Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Speleology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

178 Full-Text Articles 379 Authors 31,934 Downloads 13 Institutions

All Articles in Speleology

Faceted Search

178 full-text articles. Page 1 of 8.

Modeling Air Pressure Propagation Through Wind Cave And Jewel Cave: How Can Air Pressure Signals Inside Barometric Caves Be Predicted From Surface Pressure Measurements?, Annika K. Gomell, Andreas Pflitsch 2022 Ruhr-Universitat Bochum, Germany

Modeling Air Pressure Propagation Through Wind Cave And Jewel Cave: How Can Air Pressure Signals Inside Barometric Caves Be Predicted From Surface Pressure Measurements?, Annika K. Gomell, Andreas Pflitsch

International Journal of Speleology

Recent speleoclimatological research has shed new light on air pressure dynamics inside barometric caves by identifying pressure-modifying processes and resulting systematic differences between cave and surface air pressure. Based on these new findings, a multi- step quantitative model is developed and explored to predict air pressure inside Wind Cave and Jewel Cave – two major barometric cave systems in the Black Hills of South Dakota, USA – from external surface measurements. Therefore, each identified speleoclimatological pressure process is translated into a mathematical operation. Model evaluation based on Pearson correlation and mean (absolute) deviation between model outputs and control measurements yields good to ...


Guano-Derived Morphologies And Associated Minerals Found In Cova De Sa Guitarreta, Llucmajor, Balearics, Antonio Merino Juncadella, Joan J. Fornós, Antoni Mulet, Joaquín Ginés 2022 Universitat de les Illes Balears, Spain

Guano-Derived Morphologies And Associated Minerals Found In Cova De Sa Guitarreta, Llucmajor, Balearics, Antonio Merino Juncadella, Joan J. Fornós, Antoni Mulet, Joaquín Ginés

International Journal of Speleology

Cova de sa Guitarreta is located in the southern part of Mallorca Island (western Mediterranean). It was formed presumably by hypogenic processes in Upper Miocene reefal calcarenites. The cave hosts an important breeding colony of bats during the end of spring and early summer. Its microclimate is influenced by the presence of a thermal phreatic water table (27.7ºC) as well as by bat populations remaining in the cave along the reproductive season. The morphological bat-related features include bat claws and thumb marks scratches, together with several morphologies linked to bat excreta and aggressive leachates from guano. From the mineralogical ...


Investigation Into Karst Of Southwest Missouri Using Electrical Resistivity, Donald Zachary Wormington 2022 Missouri State University

Investigation Into Karst Of Southwest Missouri Using Electrical Resistivity, Donald Zachary Wormington

MSU Graduate Theses

Nixa, Missouri is located on the southwestern edge of the Ozark Dome which has a karst geomorphological environment. Near surface geophysical methods can be used in determining the location and nature of karst features such as caves and sinkholes. Electrical resistivity methods have been shown to be among the most useful methods in deciphering sinkholes and caves. To investigate a known cave and related sinkholes and faults within Mississippian carbonates south of Nixa, Missouri, a series of two-dimensional electrical resistivity profiles were collected using the dipole-dipole and Schlumberger arrays. Terrain data was collected to include in modeling. The data were ...


Speleogenesis In A Lens Of Metamorphosed Limestone And Ankerite: Ochtiná Aragonite Cave, Slovakia, Pavel Bella, Pavel Bosák, Petr Pruner, Helena Hercman, Katarína Pukanská, Karol Bartoš, Ľudovít Gaál, Dagmar Haviarová, Peter Tomčík, Šimon Kdýr 2021 Slovak Caves Administration, Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovakia

Speleogenesis In A Lens Of Metamorphosed Limestone And Ankerite: Ochtiná Aragonite Cave, Slovakia, Pavel Bella, Pavel Bosák, Petr Pruner, Helena Hercman, Katarína Pukanská, Karol Bartoš, Ľudovít Gaál, Dagmar Haviarová, Peter Tomčík, Šimon Kdýr

