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Paradigms And Paleoartists: How Our Perception Of Dinosaurs Forms, Jordan C. Oldham 2018 Cedarville University

Paradigms And Paleoartists: How Our Perception Of Dinosaurs Forms, Jordan C. Oldham

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Thomas Kuhn in his famous work The Structure of Scientific Revolutions put forth his idea about how science changes. Kuhn thought that science changed by scientific revolutions brought on by an anomaly. After the anomaly, a crisis point would ensue as more scientists would research the anomaly. While in the process of research they would abandon the old paradigm in favor of one that would explain the anomaly. Not all anomalies create a crisis, but can rather result in a paradigm shift. These shifts occur within the old paradigm, and do not led to the formation of a new paradigm ...


Investigation Of Omnivorous Trophic Position In The Drilling Gastropod, Urosalpinx Cinerea, Using Stable Isotope Analysis, Molly E. Karnes, Michelle M. Casey 2018 Murray State University

Investigation Of Omnivorous Trophic Position In The Drilling Gastropod, Urosalpinx Cinerea, Using Stable Isotope Analysis, Molly E. Karnes, Michelle M. Casey

Scholars Week

Drill-holes found in the fossil record are an important tool to study ecological patterns of the past. It is therefore important to gain a better understanding of the role of extant drilling snails in modern ecosystems. Although traditionally considered a predator, trophic position of 3.0, specimens of the muricid Urosalpinx cinerea from Long Island Sound revealed trophic positions between 2.3 and 2.5, suggestive of an omnivorous diet. This study addresses the generality of this result by examining a U. cinerea population from Wilmington, North Carolina. Preliminary whole body, soft tissue stable isotope analysis of nitrogen and carbon ...


Redescription And Phylogenetic Analysis Of The Materials Assigned To The Taxon "Captorhinikos" Chozaensis, Jason Paul Jung 2018 California State University - San Bernardino

Redescription And Phylogenetic Analysis Of The Materials Assigned To The Taxon "Captorhinikos" Chozaensis, Jason Paul Jung

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

“Captorhinikos” chozaensis is a multiple-tooth-rowed captorhinid reptile from the Lower Permian Clear Fork Group, undivided formation. Upon re-examination of the materials associated with the species from both the Chicago Field Museum of Natural History, and the Smithsonian United States National Museum, I reaffirm their affinity and collective identity as a valid taxon. “Captorhinikos” chozaensis does not, however, belong with either of the two members of its genus, C. valensis or “C.” parvus, instead occupying its own branch on the phylogenetic tree of the Captorhinidae. This conclusion is based in strong results from a combined phylogenetic parsimony analysis combined with an ...


Stratigraphy Of The Upper Silurian To Middle Devonian, Southwestern Ontario, Shuo Sun 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Stratigraphy Of The Upper Silurian To Middle Devonian, Southwestern Ontario, Shuo Sun

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The upper Silurian–Middle Devonian succession was dominated by carbonate and evaporite deposits, with minor siliciclastic sedimentation, and a significant hiatus across the Siluro-Devonian (S-D) boundary in southwestern Ontario. The stratigraphic units include, in ascending order: Late Silurian Bass Islands/Bertie formations and Salina G Unit, the Devonian Oriskany Formation, Bois Blanc Formation (including Springvale Member), Detroit River Group (including the Lucas, Amherstburg and Sylvania formations), Onondaga Formation, and Dundee Formation.

Below the S-D unconformity, the upper Silurian Bass Islands/Bertie formations are predominantly dolostone of peritidal-sabkha origin and episodic subaerial exposure. Revised stratigraphic correlation shows that the Bertie Formation ...


Examining The Use Of Amazon’S Mechanical Turk For Edge Extraction Of The Occlusal Surface Of Fossilized Bovid Teeth, George K. Thiruvathukal, Gregory J. Matthews, Maxwell P. Luetkemeier, Juliet K. Brophy 2018 Loyola University Chicago

Examining The Use Of Amazon’S Mechanical Turk For Edge Extraction Of The Occlusal Surface Of Fossilized Bovid Teeth, George K. Thiruvathukal, Gregory J. Matthews, Maxwell P. Luetkemeier, Juliet K. Brophy

George K. Thiruvathukal

In order to reconstruct environments associated with Plio-Pleistocene hominins in southern Africa, researchers frequently rely upon the animals associated with the hominins, in particular, animals in the Family Bovidae. Bovids in southern Africa are typically identified by their teeth. However, identifying the taxon of a bovid tooth is challenging due to various biasing factors. Furthermore, inaccurate identification of fossil bovids can have significant consequences on the reconstructed paleoenvironment. Recent research on the classification of bovid fossil teeth has relied on using elliptical Fourier analysis to summarize the shape of the outline of the occlusal surface of the tooth and the ...


