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A Sub-Millennial Sediment Record Of Ice-Stream Retreat And Meltwater Storage In The Baltic Ice Lake During The Bølling-Allerød Interstadial, April Lynn Kelly, Sandra Passchier 2018 Montclair State University

A Sub-Millennial Sediment Record Of Ice-Stream Retreat And Meltwater Storage In The Baltic Ice Lake During The Bølling-Allerød Interstadial, April Lynn Kelly, Sandra Passchier

Department of Earth and Environmental Studies Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

The rapid retreat of the Baltic Ice Stream and the development of the Baltic Ice Lake is assessed using data from sediment cores retrieved from three sub-basins in the southern Baltic Sea. Hydraulic piston coring by the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) recovered for the first time intact glacial lake sequences overlying diamictons and other ice-contact deposits at Sites M0063, M0064 and M0065. Based on the particle size and bulk sediment chemical composition the glacial lake sediments were subdivided into a proximal and a distal varve sequence. The origin of a dark, lithologically distinct horizon between the proximal and distal ...


Quantifying The Effects Of Wind Regimes And Temperature On Surface Melt Over The Antarctic Peninsula (1982–2017) Through Modeling, Remote Sensing And In-Situ Data, Rajashree Datta 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Quantifying The Effects Of Wind Regimes And Temperature On Surface Melt Over The Antarctic Peninsula (1982–2017) Through Modeling, Remote Sensing And In-Situ Data, Rajashree Datta

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Surface melting over the Antarctic Peninsula (AP) plays a crucial role for the stability of ice shelves and dynamics of grounded ice, hence modulating the mass balance in a region of the world which is particularly sensitive to increasing surface temperatures. Understanding the processes that drive melting using surface energy and mass balance models is fundamental to improving estimates of current and future surface melting and associated sea level rise through ice-shelf collapse. This is even more important in view of the specific challenges presented by how circulation patterns over the topographically-complex Antarctic Peninsula, especially foehn winds, impact surface melt ...


Early Miocene Antarctic Glacial History: New Insights From Heavy Mineral Analysis From Andrill And–2a Drill Core Sediments, Francesco Iacoviello, Giovanna Giorgetti, Isabella Turbanti Memmi, Sandra Passchier 2018 University College London

Early Miocene Antarctic Glacial History: New Insights From Heavy Mineral Analysis From Andrill And–2a Drill Core Sediments, Francesco Iacoviello, Giovanna Giorgetti, Isabella Turbanti Memmi, Sandra Passchier

Sandra Passchier

The present study deals with heavy mineral analysis of late Early Miocene marine sediments recovered in the McMurdo Sound region (Ross Sea, Antarctica) during the ANDRILL— SMS Project in 2007. The main objective is to investigate how heavy mineral assemblages reflect different source rocks and hence different provenance areas. These data contribute to a better understanding of East Antarctica ice dynamics in the Ross Sea sector during the Early Miocene (17.6–20.2 Ma), a time of long-term global warming and sea level rise. The AND-2A drill core recovered several stratigraphic intervals that span from Early Miocene to Pleistocene ...


Joint Geodetic And Seismic Analysis Of Englacial And Subglacial Hydraulic Effects On Surface Crevassing Near A Seasonal, Glacier-Dammed Lake On Gornergletscher, Switzerland, Louis Stephen Garcia 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Joint Geodetic And Seismic Analysis Of Englacial And Subglacial Hydraulic Effects On Surface Crevassing Near A Seasonal, Glacier-Dammed Lake On Gornergletscher, Switzerland, Louis Stephen Garcia

LSU Master's Theses

Glacial outburst floods are difficult to predict and threaten human life. These events are characterized by rapid draining of glacier-dammed lakes via the sub/englacial hydraulic network to the proglacial stream. The glacier-dammed lake on Gornergletscher in Switzerland, which fills and drains each summer, provides an opportunity to study this hazard. For three drainages (2004, 2006, and 2007), icequakes (IQ) are tracked as well as on-ice GPS movement. The seasonal seismic networks had 8 – 24 three-component stations and apertures of about 300 – 400 m on the glacier surface. The seasonal GPS arrays contained 4 – 8 GPS antennae on the glacier ...


Developing A Risk Assessment Protocol To Quantify Distribution And Uptake Of Persistent Organic Pollutants In Glacial Outflows, Kimberley Rain Miner 2018 University of Maine

Developing A Risk Assessment Protocol To Quantify Distribution And Uptake Of Persistent Organic Pollutants In Glacial Outflows, Kimberley Rain Miner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pollutants released by industrialized nations between 1960 and 2004 have been transported northward through atmospheric processes and deposited into glaciated alpine ecosystems. Many of these chemicals retain their original structure and are absorbed into the biota thousands of miles away from where they were originally utilized. With a warming climate increasing the melt of alpine glaciers, these glaciers may be introducing growing amounts of toxins into the watershed. While studies have demonstrated the existence of resident pollutants within glaciated ecosystems, no one has developed a risk assessment to identify sources and quantity of risk posed by these compounds when released ...