International Journal of Speleology

The Ochtiná Aragonite Cave (Western Carpathians) represents an unique natural phenomenon. It originated under particular lithological and hydrogeological conditions of the Ochtiná Karst in which several isolated lenses of Paleozoic crystalline limestone (marbles), partly metasomatically altered to ankerite, are enclosed by phyllites. Meteoric water seepage through non-carbonate rocks dissolved limestone and caused the oxidation of ankerite to Fe oxyhydroxides. Carbon dioxide produced during ankerite oxidation enhanced limestone dissolution. The maze cave consists of parallel fault-controlled linear passages and chambers interconnected by transverse horizontal passages. Phreatic and epiphreatic solution morphologies resulted from slowly moving or standing water. These include flat ceilings ...


Low Impact Sampling Of Speleothems – Reconciling Scientific Study With Cave Conservation, Claire L.V. MacGregor, John C. Hellstrom, Jon D. Woodhead, Russell N. Drysdale, Rolan S. Eberhard 2021 School of Geography, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Melbourne, Australia

Low Impact Sampling Of Speleothems – Reconciling Scientific Study With Cave Conservation, Claire L.V. Macgregor, John C. Hellstrom, Jon D. Woodhead, Russell N. Drysdale, Rolan S. Eberhard

International Journal of Speleology

Speleothems are increasingly valued as important paleoclimate archives and yet the removal of samples from caves can come at a cost to natural heritage, impacting delicate environments with limited mechanisms for repair. Conservation of cave environments is a key responsibility for scientists and, with this in mind, we are working to develop and implement techniques that allow us to extract valuable scientific data, with minimal impact. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of low-impact reconnaissance dating surveys on caves in southern Tasmania and southwest Western Australia as a precursor to the removal of stalagmites for paleoclimate reconstruction. Small flakes ...


Continuous Color Model As A Tool To Improve Speleothem Age Model Development, Celia Campa-Bousoño, Ángel García-Pérez, Ana Moreno, Miguel Iglesias, Hai Cheng, R Lawrence Edwards, Heather Stoll 2021 University of Oviedo, Spain

Continuous Color Model As A Tool To Improve Speleothem Age Model Development, Celia Campa-Bousoño, Ángel García-Pérez, Ana Moreno, Miguel Iglesias, Hai Cheng, R Lawrence Edwards, Heather Stoll

International Journal of Speleology

Because they can archive a variety of geochemical proxies and be precisely and accurately dated with the U-Th decay series chronometer, stalagmites are widely used for paleoclimate reconstructions. However, limitations in the use of this chronometer arise because U-Th dating is analytically time consuming, expensive, and requires a relatively large sample size. These limitations restrict the number of absolute dates usually obtained, which can result in significant uncertainties in the age model and inhibit the ability to archive high resolution records of environmental variability, particularly in those stalagmites where there are variations in growth rate not constrained by U-Th dates ...


The Relative Importance Of Wind-Driven And Chimney Effect Cave Ventilation: Observations In Postojna Cave (Slovenia), Lovel Kukuljan, Franci Gabrovsek, Matthew Covington 2021 ZRC SAZU, Karst Research Institute, Slovenia

The Relative Importance Of Wind-Driven And Chimney Effect Cave Ventilation: Observations In Postojna Cave (Slovenia), Lovel Kukuljan, Franci Gabrovsek, Matthew Covington

International Journal of Speleology

Density-driven chimney effect airflow is the most common form of cave ventilation, allowing gas exchange between the outside and the karst subsurface. However, cave ventilation can also be driven by other mechanisms, such as barometric changes or pressure differences induced by the outside winds. We discuss the mechanism and dynamics of wind-driven ventilation using observations in Postojna Cave, Slovenia. We show how seasonal airflow patterns driven by the chimney effect are substantially modified by outside winds. Wind flow over irregular topography forms near-surface air pressure variations and thus pressure differences between cave entrances at different locations. These pressure differences depend ...