Nitrogen Isotopes Suggest A Change In Nitrogen Dynamics Between The Late Pleistocene And Modern Time In Yukon, Canada, Farnoush Tahmasebi, Fred J. Longstaffe, Grant Zazula 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Nitrogen Isotopes Suggest A Change In Nitrogen Dynamics Between The Late Pleistocene And Modern Time In Yukon, Canada, Farnoush Tahmasebi, Fred J. Longstaffe, Grant Zazula

Earth Sciences Publications

A magnificent repository of Late Pleistocene terrestrial megafauna fossils is contained in ice-rich loess deposits of Alaska and Yukon, collectively eastern Beringia. The stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope compositions of bone collagen from these fossils are routinely used to determine paleodiet and reconstruct the paleoecosystem. This approach requires consideration of changes in C- and N-isotope dynamics over time and their effects on the terrestrial vegetation isotopic baseline. To test for such changes between the Late Pleistocene and modern time, we compared δ13C and δ15N for vegetation and bone collagen and ...


Volcanogenic Pseudo-Fossils From The ~3.48 Ga Dresser Formation, Pilbara, Western Australia, David Wacey, Nora Noffke, Martin Saunders, Paul Guagliardo, David M. Pyle 2018 Old Dominion University

Volcanogenic Pseudo-Fossils From The ~3.48 Ga Dresser Formation, Pilbara, Western Australia, David Wacey, Nora Noffke, Martin Saunders, Paul Guagliardo, David M. Pyle

OEAS Faculty Publications

The ~ 3.48 billion-year-old Dresser Formation, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, is a key geological unit for the study of Earth's earliest life and the habitats it occupied. Here, we describe a new suite of spheroidal to lenticular microstructures that morphologically resemble some previously reported Archean microfossils. Correlative microscopy shows that these objects have a size distribution, wall ultrastructure, and chemistry that are incompatible with a microfossil origin and instead are interpreted as pyritized and silicified fragments of vesicular volcanic glass. Organic kerogenous material is associated with much of the altered volcanic glass; variable quantities of organic carbon line or ...


Ordovician Continental Paleogeography And Paleoenvironment For The Michigan Basin From Paleomagnetic Analysis, Michelle MacRae 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Ordovician Continental Paleogeography And Paleoenvironment For The Michigan Basin From Paleomagnetic Analysis, Michelle Macrae

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study investigates the paleomagnetic record of Paleozoic rocks from two Michigan basin localities in southwestern Ontario to help close the 40 myr gap in Paleozoic paleomagnetic data. Paleomagnetic data from the Queenston (Upper Ordovician) formation consistently exhibits easily removed viscous remanence, an intermediate and a high temperature component consistent with the unblocking temperatures of magnetite and hematite respectively. Alternating-field and thermal demagnetization in 16–20 steps up to 670º C typically reveal a southeastern, shallow up direction removed from magnetite, and a southwestern, steep up direction removed from hematite. A Late Paleozoic overprint was preserved in the magnetite and ...


Using Foraminifera In Stemseas Site 1 To Understand The Recent Paleoceanographic And Paleoclimatic History Of Tanner Basin, California Borderland, Michael Stanley Stone 2017 James Madison University

Using Foraminifera In Stemseas Site 1 To Understand The Recent Paleoceanographic And Paleoclimatic History Of Tanner Basin, California Borderland, Michael Stanley Stone

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

In May of 2016, the STEMSEAS Educational Transit cruise OC1605-tranA collected the STEMSEAS Site 1 core from the Tanner Basin in the California Borderland. This research serves as the first formal survey of the foraminifera preserved within that core. The purpose of this research is to use foraminifera preserved within that core to understand the recent depositional and paleoenvironmental conditions at Site 1, and to place that information into a regional paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic context. In pursuing this purpose, this research aims to answer three questions: 1) Can biostratigraphic markers in the foraminiferal assemblages in STEMSEAS Site 1 core be ...