Glacial History Of The Tsagaan Gol- Potanin Glacier Valley, Altai Mountains, Mongolia, Mariah J. Radue 2018 University of Maine

Glacial History Of The Tsagaan Gol- Potanin Glacier Valley, Altai Mountains, Mongolia, Mariah J. Radue

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The last glacial termination (~19-11 ka) marks the end of the last ice age and the transition to modern interglacial conditions. The mechanisms that triggered deglaciation are unresolved. Various hypotheses for deglacial warming involve changes in Earth’s orbit, an 80-ppm increase in atmospheric CO­2, a ‘bipolar seesaw’ in oceanic-heat redistribution, and shifting wind belts. Here, I present a 10Be surface-exposure chronology for a system of glacial landforms in the Tsagaan Gol-Potanin Glacier valley in the Mongolian Altai (49°N, 88°E) to determine the nature of the termination in interior Asia. Located near the center of Earth ...


Multi-Channel Ground-Penetrating Radar For The Continuous Quantification Of Snow And Firn Density, Depth, And Accumulation, Tate Meehan 2018 Boise State University

Multi-Channel Ground-Penetrating Radar For The Continuous Quantification Of Snow And Firn Density, Depth, And Accumulation, Tate Meehan

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

A priority of ice sheet surface mass balance (SMB) prediction is ascertaining the surface density and annual snow accumulation. These forcing data are inputs for firn density models and can be used to inform remotely sensed ice sheet surface processes and to assess Regional Climate Model (RCM) skill. The Greenland Traverse for Accumulation and Climate Studies (GreenTrACS) retrieved 16 shallow firn cores and dug 42 snow pits along the Western percolation zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) during May and June of 2016 and 2017. I deployed and maintained a multi-channel 500 MHz ground-penetrating radar in a multi-offset configuration ...


Ice Core Records Of West Greenland Melt And Climate Forcing, H.P. Marshall, T. Meehan 2018 Boise State University

Ice Core Records Of West Greenland Melt And Climate Forcing, H.P. Marshall, T. Meehan

CGISS Publications and Presentations

Remote sensing observations and climate models indicate that the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has been losing mass since the late 1990s, mostly due to enhanced surface melting from rising summer temperatures. However, in situ observational records of GrIS melt rates over recent decades are rare. Here we develop a record of frozen meltwater in the west GrIS percolation zone preserved in seven firn cores. Quantifying ice layer distribution as a melt feature percentage (MFP), we find significant increases in MFP in the southernmost five cores over the past 50 years to unprecedented modern levels (since 1550 CE). Annual to decadal ...


Carbon Flux And Weathering Processes In Icelandic Glacial-Fed Rivers, Allison Quiroga 2018 Western Kentucky University

Carbon Flux And Weathering Processes In Icelandic Glacial-Fed Rivers, Allison Quiroga

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

An investigation into the carbon dynamics and weathering processes occurring in Icelandic glacial-fed streams was conducted during the spring to summer seasonal transition in June of 2017. Four major outlet rives were sampled from the glaciers of Gígjökull, Steinsholtsjökull, Sólheimajökull, and Falljökull. Markarfljót, the major river that Gígjökull, Steinsholtsjökull, and many other glaciers drain into, was also sampled. Longitudinal sampling occurred at all sites to capture downstream trends in the hydrogeochemistry and carbon dynamics. Distinct differences in geochemistry between glacier surface meltwater, sub-glacial waters, pro-glacial lake water, and post-mixed downstream samples were evident in the data. Glacier surface streams were ...


Mapping And Interpreting The Glacial Geology Of Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, Michigan, Sarah M. VanderMeer 2018 Western Michigan University

Mapping And Interpreting The Glacial Geology Of Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, Michigan, Sarah M. Vandermeer

Dissertations

Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore is among the most popular parks in Michigan, yet prior to this study, it was the only National Park that lacked a detailed surficial geology map characterizing the distribution of sediments and landforms. Additionally, much of the landscape remained unexplored. These factors prevented thorough interpretations of landscape development and evolution. This research aims to map and further explore the relationship of glacial sediments and landforms throughout Pictured Rocks to refine and expand the current understanding of glacial events that shaped this landscape.