Air Pressure Propagation Through Wind Cave And Jewel Cave: How Do Pressure Waves Travel Through Barometric Caves?, Annika K. Gomell, Daniel C. Austin, Marc J. Ohms, Andreas Pflitsch 2021 Ruhr-Universitat Bochum, Germany

Air Pressure Propagation Through Wind Cave And Jewel Cave: How Do Pressure Waves Travel Through Barometric Caves?, Annika K. Gomell, Daniel C. Austin, Marc J. Ohms, Andreas Pflitsch

International Journal of Speleology

In barometric caves, air pressure gradients between the outside atmosphere and the cave induce strong bidirectional compensating currents, which control almost all elements of speleoclimatology, including air temperature, humidity, and CO2 dynamics. Therefore, this study set out to investigate air pressure propagation through Wind Cave and Jewel Cave – two major barometric cave systems in the Black Hills of South Dakota, USA. Based on high-resolution air pressure data from both the surface and several measurement sites inside the caves, four systematic changes of pressure waves during their journey through the caves and their related speleoclimatological processes were identified and discussed ...


Geochronological Implications Of 210Pb And 137Cs Mobility In Cave Guano Deposits, Donald A. McFarlane, Joyce Lundberg 2021 The Claremont Colleges, California, USA

Geochronological Implications Of 210Pb And 137Cs Mobility In Cave Guano Deposits, Donald A. Mcfarlane, Joyce Lundberg

International Journal of Speleology

Some recent publications on the paleo- and historical environmental interpretation of bat guano sequences have relied on 210Pb and 137Cs distribution to establish age-depth models, even when these are at odds with radiocarbon models in the lower parts of the sequence. Here, we present both field and laboratory evidence for the unpredictable mobility of lead and cesium in decomposing bat guano deposits. We suggest that 210Pb- and 137Cs-based chronologies of bat guano deposits should only be used when independently supported, for example, by a robust radiocarbon age-depth model.


The Impact Of Burning On The Structure And Mineral Composition Of Bat Guano, Joyce Lundberg, Donald A. McFarlane 2021 Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada

The Impact Of Burning On The Structure And Mineral Composition Of Bat Guano, Joyce Lundberg, Donald A. Mcfarlane

International Journal of Speleology

Here we addressed the question of whether burning of guano produces a characteristic suite of morphological changes and/or unique mineralogical products. The changes observed in our experimental burning of guano (both fresh and decayed) included colour change (blackening), grain size and morphological change (grain size generally reduced, morphology rendered generally less distinct), alteration of minerals by dehydration (e.g., gypsum to anhydrite, brushite to whitlockite), and production of new minerals or compounds (e.g., augelite, bayerite, giniite, graphite, oldhamite, strontium apatite, tridymite). The key morphological feature we found that may be diagnostic of burning was severe damage to crystals ...


Multi-Criteria Analysis For Mapping Susceptibility To Iron Formation Caves Development In The Gandarela Mountain Range (Mg), Southeast Brazil, Iraydes Tálita Nola, Luis Almeida Bacellar 2021 Federal University of Mato Grosso, Brasil

Multi-Criteria Analysis For Mapping Susceptibility To Iron Formation Caves Development In The Gandarela Mountain Range (Mg), Southeast Brazil, Iraydes Tálita Nola, Luis Almeida Bacellar

International Journal of Speleology

In tropical regions, abundant in iron-rich geological materials, caves that are genetically and geographically associated with exploitable mineral deposits may develop. These caves have speleological relevance and are environmentally and legally protected in Brazil. Thus, for better planning of exploitation and environmental licensing, it is necessary to study the genesis and development of the iron formation caves seeking to preserve them without impeding the advancement of mining. This subject is complex, rarely studied, and few are the knowledges on alternatives to predict the occurrence of these caves. This gap justifies the development of research and products capable of assisting decision-makers ...