Paleogeography Of Early Paleozoic Laurentia And Meguma, Avalonia Terranes Via Paleomagnetism And Faunal Review, Halima S. Warsame 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Paleogeography Of Early Paleozoic Laurentia And Meguma, Avalonia Terranes Via Paleomagnetism And Faunal Review, Halima S. Warsame

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Paleomagnetic assessment of 821 Cambrian to Silurian-aged rock specimens of igneous and sedimentary origin was used as a means to provide insight on the ancient geographies of the region in which these rocks are currently found. The Earth’s magnetic field direction can be recorded at the time of rock formation and/or at a later significant event by magnetic minerals, allowing these signatures to be used to track the past motions of the continents. Stepwise demagnetization of the Port au Port, St. George and Table Head Groups in western Newfoundland, and the Mavillette gabbro (426 +/- 2 Ma, U-Pb baddeleyite ...


Using Stable Isotope Geochemistry To Determine Changing Paleohydrology And Diagenetic Alteration In The Late Cretaceous Kaiparowits Formation, Ut Usa, Daigo Yamamura 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Using Stable Isotope Geochemistry To Determine Changing Paleohydrology And Diagenetic Alteration In The Late Cretaceous Kaiparowits Formation, Ut Usa, Daigo Yamamura

Theses and Dissertations

The Western Interior Basin of the North America preserves one of the best sedimentary and paleontological records of the Cretaceous in the world. The Upper Cretaceous Kaiparowits Formation is a rapidly deposited fluvial sequence and preserves one of the most complete terrestrial fossil record of the North America. Such a unique deposit provides an opportunity to investigate the interaction between the physical environment and ecology. In an effort to decipher such interaction, stable isotope composition of cements in sedimentary rocks, concretions and vertebrate fossils were analyzed.

Despite the difference in facies and sedimentary architecture, the isotope composition does not change ...


New Genera And Species Of Fossil Marine Amioid Fishes (Actinopterygii, Holostei) From The Late Cretaceous Agoult Locality In Southeastern Morocco, Mark V. H. Wilson, Alison M. Murray, Terry C. Grande 2017 University of Alberta

New Genera And Species Of Fossil Marine Amioid Fishes (Actinopterygii, Holostei) From The Late Cretaceous Agoult Locality In Southeastern Morocco, Mark V. H. Wilson, Alison M. Murray, Terry C. Grande

Terry Grande

No abstract provided.


Examining The Use Of Amazon’S Mechanical Turk For Edge Extraction Of The Occlusal Surface Of Fossilized Bovid Teeth, George K. Thiruvathukal, Gregory J. Matthews, Maxwell P. Luetkemeier, Juliet K. Brophy 2017 Loyola University Chicago

Examining The Use Of Amazon’S Mechanical Turk For Edge Extraction Of The Occlusal Surface Of Fossilized Bovid Teeth, George K. Thiruvathukal, Gregory J. Matthews, Maxwell P. Luetkemeier, Juliet K. Brophy

Computer Science: Faculty Publications and Other Works

In order to reconstruct environments associated with Plio-Pleistocene hominins in southern Africa, researchers frequently rely upon the animals associated with the hominins, in particular, animals in the Family Bovidae. Bovids in southern Africa are typically identified by their teeth. However, identifying the taxon of a bovid tooth is challenging due to various biasing factors. Furthermore, inaccurate identification of fossil bovids can have significant consequences on the reconstructed paleoenvironment. Recent research on the classification of bovid fossil teeth has relied on using elliptical Fourier analysis to summarize the shape of the outline of the occlusal surface of the tooth and the ...


Middle Miocene Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction Of The Central Great Plains From Stable Carbon Isotopes In Large Mammals, Willow H. Nguy 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Middle Miocene Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction Of The Central Great Plains From Stable Carbon Isotopes In Large Mammals, Willow H. Nguy

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Middle Miocene (18-12 Mya) mammalian faunas of the North American Great Plains contained a much higher diversity of apparent browsers than any modern biome. This has been attributed to greater primary productivity, which may have supported greater browser diversity that commonly corresponds with densely vegetated habitats. However, several lines of proxy evidence suggest that open woodlands or savannas dominated middle Miocene biomes; neither of which support many browsers today. Stable carbon isotopes in mammalian herbivore tooth enamel were used to reconstruct vegetation structure of middle Miocene biomes.

Stable carbon isotopes in C3 dominated environments reflect vegetation density and herbivores ...


Reconstructing Holocene Fire And Landscape History Using Charcoal And Lake Sediments In Big Belt Mountains, Montana, Katherine Gildner 2017 Carroll College, Helena, MT

Reconstructing Holocene Fire And Landscape History Using Charcoal And Lake Sediments In Big Belt Mountains, Montana, Katherine Gildner

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

A 4215-year-old sediment record from a shallow kettle lake in the Big Belt Mountains of Central Montana was analyzed for charcoal to develop a preliminary fire history for this area. Two sediment cores, each approximately 155cm long, were retrieved and described. One was analyzed for charcoal content and radiocarbon dated. A simple age-depth model was constructed using the radiocarbon dates from two wood fragments (at 14cm and 143cm depth) to provide a preliminary age constraint to the fire history. Three distinct fire regimes are indicated in the charcoal record. The first was a period of low fire intensity and frequency ...


Behavioral Paleoecology Of Lower Cambrian Deposit Foragers: Reinterpreting Looping And Meandering Traces Using Optimal Foraging Theory And Quantitative Analysis, Zachary Andrew Jensen 2017 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Behavioral Paleoecology Of Lower Cambrian Deposit Foragers: Reinterpreting Looping And Meandering Traces Using Optimal Foraging Theory And Quantitative Analysis, Zachary Andrew Jensen

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The early Cambrian was a period of transition during which the seafloor environment was changing from a microbial-mat-dominated environment to a bioturbation-dominated environment. The result was a patchy landscape of variable food resources for foraging burrowers to exploit. Looping trace fossils, such Psammichnites gigas and Taphrhelminthopsis nelsoni, appear in strata worldwide during this transitional period, and the ecological niche they filled is a subject of debate among ichnologists. The objectives of this study are (1) to determine the foraging strategies preserved by looping traces through the application of optimal foraging theory and quantitative analysis, and (2) use those results to ...


The Homology And Phylogeny Of The Diploporita (Blastozoa: Echinodermata), Sarah Lynne Sheffield 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Homology And Phylogeny Of The Diploporita (Blastozoa: Echinodermata), Sarah Lynne Sheffield

Doctoral Dissertations

Evolutionary relationships of extinct echinoderms are poorly understood, especially within stem-bearing blastozoans, a large group of echinoderms with unique respiratory structures and feeding brachioles. They were highly experimental in their body plans and very unlike echinoderms today (e.g., sea urchins). Many of the blastozoan subgroups recognized in recent classifications do not represent clades (natural associations of organisms derived from a single ancestor); they are either grades of organization or groups united by superficially similar features. Consequently, these ‘traditional’ groupings cannot be used to analyze evolutionary questions, such as biogeography or rates of evolution. This problem is highlighted within the ...


Paleoimagery: The Artistic Restoration Of Dinosaurs And Prehistoric Life, Colin McNulty 2017 Bowling Green State University

Paleoimagery: The Artistic Restoration Of Dinosaurs And Prehistoric Life, Colin Mcnulty

Honors Projects

My purpose in creating this paper is to research a holistic view of paleontological illustration (also called paleoimagery or paleoart). A thorough history of paleoimagery is outlined from its roots in biblical illustration in the 17th and 18th centuries approaching the modern day. A two-fold examination of the utility of art to communicate science and its use within the science of paleontology is also given. This includes discussions of the specific components of art pieces that help them to successfully communicate scientific ideas and examples of how paleoimagery contributes to paleontology. The author then outlines the conception and ...


Understanding Feathered Dinosaurs, Michael D. Sprague 2017 Cedarville University

Understanding Feathered Dinosaurs, Michael D. Sprague

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Young-earth creationists hold to separate creations of birds and land animals due to a literal interpretation of Genesis 1:20-25, which describes their creations on different days. As such, they oppose the conventional model of theropod-to-bird evolution. For many years, there were few Mesozoic birds known, namely Hesperornis and Icthyornis. Specimens such as Archaeopteryx, found in 1861, seemed to strengthen the argument for the proposed transition. However, even after John Ostrom reinvigorated the idea of dinosaur-to-bird evolution in 1960 with the discovery of Deinonychus, evidence of this transition was still sparse. In the 1990’s, exquisitely-preserved dinosaur fossils began to ...


Understanding Feathered Dinosaurs, Michael D. Sprague 2017 Cedarville University

Understanding Feathered Dinosaurs, Michael D. Sprague

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Young-earth creationists hold to separate creations of birds and land animals due to a literal interpretation of Genesis 1:20-25, which describes their creations on different days. As such, they oppose the conventional model of theropod-to-bird evolution. For many years, there were few Mesozoic birds known, namely Hesperornis and Icthyornis. Specimens such as Archaeopteryx, found in 1861, seemed to strengthen the argument for the proposed transition. However, even after John Ostrom reinvigorated the idea of dinosaur-to-bird evolution in 1960 with the discovery of Deinonychus, evidence of this transition was still sparse. In the 1990’s, exquisitely-preserved dinosaur fossils began to ...


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