morphological bat-related features include bat claws and thumb marks scratches, together with several morphologies linked to bat excreta and aggressive leachates from guano. From the mineralogical point …


Chemical Characterization Of Clastic Cave Sediments And Insights Into Particle Transport And Storage In Karst Aquifers, Jill L. Riddell 2022 West Virginia University

Chemical Characterization Of Clastic Cave Sediments And Insights Into Particle Transport And Storage In Karst Aquifers, Jill L. Riddell

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Abstract

Chemical characterization of clastic cave sediments and insights into particle transport and storage in karst aquifers

Jill L. Riddell

Cave sediments can be divided into two groups: precipitates and clastics. Precipitates are speleothems, or lithologic or mineral features that are chemically precipitated in the cave environment. Clastic cave sediments are frequently described by depositional facies, sorting, and particle size (Bosch and White, 2004). Robust analytical chemical analyses of these sediments to quantify their physical and chemical components is rarely performed although some chemical characterization of mineralogy and paleomagnetism has become prevalent in recent years (Chess et al., 2010; Sasowsky …


Investigation Into Karst Of Southwest Missouri Using Electrical Resistivity, Donald Zachary Wormington 2022 Missouri State University

Investigation Into Karst Of Southwest Missouri Using Electrical Resistivity, Donald Zachary Wormington

MSU Graduate Theses

Nixa, Missouri is located on the southwestern edge of the Ozark Dome which has a karst geomorphological environment. Near surface geophysical methods can be used in determining the location and nature of karst features such as caves and sinkholes. Electrical resistivity methods have been shown to be among the most useful methods in deciphering sinkholes and caves. To investigate a known cave and related sinkholes and faults within Mississippian carbonates south of Nixa, Missouri, a series of two-dimensional electrical resistivity profiles were collected using the dipole-dipole and Schlumberger arrays. Terrain data was collected to include in modeling. The data were …


Speleogenesis In A Lens Of Metamorphosed Limestone And Ankerite: Ochtiná Aragonite Cave, Slovakia, Pavel Bella, Pavel Bosák, Petr Pruner, Helena Hercman, Katarína Pukanská, Karol Bartoš, Ľudovít Gaál, Dagmar Haviarová, Peter Tomčík, Šimon Kdýr 2021 Slovak Caves Administration, Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovakia

Speleogenesis In A Lens Of Metamorphosed Limestone And Ankerite: Ochtiná Aragonite Cave, Slovakia, Pavel Bella, Pavel Bosák, Petr Pruner, Helena Hercman, Katarína Pukanská, Karol Bartoš, Ľudovít Gaál, Dagmar Haviarová, Peter Tomčík, Šimon Kdýr

International Journal of Speleology

The Ochtiná Aragonite Cave (Western Carpathians) represents an unique natural phenomenon. It originated under particular lithological and hydrogeological conditions of the Ochtiná Karst in which several isolated lenses of Paleozoic crystalline limestone (marbles), partly metasomatically altered to ankerite, are enclosed by phyllites. Meteoric water seepage through non-carbonate rocks dissolved limestone and caused the oxidation of ankerite to Fe oxyhydroxides. Carbon dioxide produced during ankerite oxidation enhanced limestone dissolution. The maze cave consists of parallel fault-controlled linear passages and chambers interconnected by transverse horizontal passages. Phreatic and epiphreatic solution morphologies resulted from slowly moving or standing water. These include flat ceilings …


Low Impact Sampling Of Speleothems – Reconciling Scientific Study With Cave Conservation, Claire L.V. MacGregor, John C. Hellstrom, Jon D. Woodhead, Russell N. Drysdale, Rolan S. Eberhard 2021 School of Geography, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Melbourne, Australia

Low Impact Sampling Of Speleothems – Reconciling Scientific Study With Cave Conservation, Claire L.V. Macgregor, John C. Hellstrom, Jon D. Woodhead, Russell N. Drysdale, Rolan S. Eberhard

International Journal of Speleology

Speleothems are increasingly valued as important paleoclimate archives and yet the removal of samples from caves can come at a cost to natural heritage, impacting delicate environments with limited mechanisms for repair. Conservation of cave environments is a key responsibility for scientists and, with this in mind, we are working to develop and implement techniques that allow us to extract valuable scientific data, with minimal impact. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of low-impact reconnaissance dating surveys on caves in southern Tasmania and southwest Western Australia as a precursor to the removal of stalagmites for paleoclimate reconstruction. Small flakes …


Continuous Color Model As A Tool To Improve Speleothem Age Model Development, Celia Campa-Bousoño, Ángel García-Pérez, Ana Moreno, Miguel Iglesias, Hai Cheng, R Lawrence Edwards, Heather Stoll 2021 University of Oviedo, Spain

Continuous Color Model As A Tool To Improve Speleothem Age Model Development, Celia Campa-Bousoño, Ángel García-Pérez, Ana Moreno, Miguel Iglesias, Hai Cheng, R Lawrence Edwards, Heather Stoll

International Journal of Speleology

Because they can archive a variety of geochemical proxies and be precisely and accurately dated with the U-Th decay series chronometer, stalagmites are widely used for paleoclimate reconstructions. However, limitations in the use of this chronometer arise because U-Th dating is analytically time consuming, expensive, and requires a relatively large sample size. These limitations restrict the number of absolute dates usually obtained, which can result in significant uncertainties in the age model and inhibit the ability to archive high resolution records of environmental variability, particularly in those stalagmites where there are variations in growth rate not constrained by U-Th dates. …


The Relative Importance Of Wind-Driven And Chimney Effect Cave Ventilation: Observations In Postojna Cave (Slovenia), Lovel Kukuljan, Franci Gabrovsek, Matthew Covington 2021 ZRC SAZU, Karst Research Institute, Slovenia

The Relative Importance Of Wind-Driven And Chimney Effect Cave Ventilation: Observations In Postojna Cave (Slovenia), Lovel Kukuljan, Franci Gabrovsek, Matthew Covington

International Journal of Speleology

Density-driven chimney effect airflow is the most common form of cave ventilation, allowing gas exchange between the outside and the karst subsurface. However, cave ventilation can also be driven by other mechanisms, such as barometric changes or pressure differences induced by the outside winds. We discuss the mechanism and dynamics of wind-driven ventilation using observations in Postojna Cave, Slovenia. We show how seasonal airflow patterns driven by the chimney effect are substantially modified by outside winds. Wind flow over irregular topography forms near-surface air pressure variations and thus pressure differences between cave entrances at different locations. These pressure differences depend …


Air Pressure Propagation Through Wind Cave And Jewel Cave: How Do Pressure Waves Travel Through Barometric Caves?, Annika K. Gomell, Daniel C. Austin, Marc J. Ohms, Andreas Pflitsch 2021 Ruhr-Universitat Bochum, Germany

Air Pressure Propagation Through Wind Cave And Jewel Cave: How Do Pressure Waves Travel Through Barometric Caves?, Annika K. Gomell, Daniel C. Austin, Marc J. Ohms, Andreas Pflitsch

International Journal of Speleology

In barometric caves, air pressure gradients between the outside atmosphere and the cave induce strong bidirectional compensating currents, which control almost all elements of speleoclimatology, including air temperature, humidity, and CO2 dynamics. Therefore, this study set out to investigate air pressure propagation through Wind Cave and Jewel Cave – two major barometric cave systems in the Black Hills of South Dakota, USA. Based on high-resolution air pressure data from both the surface and several measurement sites inside the caves, four systematic changes of pressure waves during their journey through the caves and their related speleoclimatological processes were identified and …


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