A new, detailed (1:24,000-scale) surficial geology map of the ten 7.5-minute ...


Mapping Bedrock Topography Of The Portage And Schoolcraft Nw 7.5’ Quadrangles, Kalamazoo Co. Mi, Using The Hvsr Passive Seismic Method, Benjamin B. Seiderman 2018 Western Michigan University

Mapping Bedrock Topography Of The Portage And Schoolcraft Nw 7.5’ Quadrangles, Kalamazoo Co. Mi, Using The Hvsr Passive Seismic Method, Benjamin B. Seiderman

Master's Theses

This study utilizes the Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) technique to map bedrock topography in the Portage and Schoolcraft NW quadrangles, Kalamazoo Co., MI, looking for buried bedrock valleys. Glacial sediment-landform assemblages dominate the study area, due to multiple advances of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS). Tunnel valleys, which are one type of buried valley, are eroded by subglacial meltwater and commonly filled with the coarser varieties of glacial outwash, making them potential aquifers. The HVSR technique measures the ratio of horizontal to vertical ground motion, excited by ambient seismic noise, resulting in a peak at the resonance frequency ...


Geologic Mapping Of The Bronson North And Bronson South 7.5-Minute Quadrangles, Branch County, Michigan, Karl John Backhaus 2018 Western Michigan University

Geologic Mapping Of The Bronson North And Bronson South 7.5-Minute Quadrangles, Branch County, Michigan, Karl John Backhaus

Master's Theses

This study contributes to a better understanding of the glacial history of southwest Michigan through detailed surficial geologic and bedrock topography mapping within the Bronson North and Bronson South Quadrangles in Branch County, Michigan. This project was supported during the summer of 2017 by the USGS EDMAP program in conjunction with the Michigan Geological Survey. Hand-auger borings, grain size analysis tests, passive seismic depth-to-bedrock measurements, and ground penetrating radar transects were collected for this study. There are 350 feet of bedrock relief from west to east across the quadrangles, including a bedrock cuesta of Mississippian Coldwater Shale. This cuesta underlies ...


Drivers Of Solar Radiation Variability In The Mcmurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, Maciej K. Obryk, Andrew G. Fountain, Peter T. Doran 2018 U.S. Geological Survey

Drivers Of Solar Radiation Variability In The Mcmurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, Maciej K. Obryk, Andrew G. Fountain, Peter T. Doran

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Annually averaged solar radiation in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica has varied by over 20 W m−2 during the past three decades; however, the drivers of this variability are unknown. Because small differences in radiation are important to water availability and ecosystem functioning in polar deserts, determining the causes are important to predictions of future desert processes. We examine the potential drivers of solar variability and systematically eliminate all but stratospheric sulfur dioxide. We argue that increases in stratospheric sulfur dioxide increase stratospheric aerosol optical depth and decrease solar intensity. Because of the polar location of the McMurdo Dry ...


Improved Estimates Of Glacier Change Rates At Nevado Coropuna Ice Cap, Peru, William Hardy Kochtitzky, Benjamin R. Edwards, Ellyn M. Enderlin, Jersy Marino, Nelida Marinque 2018 Dickinson College

Improved Estimates Of Glacier Change Rates At Nevado Coropuna Ice Cap, Peru, William Hardy Kochtitzky, Benjamin R. Edwards, Ellyn M. Enderlin, Jersy Marino, Nelida Marinque

Faculty and Staff Publications By Year

Accurate quantification of rates of glacier mass loss is critical for managing water resources and for assessing hazards at ice-clad volcanoes, especially in arid regions like southern Peru. In these regions, glacier and snow melt are crucial dry season water resources. In order to verify previously reported rates of ice area decline at Nevado Coropuna in Peru, which are anomalously rapid for tropical glaciers, we measured changes in ice cap area using 259 Landsat images acquired from 1980 to 2014. We find that Coropuna Ice Cap is presently the most extensive ice mass in the tropics, with an area of ...


Rapid Expansion Of Greenland’S Low-Permeability Ice Slabs In A Warming Climate, Michael John MacFerrin 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Rapid Expansion Of Greenland’S Low-Permeability Ice Slabs In A Warming Climate, Michael John Macferrin

Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Recent increases in Greenland’s glacial melt have accelerated runoff and become Greenland’s dominant mechanism of ice loss. More meltwater is being generated in the ice sheet’s lower accumulation zone, which has begun to anneal ice lenses found within the porous firn and form continuous low-permeability ice slabs (LPISs). LPISs are layers of ice meters thick that inhibit water percolating beneath them, extend horizontally for tens of kilometers, and can cause runoff from regions where water previously refroze. LPISs form on decadal timescales and have the potential to quickly increase the extent of Greenland’s runoff zone. I ...


