The Role Of Mites In The Construction And Weathering Of Siliceous Biospeleothems, 2018 University of Coruña
The Role Of Mites In The Construction And Weathering Of Siliceous Biospeleothems, María José López-Galindo
International Journal of Speleology
Acarines are well-documented as formative elements in the biocenosis of soils. However, their role in the construction and weathering of siliceous speleothems has received very little attention in previous research. The present study describes different groups of cavities (nesting/molting sites) excavated by these organisms in the surface of siliceous speleothems that are deposited in the fissures between various granite boulders in Southern Spain. There is evidence that there are immature stages that would survive the heat and drought of summer in the form of small larvae, or euedaphic nymphs, in the soil. This study provides the first description of ...
Are The Oxygen Isotope Values Of The Late Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway Different From The Open Ocean?, 2018 University of New Mexico
Are The Oxygen Isotope Values Of The Late Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway Different From The Open Ocean?, Camille H. Dwyer, Corinne Myers, Viorel Atudorei
Shared Knowledge Conference
The Western Interior Seaway (WIS) was a North American epicontinental sea that was connected to the open ocean through the passage of the northern Boreal Sea and the southern Tethys Sea from the early Albian (~113 million years ago) to the early Paleogene (~65 million years ago). The WIS began to recced and lost its connection to the southern Tethys Sea in the late Campanian (~72 million years ago). In the early Paleogene, the WIS dried up completely. The oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of benthic bivalves was measured from the upper Campanian and lower Maastrichtian (75 million years ago to ...
Belowground Rhizomes In Paleosols: The Hidden Half Of An Early Devonian Vascular Plant, 2018 Peking University
Belowground Rhizomes In Paleosols: The Hidden Half Of An Early Devonian Vascular Plant, Jinzhuang Xue, Zhenzhen Deng, Pu Huang, Kangjun Huang, Michael J. Benton, Ying Cui
The colonization of terrestrial environments by rooted vascular plants had far-reaching impacts on the Earth system. However, the belowground structures of early vascular plants are rarely documented, and thus the plant−soil interactions in early terrestrial ecosystems are poorly understood. Here we report the earliest rooted paleosols (fossil soils) in Asia from Early Devonian deposits of Yunnan, China. Plant traces are extensive within the soil and occur as complex network-like structures, which are interpreted as representing long-lived, belowground rhizomes of the basal lycopsid Drepanophycus. The rhizomes produced large clones and helped the plant survive frequent sediment burial in well-drained soils ...
Modern And Paleoecological Perspectives On A Terrestrial-Marine Linkage In The Falkland Islands, 2018 University of Maine
Modern And Paleoecological Perspectives On A Terrestrial-Marine Linkage In The Falkland Islands, Dulcinea V. Groff
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
The Falkland Islands are a biodiversity hotspot in the South Atlantic Ocean, with some of the world’s most important populations of seabirds and seals. The impact of climate change on these marine populations and their coastal breeding habitat in the Falklands is unknown. Coastal grasslands of Poa flabellata (tussac grass) form critical breeding habitat for wildlife, but have been heavily degraded by the introduction of livestock in the 17th century. This dissertation investigates the impacts of global change (climate change, grazing) on P. flabellata and its sensitivity to the fecal nutrient subsidies provided by marine wildlife. Chapter 1 ...
Global Deposits Of In Situ Upper Cambrian Microbialites—Implications For A Cohesive Model Of Origins, 2018 San Diego Christian College
Global Deposits Of In Situ Upper Cambrian Microbialites—Implications For A Cohesive Model Of Origins, Ken P. Coulson
The Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism
The existence of in situ microbialites of biological origin located in upper Cambrian rocks in western Utah presents some problems for creationists as they seek to define the boundary that separates pre-Flood deposits from those that were deposited during the Flood event itself. These microbialites are extensive in nature, covering an area of at least 2600 km2, and are stacked one atop the other in multiple beds that span a thickness of at least 300 m, but could be as thick as several km (intercalated between wackestone wedges). Other microbialites found throughout similar upper Cambrian rocks in Nevada and California ...
