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A Case Study Using 2019 Pre-Monsoon Snow And Stream Chemistry In The Khumbu Region, Nepal, Heather M. Clifford, Mariusz Potocki, Inka Koch, Tenzing Sherpa, Mike Handley, Elena Korotkikh, Douglas Introne, Susan Kaspari, Kimberley Miner, Tom Matthews, Baker Perry, Heather Guy, Ananta Gajurel, Praveen Kumar Singh, Sandra Elvin, Aurora C. Elmore, Alex Tait, Paul A. Mayewski 2021 University of Maine

A Case Study Using 2019 Pre-Monsoon Snow And Stream Chemistry In The Khumbu Region, Nepal, Heather M. Clifford, Mariusz Potocki, Inka Koch, Tenzing Sherpa, Mike Handley, Elena Korotkikh, Douglas Introne, Susan Kaspari, Kimberley Miner, Tom Matthews, Baker Perry, Heather Guy, Ananta Gajurel, Praveen Kumar Singh, Sandra Elvin, Aurora C. Elmore, Alex Tait, Paul A. Mayewski

Geological Sciences Faculty Scholarship

This case study provides a framework for future monitoring and evidence for human source pollution in the Khumbu region, Nepal. We analyzed the chemical composition (major ions, major/trace elements, black carbon, and stable water isotopes) of pre-monsoon stream water (4300–5250 m) and snow (5200–6665 m) samples collected from Mt. Everest, Mt. Lobuche, and the Imja Valley during the 2019 pre-monsoon season, in addition to a shallow ice core recovered from the Khumbu Glacier (5300 m). In agreement with previous work, pre-monsoon aerosol deposition is dominated by dust originating from western sources and less frequently by transport from ...


Assessing The Use Of Optical Satellite Images To Detect Volcanic Impacts On Glacier Surface Morphology, Michael Dieter Martin, Iestyn Barr, Benjamin R. Edwards, Matteo Spagnolo, Sanaz Vajedian, Elias Symeonakis 2021 Dickinson College

Assessing The Use Of Optical Satellite Images To Detect Volcanic Impacts On Glacier Surface Morphology, Michael Dieter Martin, Iestyn Barr, Benjamin R. Edwards, Matteo Spagnolo, Sanaz Vajedian, Elias Symeonakis

Faculty and Staff Publications By Year

Globally, about 250 Holocene volcanoes are either glacier-clad or have glaciers in close proximity. Interactions between volcanoes and glaciers are therefore common, and some of the most deadly (e.g., Nevado del Ruiz, 1985) and most costly (e.g., Eyjafjallajökull, 2010) eruptions of recent years were associated with glaciovolcanism. An improved understanding of volcano-glacier interactions is therefore of both global scientific and societal importance. This study investigates the potential of using optical satellite images to detect volcanic impacts on glaciers, with a view to utilise detected changes in glacier surface morphology to improve glacier-clad volcano monitoring and eruption forecasting. Roughly ...


Climate On The Blanca Massif, Sangre De Cristo Mountains, Colorado, Usa, During The Last Glacial Maximum, Keith A. Brugger, Eric M. Leonard, Kurt A. Refsnider, Peter Dolan 2021 University of Minnesota, Morris

Climate On The Blanca Massif, Sangre De Cristo Mountains, Colorado, Usa, During The Last Glacial Maximum, Keith A. Brugger, Eric M. Leonard, Kurt A. Refsnider, Peter Dolan

Geology Publications

Temperature-index modeling is used to determine the magnitude of temperature depression on the Blanca Massif, Colorado, required to maintain steady-state mass balances of nine reconstructed glaciers at their extent during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The mean temperature depression thus determined is ~8.6 +0.7/−0.9 degrees C where the uncertainties account for those inherent in the glacier reconstructions, in model parameters (e.g., melt factors), and possible modest changes in LGM precipitation. Associated equilibrium-line altitudes (ELAs) exhibit a statistically significant directional dependency being lower toward the north and east. Under the assumption that regional temperature change was ...