Oceanographic And Climatic Change In The Bering Sea, Last Glacial Maximum To Holocene, Ben M. Pelto, Beth E. Caissie, Steven T. Petsch, Julie Brigham-Grette 2018 University of Northern British Columbia

Oceanographic And Climatic Change In The Bering Sea, Last Glacial Maximum To Holocene, Ben M. Pelto, Beth E. Caissie, Steven T. Petsch, Julie Brigham-Grette

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

Post‐glacial sea level rise led to a direct connection between the Arctic and Pacific Oceans via the Bering Strait. Consequently, the Bering Sea experienced changes in connectivity, size, and sediment sources that were among the most drastic of any ocean basin in the past 30,000 years. However, the sedimentary response to the interplay between climate change and sea level rise in high‐latitude settings such as Beringia remains poorly resolved. To ascertain changes in sediment delivery, productivity, and regional oceanography from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to the Holocene, we analyzed sedimentological, geochemical, and isotopic characteristics of three ...


Internal Composition, Structure, And Hydrological Significance Of Rock Glaciers In The Eastern Cascades, Washington, Adam Riffle 2018 Central Washington University

Internal Composition, Structure, And Hydrological Significance Of Rock Glaciers In The Eastern Cascades, Washington, Adam Riffle

All Master's Theses

Low summer river base flow places a strain on natural and economic resources of the Eastern Cascades. A major contributor to stream flow in this region is snow pack which has declined over the past few decades because of a warming climate. In addition, glacial runoff, which contributes significantly to base flow in summer dry periods, will diminish from glacial recession. However, rock glaciers, because their internal ice (i.e., permafrost) is insulated by an outer debris layer, react slowly to climate change, thus acting as sinks for ice and liquid water storage in mountain environments.

This study utilized ground ...


Evidence For Ephemeral Middle Eocene To Early Oligocene Greenland Glacial Ice And Pan-Arctic Sea Ice, Aradhna Tripati, Dennis Darby 2018 Old Dominion University

Evidence For Ephemeral Middle Eocene To Early Oligocene Greenland Glacial Ice And Pan-Arctic Sea Ice, Aradhna Tripati, Dennis Darby

OEAS Faculty Publications

Earth's modern climate is defined by the presence of ice at both poles, but that ice is now disappearing. Therefore understanding the origin and causes of polar ice stability is more critical than ever. Here we provide novel geochemical data that constrain past dynamics of glacial ice on Greenland and Arctic sea ice. Based on accurate source determinations of individual ice-rafted Fe-oxide grains, we find evidence for episodic glaciation of distinct source regions on Greenland as far-ranging as ~68°N and ~80°N synchronous with ice-rafting from circum-Arctic sources, beginning in the middle Eocene. Glacial intervals broadly coincide with ...


The Impact Of Reduced Arctic Sea Ice Extent On Cryospheric Snowfall, Alexander Carne 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Impact Of Reduced Arctic Sea Ice Extent On Cryospheric Snowfall, Alexander Carne

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Satellite observations show that sea ice extent in the Arctic has been declining from 1979 through present day, reaching record minimum extents in 2007 and 2012. Reduced sea ice extent allows for greater expanses of open water to interact with the Arctic atmosphere, potentially leading to changes in the Arctic climate. The greatest declines in Arctic sea ice extent have occurred in summer and autumn. During these seasons, it is likely that the decrease in Arctic sea ice extent led to an increase in atmospheric sensible and latent heat fluxes, possibly leading to increases in Arctic temperature and moisture. Increases ...


Revealing Our Melting Past: Rescuing Historical Snow And Ice Data, Jack Maness, Ruth Duerr, Michael Dulock, Florence Fetterer, Gloria Hicks, Athea Merredyth, William Sampson, Allaina Wallace 2017 University of Denver

Revealing Our Melting Past: Rescuing Historical Snow And Ice Data, Jack Maness, Ruth Duerr, Michael Dulock, Florence Fetterer, Gloria Hicks, Athea Merredyth, William Sampson, Allaina Wallace

University Libraries Faculty & Staff Contributions

Analog archival data can supplement modern digital research, but only if those data are preserved, described, and migrated to appropriate formats. The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) at the University of Colorado Boulder (CU) is responsible for managing, archiving, and disseminating cryospheric and polar data. The clear majority of these data are digital, but the NSIDC also houses a collection of historical archival materials that include measurements related to the earth's glaciated regions prior to the development of modern instrumentation. Their formats, however, are not conducive to contemporary analysis, rendering them ostensibly “lost” to research. This paper ...


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