Flow Dynamics In A Vadose Shaft – A Case Study From The Hochschwab Karst Massif (Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria), Eva Kaminsky, Lukas Plan, Thomas Wagner, Barbara Funk, Pauline Oberender 2021 Natural History Museum Vienna, Austria

Flow Dynamics In A Vadose Shaft – A Case Study From The Hochschwab Karst Massif (Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria), Eva Kaminsky, Lukas Plan, Thomas Wagner, Barbara Funk, Pauline Oberender

International Journal of Speleology

Karst aquifers are highly vulnerable to contamination due to quick water flow through conduits. Their high heterogeneity and the poorly known infiltration effect of the vadose zone make quantification of recharge processes difficult. This study characterizes the water flow and storage in the upper vadose zone with almost four years monitoring of a permanent stream in a vadose shaft (Furtowischacht). Its small catchment of 4,500 m² is located in a former glaciated high Alpine environment (Hochschwab, Austria). High discharge fluctuations between 0.002 and 19 l/s, relatively high hydrograph recession coefficients, and transit velocities between 0.0015 and ...


Microbially-Mediated Carbonate Dissolution And Precipitation; Towards A Protocol For Ex-Situ, Cave-Analogue Cultivation Experiments, Vanessa E. Johnston, Andrea Martín-Pérez, Sara Skok, Janez Mulec 2021 Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Slovenia

Microbially-Mediated Carbonate Dissolution And Precipitation; Towards A Protocol For Ex-Situ, Cave-Analogue Cultivation Experiments, Vanessa E. Johnston, Andrea Martín-Pérez, Sara Skok, Janez Mulec

International Journal of Speleology

Subterranean calcite dissolution and precipitation are often considered as strictly geochemical processes. The active involvement of microbes in these processes is commonly underestimated in the literature due to general oligotrophic conditions in caves, except in particular cave conditions, such as sulfidic caves and moonmilk deposits, where the presence of microbes likely plays a key role in mineral deposition. Here, we study the possible involvement of microbes from Postojna Cave, Slovenia, in carbonate dissolution (litholysis) and precipitation (lithogenesis). Microbes were sampled from small pools below hydrologically diverse drip sites and incubated on polished limestone tablets at 10 and 20°C for ...


Bat Guano Minerals And Mineralization Processes In Chameau Cave, Eastern Morocco, Philippe Audra, Vasile Heresanu, Lionel Barriquand, Mohamed El Kadiri Boutchich, Stephane Jaillet, Edwige Pons-Branchu, Pavel Bosak, Hai Cheng, R Lawrence Edwards, Michel Renda 2021 University of Nice Sophia Antipolis (France)

Bat Guano Minerals And Mineralization Processes In Chameau Cave, Eastern Morocco, Philippe Audra, Vasile Heresanu, Lionel Barriquand, Mohamed El Kadiri Boutchich, Stephane Jaillet, Edwige Pons-Branchu, Pavel Bosak, Hai Cheng, R Lawrence Edwards, Michel Renda

International Journal of Speleology

The decay of bat guano deposits in caves produces mineral accumulations, mainly phosphates and secondary sulfates. Chameau Cave, Eastern Morocco, is located in the semi-arid Bni Snassen Mountains. It is composed of semi-active and dry passages, and is featured by strong condensation-corrosion on the walls, presence of fluvial sediments, and old corroded flowstones. Due to forced and convective airflow, the cave is generally very dry, with some damp sites related to condensation. Samples collected on the surface of different passages and along two sediment profiles yielded minerals related to bat guano decay. On recent or fresh guano, precursor minerals correspond ...