The Impacts Of Mid-Holocene Warming On Water Quality In A Southwestern Ontario Kettle Pond, Morgan E. Peicheff 2021 Western University

The Impacts Of Mid-Holocene Warming On Water Quality In A Southwestern Ontario Kettle Pond, Morgan E. Peicheff

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

No abstract provided.


Modern And Paleo Perspectives On The Role Of The Westerlies In Glaciation, Alexander Audet 2021 University of Maine

Modern And Paleo Perspectives On The Role Of The Westerlies In Glaciation, Alexander Audet

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Deciphering causes of glaciations and their abrupt terminations over the last >700,000 yrs remains an important problem for understanding the behavior of the climate system and how it might change in the future. In particular, the role of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) Westerlies in global change has arisen as an important research direction. Glaciers are highly sensitive to climate change. Examination of mid-latitude glaciers under the influence of westerly wind systems in both hemispheres can help provide insight into the role of the Westerlies in climate change. In this thesis, I present a twofold strategy to refine knowledge of ...


Quantifying Surface Changes On Mcmurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica, Ann M. Hill 2021 University of Maine

Quantifying Surface Changes On Mcmurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica, Ann M. Hill

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The amount of ice stored in Antarctica has the potential to raise sea level by almost 60 meters. Mass is primarily lost through glaciers draining the ice sheet and flowing into and ice shelves. Ice shelves float on the ocean and act as a resisting force to the flow of the glaciers, thereby modulating the flow of tributary glaciers, and consequently glacier contribution to global sea level rise. McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) buttresses four tributary glaciers, three of which will be discussed in this thesis, as well as the northwest corner of the faster flowing Ross Ice Shelf, which has ...


Kinematics Of The Exceptionally-Short Surge Cycles Of Sít’ Kusá (Turner Glacier), Alaska, From 1983 To 2013, Andrew Nolan, William Kochtitzky, Ellyn M. Enderlin, Robert McNabb, Karl J. Kreutz 2021 University of Maine

Kinematics Of The Exceptionally-Short Surge Cycles Of Sít’ Kusá (Turner Glacier), Alaska, From 1983 To 2013, Andrew Nolan, William Kochtitzky, Ellyn M. Enderlin, Robert Mcnabb, Karl J. Kreutz

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Glacier surges are periodic episodes of mass redistribution characterized by dramatic increases in ice flow velocity and, sometimes, terminus advance. We use optical satellite imagery to document five previously unexamined surge events of Sít’ Kusá (Turner Glacier) in the St. Elias Mountains of Alaska from 1983 to 2013. Surge events had an average recurrence interval of ~5 years, making it the shortest known regular recurrence interval in the world. Surge events appear to initiate in the winter, with speeds reaching up to ~25 m d−1. The surges propagate down-glacier over ~2 years, resulting in maximum thinning of ~100 m ...


Examining Summertime Melt And Temperatures In The North Pacific Cordillera, Ingalise Kindstedt 2021 University of Maine

Examining Summertime Melt And Temperatures In The North Pacific Cordillera, Ingalise Kindstedt

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Temperature changes in glaciated regions are of immediate concern for estimates of future sea level rise. Alaska and the surrounding region contain over 40 mm of potential sea level rise in its many alpine glaciers, which are experiencing some of the highest rates of mass loss globally. However, records of both past and present temperatures in the region’s alpine sectors are sparse and limited in temporal and spatial extent. Here I examine the application of MODIS land surface temperatures and layers of refrozen melt in ice cores as temperature indicators in the St. Elias and Alaska Ranges. First, I ...


Drought-Induced Biomass Burning As A Source Of Black Carbon To The Central Himalaya Since 1781 Ce As Reconstructed From The Dasuopu Ice Core, Joel D. Barker, Susan Kaspari, Paulo Gabrielli, Anna Wegner, Emilie Beaudon, M. Roxana Sierra-Hernández, Lonnie Thompson 2021 The Ohio State University

Drought-Induced Biomass Burning As A Source Of Black Carbon To The Central Himalaya Since 1781 Ce As Reconstructed From The Dasuopu Ice Core, Joel D. Barker, Susan Kaspari, Paulo Gabrielli, Anna Wegner, Emilie Beaudon, M. Roxana Sierra-Hernández, Lonnie Thompson