Historical Survey Of The Floating Mat Model For The Origin Of Carboniferous Coal Beds, 2018 Cedarville University, Cedarville, Ohio
Historical Survey Of The Floating Mat Model For The Origin Of Carboniferous Coal Beds, Steven Arthur Austin, Roger W. Sanders
The Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism
For three hundred years geologists and paleobotanists have been attempting to describe the process that deposited plant material that formed Carboniferous coal beds. Autochthonous and allochthonous explanations in the early Nineteenth Century showed how scientific methodology becomes involved in coal interpretation. Autochthonous modelers used the paleobotany-strata-petrology-environment method to argue that coal is a terrestrial swamp deposit. Allochthonous modelers used the petrology-strata-paleobotany-environment method to describe coal as a subaqueous deposit. The two methodologies are best displayed at the end of the Nineteenth Century in the consensus autochthonists versus the French School allochthonists. Three depositional models have been offered for the origin ...
Paradigms And Paleoartists: How Our Perception Of Dinosaurs Forms, 2018 Cedarville University
Paradigms And Paleoartists: How Our Perception Of Dinosaurs Forms, Jordan C. Oldham
The Research and Scholarship Symposium
Thomas Kuhn in his famous work The Structure of Scientific Revolutions put forth his idea about how science changes. Kuhn thought that science changed by scientific revolutions brought on by an anomaly. After the anomaly, a crisis point would ensue as more scientists would research the anomaly. While in the process of research they would abandon the old paradigm in favor of one that would explain the anomaly. Not all anomalies create a crisis, but can rather result in a paradigm shift. These shifts occur within the old paradigm, and do not led to the formation of a new paradigm ...
Investigation Of Omnivorous Trophic Position In The Drilling Gastropod, Urosalpinx Cinerea, Using Stable Isotope Analysis, Molly E. Karnes, Michelle M. Casey
Drill-holes found in the fossil record are an important tool to study ecological patterns of the past. It is therefore important to gain a better understanding of the role of extant drilling snails in modern ecosystems. Although traditionally considered a predator, trophic position of 3.0, specimens of the muricid Urosalpinx cinerea from Long Island Sound revealed trophic positions between 2.3 and 2.5, suggestive of an omnivorous diet. This study addresses the generality of this result by examining a U. cinerea population from Wilmington, North Carolina. Preliminary whole body, soft tissue stable isotope analysis of nitrogen and carbon ...
Redescription And Phylogenetic Analysis Of The Materials Assigned To The Taxon "Captorhinikos" Chozaensis, 2018 California State University - San Bernardino
Redescription And Phylogenetic Analysis Of The Materials Assigned To The Taxon "Captorhinikos" Chozaensis, Jason Paul Jung
Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations
“Captorhinikos” chozaensis is a multiple-tooth-rowed captorhinid reptile from the Lower Permian Clear Fork Group, undivided formation. Upon re-examination of the materials associated with the species from both the Chicago Field Museum of Natural History, and the Smithsonian United States National Museum, I reaffirm their affinity and collective identity as a valid taxon. “Captorhinikos” chozaensis does not, however, belong with either of the two members of its genus, C. valensis or “C.” parvus, instead occupying its own branch on the phylogenetic tree of the Captorhinidae. This conclusion is based in strong results from a combined phylogenetic parsimony analysis combined with an ...
Stratigraphy Of The Upper Silurian To Middle Devonian, Southwestern Ontario, 2018 The University of Western Ontario
Stratigraphy Of The Upper Silurian To Middle Devonian, Southwestern Ontario, Shuo Sun
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
The upper Silurian–Middle Devonian succession was dominated by carbonate and evaporite deposits, with minor siliciclastic sedimentation, and a significant hiatus across the Siluro-Devonian (S-D) boundary in southwestern Ontario. The stratigraphic units include, in ascending order: Late Silurian Bass Islands/Bertie formations and Salina G Unit, the Devonian Oriskany Formation, Bois Blanc Formation (including Springvale Member), Detroit River Group (including the Lucas, Amherstburg and Sylvania formations), Onondaga Formation, and Dundee Formation.
Below the S-D unconformity, the upper Silurian Bass Islands/Bertie formations are predominantly dolostone of peritidal-sabkha origin and episodic subaerial exposure. Revised stratigraphic correlation shows that the Bertie Formation ...
Examining The Use Of Amazon’S Mechanical Turk For Edge Extraction Of The Occlusal Surface Of Fossilized Bovid Teeth, 2018 Loyola University Chicago
Examining The Use Of Amazon’S Mechanical Turk For Edge Extraction Of The Occlusal Surface Of Fossilized Bovid Teeth, George K. Thiruvathukal, Gregory J. Matthews, Maxwell P. Luetkemeier, Juliet K. Brophy
George K. Thiruvathukal
In order to reconstruct environments associated with Plio-Pleistocene hominins in southern Africa, researchers frequently rely upon the animals associated with the hominins, in particular, animals in the Family Bovidae. Bovids in southern Africa are typically identified by their teeth. However, identifying the taxon of a bovid tooth is challenging due to various biasing factors. Furthermore, inaccurate identification of fossil bovids can have significant consequences on the reconstructed paleoenvironment. Recent research on the classification of bovid fossil teeth has relied on using elliptical Fourier analysis to summarize the shape of the outline of the occlusal surface of the tooth and the ...
Nitrogen Isotopes Suggest A Change In Nitrogen Dynamics Between The Late Pleistocene And Modern Time In Yukon, Canada, 2018 The University of Western Ontario
Nitrogen Isotopes Suggest A Change In Nitrogen Dynamics Between The Late Pleistocene And Modern Time In Yukon, Canada, Farnoush Tahmasebi, Fred J. Longstaffe, Grant Zazula
Earth Sciences Publications
A magnificent repository of Late Pleistocene terrestrial megafauna fossils is contained in ice-rich loess deposits of Alaska and Yukon, collectively eastern Beringia. The stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope compositions of bone collagen from these fossils are routinely used to determine paleodiet and reconstruct the paleoecosystem. This approach requires consideration of changes in C- and N-isotope dynamics over time and their effects on the terrestrial vegetation isotopic baseline. To test for such changes between the Late Pleistocene and modern time, we compared δ13C and δ15N for vegetation and bone collagen and ...
Volcanogenic Pseudo-Fossils From The ~3.48 Ga Dresser Formation, Pilbara, Western Australia, 2018 Old Dominion University
Volcanogenic Pseudo-Fossils From The ~3.48 Ga Dresser Formation, Pilbara, Western Australia, David Wacey, Nora Noffke, Martin Saunders, Paul Guagliardo, David M. Pyle
OEAS Faculty Publications
The ~ 3.48 billion-year-old Dresser Formation, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, is a key geological unit for the study of Earth's earliest life and the habitats it occupied. Here, we describe a new suite of spheroidal to lenticular microstructures that morphologically resemble some previously reported Archean microfossils. Correlative microscopy shows that these objects have a size distribution, wall ultrastructure, and chemistry that are incompatible with a microfossil origin and instead are interpreted as pyritized and silicified fragments of vesicular volcanic glass. Organic kerogenous material is associated with much of the altered volcanic glass; variable quantities of organic carbon line or ...
Osteohistology And Skeletochronology Of An Ontogenetic Series Of Clidastes (Squamata: Mosasauridae): Growth And Metabolism In Basal Mosasaurids, Cyrus C. Green
Clidastes was a large marine reptile from the Late Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway of North America. Though the remains of Clidastes have been found in the Cretaceous chalks and shales for over 150 years, little is known about their growth rates.
Osteohistology is a well-documented technique used to investigate growth in extinct animals. Previous histological studies of Clidastes have hypothesized higher growth rates in basal mosasaurids than varanids due to higher vascularity. These studies focused on adult specimens but did not look at ontogenetic changes in growth rates. Isotopic studies of Clidastes indicate high metabolic temperatures, leading to speculation these ...
Two Post-Glacial Sagebrush Steppe Fire Records At The Wildland-Urban Interface, Eastern Cascades, Washington, 2018 Central Washington University
Two Post-Glacial Sagebrush Steppe Fire Records At The Wildland-Urban Interface, Eastern Cascades, Washington, Dusty Pilkington
All Master's Theses
Recent increases in large fires in the rapidly developing wildland-urban interface (WUI) areas of central Washington, where development intermixes with wildland fuels, contribute to federal firefighting costs exceeding of $1 billion annually. In addition, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) invasion and anthropogenic-caused warming shorten fire return intervals while lengthening fire seasons. These climatic, ecological, economic, and social factors combine with fuel accumulation resulting from historic fire suppression to threaten lives and property in the WUI. To plan for safe growth in WUI areas, long-term fire histories are needed to expand understanding of past fire regimes in an understudied ecosystem, sagebrush steppe. In ...
Sustainability At Sit: A Look At The Past, A Plan For The Future, 2018 SIT Graduate Institute
Sustainability At Sit: A Look At The Past, A Plan For The Future, Taliesin Haugh
Climate change threatens our world and way of life. Intelligent development and investment could mitigate the worst threats of climate change, while simultaneously providing continuous growth for the global economy. The New Climate Economy proposes efforts to combat this ecological collapse that would result in $30 trillion in new annual economic growth by 2030. Stockholm Resilience Center agrees, giving a framework based on global ecological systems that calls for five critical tasks that can bring growth and stability: Renewable energy
Sustainable local food production
New development models, based on what has worked globally
Reduction of wealth inequity
Education, health, and ...
Ordovician Continental Paleogeography And Paleoenvironment For The Michigan Basin From Paleomagnetic Analysis, 2017 The University of Western Ontario
Ordovician Continental Paleogeography And Paleoenvironment For The Michigan Basin From Paleomagnetic Analysis, Michelle Macrae
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
This study investigates the paleomagnetic record of Paleozoic rocks from two Michigan basin localities in southwestern Ontario to help close the 40 myr gap in Paleozoic paleomagnetic data. Paleomagnetic data from the Queenston (Upper Ordovician) formation consistently exhibits easily removed viscous remanence, an intermediate and a high temperature component consistent with the unblocking temperatures of magnetite and hematite respectively. Alternating-field and thermal demagnetization in 16–20 steps up to 670º C typically reveal a southeastern, shallow up direction removed from magnetite, and a southwestern, steep up direction removed from hematite. A Late Paleozoic overprint was preserved in the magnetite and ...
Using Foraminifera In Stemseas Site 1 To Understand The Recent Paleoceanographic And Paleoclimatic History Of Tanner Basin, California Borderland, Michael Stanley Stone
Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current
In May of 2016, the STEMSEAS Educational Transit cruise OC1605-tranA collected the STEMSEAS Site 1 core from the Tanner Basin in the California Borderland. This research serves as the first formal survey of the foraminifera preserved within that core. The purpose of this research is to use foraminifera preserved within that core to understand the recent depositional and paleoenvironmental conditions at Site 1, and to place that information into a regional paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic context. In pursuing this purpose, this research aims to answer three questions: 1) Can biostratigraphic markers in the foraminiferal assemblages in STEMSEAS Site 1 core be ...
Paleogeography Of Early Paleozoic Laurentia And Meguma, Avalonia Terranes Via Paleomagnetism And Faunal Review, 2017 The University of Western Ontario
Paleogeography Of Early Paleozoic Laurentia And Meguma, Avalonia Terranes Via Paleomagnetism And Faunal Review, Halima S. Warsame
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Paleomagnetic assessment of 821 Cambrian to Silurian-aged rock specimens of igneous and sedimentary origin was used as a means to provide insight on the ancient geographies of the region in which these rocks are currently found. The Earth’s magnetic field direction can be recorded at the time of rock formation and/or at a later significant event by magnetic minerals, allowing these signatures to be used to track the past motions of the continents. Stepwise demagnetization of the Port au Port, St. George and Table Head Groups in western Newfoundland, and the Mavillette gabbro (426 +/- 2 Ma, U-Pb baddeleyite ...
Using Stable Isotope Geochemistry To Determine Changing Paleohydrology And Diagenetic Alteration In The Late Cretaceous Kaiparowits Formation, Ut Usa, 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Using Stable Isotope Geochemistry To Determine Changing Paleohydrology And Diagenetic Alteration In The Late Cretaceous Kaiparowits Formation, Ut Usa, Daigo Yamamura
Theses and Dissertations
The Western Interior Basin of the North America preserves one of the best sedimentary and paleontological records of the Cretaceous in the world. The Upper Cretaceous Kaiparowits Formation is a rapidly deposited fluvial sequence and preserves one of the most complete terrestrial fossil record of the North America. Such a unique deposit provides an opportunity to investigate the interaction between the physical environment and ecology. In an effort to decipher such interaction, stable isotope composition of cements in sedimentary rocks, concretions and vertebrate fossils were analyzed.
Despite the difference in facies and sedimentary architecture, the isotope composition does not change ...