Application Of The Global Srtm And Aw3d30 Digital Elevation Models To Mapping Folds At Cave Sites, Mark J. Abolins, Albert E. Ogden 2021 Middle Tennessee State University, USA

Application Of The Global Srtm And Aw3d30 Digital Elevation Models To Mapping Folds At Cave Sites, Mark J. Abolins, Albert E. Ogden

International Journal of Speleology

A novel method to map and quantitatively describe very gentle folds (limb dip <5o) at cratonic cave sites was evaluated at Snail Shell and Nanna Caves, central Tennessee, USA. Elevations from the global SRTM digital terrain model (DTM) were assigned to points on late Ordovician geologic contacts, and the elevations of the points were used to interpolate 28 m cell size natural neighbor digital elevation models (DEM’s) of the contacts. The global Forest Canopy Height Dataset was subtracted from the global 28 m cell size AW3D30 digital surface model (DSM) to create a DTM, and that DTM was applied ...


Full Issue 49(3), 2021 University of South Florida

Full Issue 49(3)

International Journal of Speleology

No abstract provided.


Table Of Contents, 2021 University of South Florida

Table Of Contents

International Journal of Speleology

No abstract provided.


On The Genesis Of Aluminum-Rich Speleothems In A Granite Cave Of Nw Spain, Jorge Sanjurjo-Sanchez, Carlos Arce Chamorro, Juan Ramón Vidal Romaní, Marcos Vaqueiro-Rodríguez, Victor Barrientos, Joeri Kaal 2021 University of A Coruña, Spain

On The Genesis Of Aluminum-Rich Speleothems In A Granite Cave Of Nw Spain, Jorge Sanjurjo-Sanchez, Carlos Arce Chamorro, Juan Ramón Vidal Romaní, Marcos Vaqueiro-Rodríguez, Victor Barrientos, Joeri Kaal

International Journal of Speleology

Granite massifs often contain caves, with dimensions ranging from a few meters up to 1,000 m, also referred to as pseudokarst. The speleothems in such caves are mostly composed of either Si-rich (commonly opal-A) or Al-rich authigenic mineraloids. Whereas the formation and geochemical composition of opal-A biospeleothems have been studied and are fairly well understood, knowledge on the Al-rich analogues is scarce. This work reports for the first time a study on the composition, accretion process, age and growth rate of an Al-rich speleothem type flowstone from the A Trapa Cave System (Galicia, NW Spain), developed in a granite ...


Comparing Capabilities Of Shewanella Oneidensis Mr-1 And The Microbial Community Of Iron Caves To Reduce Fe(Iii), Aaron Douglas Pham 2021 University of Akron

Comparing Capabilities Of Shewanella Oneidensis Mr-1 And The Microbial Community Of Iron Caves To Reduce Fe(Iii), Aaron Douglas Pham

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Caves are generally formed by the erosion and/or dissolution of rock and its subsequent removal by water. Iron ore caves (IOCs) form despite being hosted by relatively insoluble and weathering-resistant rock. Due to the discovery of a microbial community behind the walls of these caves, it was hypothesized that these bacteria could be responsible for speleogenesis. Iron ore exists in an oxidized (Fe(III)) state, but reduced (Fe(II)) form is soluble. It was further reasoned that the bacteria might be able to reduce Fe(III) through direct metabolic activity, which uses iron as an electron acceptor. Here we ...


A Karst Feature Prediction Model For Prince Of Wales Island, Alaska Based On High Resolution Lidar Imagery, Alexander Lyles 2021 Fort Hays State University

A Karst Feature Prediction Model For Prince Of Wales Island, Alaska Based On High Resolution Lidar Imagery, Alexander Lyles

Master's Theses

Investigation into surface karst formation is significant to hazard prediction, hydrogeologic drainage, and land management. Southeast Alaska contains over 600,000 acres of mapped carbonate bedrock, and some of the fastest recorded karst dissolution in the world. The objectives of this study are to develop and compare multiple semi-automated models to map and delineate karst features from bare-earth LiDAR imagery using ArcGIS Desktop 10.7, and to apply a preliminary geostatistical analysis of sinkhole morphometric parameters to highlight potential spatial patterns of karst evolution on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. A semi-automated approach of mapping karst features provides a dataset ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress