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Green Dairy, A Project For Environmental Friendly And Sustainable Dairy Systems In The Atlantic Area, H. Chambaut, A. Pflimlin, C. Raison 2022 Institut de l’Elevage, France

Green Dairy, A Project For Environmental Friendly And Sustainable Dairy Systems In The Atlantic Area, H. Chambaut, A. Pflimlin, C. Raison

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Green Dairy is an European Interreg III B project which runs over 3 years. It brings together 10 research and development partners from 5 countries and 11 regions of the Atlantic Area which range from Scotland to Portugal. It aims to provide a better understanding of the impact of intensive dairy systems on the quality of the environment in order to develop ways of improving practices in the different regions. This is expected to encourage more rapid responses to the problems of deteriorating water and air quality and a more appropriate response within or between regional contexts that could be …


Rangeland Ecological Management Counter-Measures Study Of Xinjiang, H. X. Cui, J. Li, S. Asiya, J. L. Zhang, Jialin 2022 Grassland Research Institute of Xinjiang Animal Science Academy, China

Rangeland Ecological Management Counter-Measures Study Of Xinjiang, H. X. Cui, J. Li, S. Asiya, J. L. Zhang, Jialin

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Xinjiang is located in the hinterland of the Asian-Euro continental area and far from the ocean. It is surrounded by mountains and forms a physiognomic landscape of two basins located in three mountains. This results in an extremely droughty continental climate and a harsh environment in the Temperate Zone. However, the geographical environment is diverse in the Xinjiang Autonomous region, the three high mountains and complicated geographical structure results in changes in ecological conditions with altitude and a diverse ecological environment. Because of the drought characteristics the desert area has developed different types of vegetation, and the complexity of the …


Management Options To Reduce N-Losses From Ploughed Grass-Clover, J. de Wit, G. J. van der Burgt, N. van Eekeren 2022 Louis Bolk Institute, The Netherlands

Management Options To Reduce N-Losses From Ploughed Grass-Clover, J. De Wit, G. J. Van Der Burgt, N. Van Eekeren

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Nitrate (NO3 -) leaching from grassland can be kept at acceptable levels, but is often high after ploughing for grassland renewal or for silage maize/grain production. In on-farm research with several organic farmers, management options are being explored to save scarce organic manure and to reduce N-losses.


Mechanical Aeration And Liquid Dairy Manure: Application Impacts On Grassland Runoff Water Quality And Yield, T. J. Basden, S. B. Shah, J. L. Miller 2022 West Virginia University Extension Service

Mechanical Aeration And Liquid Dairy Manure: Application Impacts On Grassland Runoff Water Quality And Yield, T. J. Basden, S. B. Shah, J. L. Miller

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Wet weather on heavy soils reduces oxygen availability in the root zone and reduces forage yields. Mechanical aeration can improve forage yield in these soil conditions. Research has shown that under certain conditions, mechanical aeration can increase yield by improving drainage and aeration (Davies et al., 1989); aeration can also increase depression, storage and infiltration thus reducing surface runoff and improving nutrient distribution in the root zone. Aeration on sloping, fertilised grassland can provide environmental (Douglas et al., 1995) and agronomic benefits. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the runoff water quality and agronomic impacts of …


Nitrogen Dynamics Following The Break-Up Of Grassland On Three Different Sandy Soils, Manfred Kayser, K. Seidel, J. Müller 2022 University of Göttingen, Germany

Nitrogen Dynamics Following The Break-Up Of Grassland On Three Different Sandy Soils, Manfred Kayser, K. Seidel, J. Müller

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Nitrogen (N) is accumulated under grassland depending on factors such as soil type, management, and fertiliser input. Break-up of grassland stimulates mineralisation of organic N and may lead to increased soil mineral N and leaching losses (Lloyd, 1992). The objective of this study was to find out how site factors, e.g. soil, previous management and sward age, the following crop and the new level of N fertiliser affect the amount of inorganic N in autumn and the preceding mineralisation processes when grassland is ploughed in spring.


Fine Colloids ‘Carry’ Diffuse Water Contaminants From Grasslands, P. M. Haygarth, A. L. Heathwaite 2022 Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research Station, UK

Fine Colloids ‘Carry’ Diffuse Water Contaminants From Grasslands, P. M. Haygarth, A. L. Heathwaite

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

The transport of diffuse pollutants from grassland has traditionally been described by the operationally defined threshold of greater, or smaller than a nominated membrane filter size. Most commonly this has been a 0.45 μm threshold to define ‘solute’ and ‘particulate’ transport. In this paper we shall use phosphorus (P) to help provide an example of the importance of colloid-facilitated transport.


Leaching Losses Of N, P And K From Grazed Legume Based Swards: Some Preliminary Results, E. R. Dixon, A. C. Stone, D. Scholefield, D. J. Hatch 2022 Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, UK

Leaching Losses Of N, P And K From Grazed Legume Based Swards: Some Preliminary Results, E. R. Dixon, A. C. Stone, D. Scholefield, D. J. Hatch

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

There is increasing interest in sustainable agricultural systems because of environmental concerns. Animal production which utilises mixed grass and legume swards could be an effective measure in increasing the efficiency of nutrient utilisation, and investigation into different legume species is necessary. Leaching losses of N, P and K from 3 legume species under grazing by sheep were measured using Teflon-coated suction cups. The experiment took place on the UK site of the EU-funded, multi-site experiment – LEGGRAZE.


Soil Aggregate Dynamics, Particulate Organic Matter And Phosphate Under Dryland And Irrigated Pasture, J. T. Scott, L. M. Condron, R. W. McDowell 2022 AgResearch, New Zealand

Soil Aggregate Dynamics, Particulate Organic Matter And Phosphate Under Dryland And Irrigated Pasture, J. T. Scott, L. M. Condron, R. W. Mcdowell

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Soil aggregate formation and turnover affects the rate of occlusion or release of soil organic matter and therefore the availability for mineralisation or stabilisation of soil carbon (C) and phosphorus (P). Furthermore, differences in soil type, management and the quantity and quality of organic inputs can affect aggregate turnover rates (Six et al., 2000). Under pastoral farming the ratio of coarse particulate organic matter (inter-POM) inside macroaggregates but outside microaggregates to fine POM (intra-POM) within microaggregates may provide an indication of physical processes influencing mineralisation and stabilisation of soil C and organic P (Po). Our aim was to determine …


Fire And Nutrient Cycling In Shortgrass Steppe Of The Southern Great Plains, Usa, P. L. Ford, C. S. White 2022 USDA Forest Service

Fire And Nutrient Cycling In Shortgrass Steppe Of The Southern Great Plains, Usa, P. L. Ford, C. S. White

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Fire in semi-arid grasslands releases nutrients bound up in organic matter and accelerates the rate of decomposition in the soil. This research experimentally tested effects of season and frequency of fire on nutrient cycling dynamics in shortgrass steppe. The objective was to identify if fire treatments have the ability to increase potential grassland productivity relative to untreated ‘reference condition’ grassland. Many such studies focus on short-term, direct effects of fire. However, this study is part of a long-term, 18-year study examining both direct, and indirect effects of fire in the growing vs. dormant season at return intervals of 3, 6 …


Maximising Slurry Crop Available Nitrogen Utilisation In Grassland Systems, J. R. Williams, E. Sagoo, B. J. Chambers, J. Laws, D. R. Chadwick 2022 ADAS Boxworth, UK

Maximising Slurry Crop Available Nitrogen Utilisation In Grassland Systems, J. R. Williams, E. Sagoo, B. J. Chambers, J. Laws, D. R. Chadwick

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

In the UK, approximately 90 million tonnes of animal manure containing ca 450,000 tonnes of nitrogen (N) are recycled to agricultural land each year. The efficient utilisation of manure N can save farmers money and reduce diffuse air (ammonia) and water (nitrate) pollution. For slurries, bandspreading techniques (e.g. trailing shoe and trailing hose) can improve N utilisation by reducing ammonia volatilisation losses compared with conventional broadcast applications. They also provide increased spreading opportunities in spring/summer as slurry is placed in a band on the soil surface limiting herbage contamination, which can reduce the need to apply slurry in the autumn/early …


Phosphorus Transfer To River Water From Grassland Catchments In Ireland, H. Tunney, P. Jordan, G. Kiely, R. Moles, G. Morgan, P. Byrne, W. Menary, K. Daly 2022 Teagasc, Ireland

Phosphorus Transfer To River Water From Grassland Catchments In Ireland, H. Tunney, P. Jordan, G. Kiely, R. Moles, G. Morgan, P. Byrne, W. Menary, K. Daly

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

In Ireland it is estimated that at least half of phosphorus (P) loss to water is from agricultural sources and National and European Union policy and legislation aim at reducing phosphorus (P) loss to water in order to reduce eutrophication. In Ireland, the average soil test P (STP) levels increased ten-fold, from less than 1 to over 8 mg Morgan P per l soil over the past 50 years, reflecting increased P inputs in fertiliser and animal feed. One of the main objectives of this three-year research programme, started in 2001, was to investigate P loss to water in grassland …


Denitrification Under Pastures On Permeable Soils Helps Protect Ground Water Quality, M. P. Russelle, B. A. Browne, N. B. Turyk, B. Pearson 2022 USDA-Agricultural Research Service

Denitrification Under Pastures On Permeable Soils Helps Protect Ground Water Quality, M. P. Russelle, B. A. Browne, N. B. Turyk, B. Pearson

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Pastures have been implicated in ground water contamination by nitrate, especially in humid regions with thin or sandy soils (Stout et al., 2000). Significant losses can occur even under low N input, because available N from excreta patches often exceeds plant uptake capacity. Lack of evidence that appreciable nitrate leaching was occurring in established Midwestern USA pastures led us to test the hypothesis that denitrification was preventing or remediating nitrate loading. Higher denitrification rates have been found in the relatively limited number of trials since Ball & Ryden (1984) first reported the significance of this process in pastures.


Assessment Of Nitrogen Nutrition Status Of Grasses Under Water Deficit And Recovery, V. G. Dugo, Jean-Louis Durand, F. Gastal 2022 INRA, France

Assessment Of Nitrogen Nutrition Status Of Grasses Under Water Deficit And Recovery, V. G. Dugo, Jean-Louis Durand, F. Gastal

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Grasslands are rarely irrigated. They are therefore systematically submitted to more or less severe water deficits: as well as mineral deficiencies, water scarcity often also results in a reduction of nitrogen (N) status. Although identified some time ago, qualitatively, the interaction with N still remains difficult to take into account in quantitative analyses of crop physiology under water deficits. This paper illustrates how the nitrogen (N) status of the crop changes under water deficits. A N nutrition index (INN) was defined as the ratio of the actual N concentration of forage with the theoretical N concentration under optimal conditions, the …


Improving Nutrient Supply Of Grassland Soil, G. Füleky, M. Orbán 2022 Szent István University, Hungary

Improving Nutrient Supply Of Grassland Soil, G. Füleky, M. Orbán

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

In the Southern corner of the Eastern Carpathian Mountains is located the hilly region of Barcaság. The total agricultural area is 180 thousand ha of which 90 thousand ha is grassland. The maximum yield of natural grassland does not exceed 1.2 t ha-1 hay. The aim of this work is to find appropriate fertiliser and liming rates to increase the hay yield and improve the soil nutrient supply.


Safe - A Tool For Assessing The Sustainability Of Agricultural Systems: An Illustration, X. Sauvenier, C. Bielders, M. Hermy, E. Mathijs, B. Muys, J. Valckx, N. Van Cauwenbergh, M. Vanclooster, E. Wauters, A. Peeters 2022 Laboratoire d’Ecologie des Prairies UCL, Belgium

Safe - A Tool For Assessing The Sustainability Of Agricultural Systems: An Illustration, X. Sauvenier, C. Bielders, M. Hermy, E. Mathijs, B. Muys, J. Valckx, N. Van Cauwenbergh, M. Vanclooster, E. Wauters, A. Peeters

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

SAFE (Framework for Assessing Sustainability levels) is a tool for evaluating the sustainability of agricultural systems and uses a hierarchical framework populated with indicators objectively selected by multicriteria evaluation. Indicators are measured at field, farm and landscape scales and progressively integrated into a global sustainability index (SI). SAFE is illustrated below with results on a field scale from a farm site.


Nitrogen Response Of Spring And Winter Wheat To Biosolids Compared To Chemical Fertiliser, W. Kato, O. T. Carton, D. McGrath, H. Tunney, W. E. Murphy, P. O'Toole 2022 Teagasc, Ireland

Nitrogen Response Of Spring And Winter Wheat To Biosolids Compared To Chemical Fertiliser, W. Kato, O. T. Carton, D. Mcgrath, H. Tunney, W. E. Murphy, P. O'Toole

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Irish sewage sludge production was over 30,000 t/year in the 1990s (EPA, Ireland, 2003). Application to agricultural land is a management option for this organic material as it results in the recycling of the nutrients they contain for crop production. The EU Directive (91/271/EEC) encourages the recycling of sewage sludge as biosolids to agriculture. However, up to 1999, only about 5 % of biosolids produced was applied to agricultural land. In this study, several biosolids and a chemical fertiliser were used to assess N availability for spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum,) production in a pot experiment.


Total Sulphur Content And N:S Ratio As Indicators For S Deficiency In Grasses, M. Mathot, R. Lambert, B. Toussaint, A. Peeters 2022 Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium

Total Sulphur Content And N:S Ratio As Indicators For S Deficiency In Grasses, M. Mathot, R. Lambert, B. Toussaint, A. Peeters

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Recently, sulphur (S) deficiencies have been observed throughout Europe (Zaoh et al., 2002). Grassland covers about 50 % of the agricultural area in the European Union. In cutting regimes exports are ca 30 kg S/ha per year. Atmospheric depositions provide, at the present, ca15 kg S/ha per year and S is not considered in fertiliser programmes. Without fertilisation, the S balance at the field scale is negative and therefore some cut swards could be S deficient. Tools for determining whether the grassland is deficient are required. The utilisation of indicators based on S content and N:S ratio was …


Supplementation Of Cattle With Rock Phosphate And Urea Treated Straw To Improve Manure Quality And Crop Yields In The Sahel Zone Of Senegal, Maimouna Cissé, M. N’Diaye, C. M. N’Dione 2022 Senegalese Institute of Agricultural Research, Senegal

Supplementation Of Cattle With Rock Phosphate And Urea Treated Straw To Improve Manure Quality And Crop Yields In The Sahel Zone Of Senegal, Maimouna Cissé, M. N’Diaye, C. M. N’Dione

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Mineral deficiencies are a major constraint in improving animal production and crop yield in the Sahel zone (Cissé et al., 1996). Millet (Pennisetum glaucum) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea,) are two major food and cash crops in this zone. The purpose of this study was to assess effects of supplementing grazing cattle with rock phosphate and nitrogen enriched diets on animal performances, and the effects of the application of their manure on crop yield in a pearl millet-groundnut rotational system located in N Senegal.


Study Of Soil Characteristics To Estimate Sulphur Supply For Plant Growth, M. Mathot, R. Lambert, B. Toussaint, A. Peeters 2022 Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium

Study Of Soil Characteristics To Estimate Sulphur Supply For Plant Growth, M. Mathot, R. Lambert, B. Toussaint, A. Peeters

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

During the last decades, sulphur (S) deficiencies have been observed throughout Europe (Zaoh et al., 2002). Accurate estimation of S supply by the soil-atmosphere system is required to give advice for S fertilisers. Soil is an important S source for plants and it is therefore important to evaluate supply by the soil to avoid deficiencies or excessive S fertilisation. The purpose of this preliminary study was to estimate which soil characteristics could be useful for predicting S supply by soil. Lolium multiflorum was grown on different soils in a growth chamber and S supply was correlated with soil characteristics.


Organic Matter Transformation Processes Of Soils In Native Steppe Grass Communities, E. Forró 2022 Corvinus University of Budapest, Hungary

Organic Matter Transformation Processes Of Soils In Native Steppe Grass Communities, E. Forró

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

It has been well known that higher plant density provides more effective protection for soils. However, the influence of different vegetation on the soil properties has been less well recognised. The high density of grass communities, a high number of plant species and density of roots have advantageous effects on soil properties and conditions, particularly on the organic matter cycling and structure of soils.


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