Geological Sciences Faculty Scholarship

Himalayan glaciers are melting due to atmospheric warming, with the potential to limit access to water for more than 25 % of the global population that resides in these glacier meltwater catchments. Black carbon has been implicated as a factor that is contributing to Himalayan glacier melt, but its sources and mechanisms of delivery to the Himalayas remain controversial. Here, we provide a 211-year ice core record spanning 1781–1992 CE for refractory black carbon (rBC) deposition from the Dasuopu glacier ice core that has to date provided the highest-elevation ice core record (7200 m). We report an average rBC concentration ...


Glaciology, Geomorphology Giant Roger Hooke Passes Away At 82, Division of Marketing and Communications 2021 The University of Maine

Glaciology, Geomorphology Giant Roger Hooke Passes Away At 82, Division Of Marketing And Communications

General University of Maine Publications

Roger Hooke, beloved University of Maine mentor and researcher and giant in the fields of glaciology and geomorphology, died March 10 [2021] at the age of 82.

Hooke joined the School of Earth and Climate Sciences and Climate Change Institute in 2000 as a research professor and adviser. One of Hooke's interests during his time at UMaine involved examining what glacial landforms in Maine revealed about the Laurentide Ice Sheet.


Glacier Clear Ice Bands Indicate Englacial Channel Microbial Distribution, Gilda Varliero, Alexandra Holland, Gary L. A. Barker, Marian L. Yallop, Andrew G. Fountain, Alexandre M. Anesio 2021 University of Bristol

Glacier Clear Ice Bands Indicate Englacial Channel Microbial Distribution, Gilda Varliero, Alexandra Holland, Gary L. A. Barker, Marian L. Yallop, Andrew G. Fountain, Alexandre M. Anesio

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Distant glacial areas are interconnected by a complex system of fractures and water channels which run in the glacier interior and characterize the englacial realm. Water can slowly freeze in these channels where the slow freezing excludes air bubbles giving the ice a clear aspect. This ice is uplifted to the surface ablation zone by glacial movements and can therefore be observed in the form of clear surface ice bands. We employed an indirect method to sample englacial water by coring these ice bands. We were able, for the first time, to compare microbial communities sampled from clear (i.e ...


Deriving Melt Rates At A Complex Ice Shelf Base Using In Situ Radar: Application To Totten Ice Shelf, Irena Vaňková, Sue Cook, J. Paul Winberry, Keith W. Nicholls, Benjamin K. Galton-Fenzi 2021 British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council

Deriving Melt Rates At A Complex Ice Shelf Base Using In Situ Radar: Application To Totten Ice Shelf, Irena Vaňková, Sue Cook, J. Paul Winberry, Keith W. Nicholls, Benjamin K. Galton-Fenzi

Geological Sciences Faculty Scholarship

A phase-sensitive radar (ApRES) was deployed on Totten Ice Shelf to provide the first in situ basal melt estimate at this dynamic East Antarctic ice shelf. Observations of internal ice dynamics at tidal time scales showed that early arrivals from off-nadir reflectors obscure the true depth of the ice shelf base. Using the observed tidal deformation, the true base was found to lie at 1,910–1,950-m depth, at 350–400 m greater range than the first reflection from an ice-ocean interface. The robustness of the basal melt rate estimate was increased by using multiple basal reflections over the ...


Radio-Echo Sounding And Waveform Modeling Reveal Abundant Marine Ice In Former Rifts And Basal Crevasses Within Crary Ice Rise, Antarctica, Trevor R. Hillebrand, Howard Conway, Michelle Koutnik, Carlos Martin, John Paden, J. Paul Winberry 2021 University of Washington

Radio-Echo Sounding And Waveform Modeling Reveal Abundant Marine Ice In Former Rifts And Basal Crevasses Within Crary Ice Rise, Antarctica, Trevor R. Hillebrand, Howard Conway, Michelle Koutnik, Carlos Martin, John Paden, J. Paul Winberry

Geological Sciences Faculty Scholarship

Crary Ice Rise formed after the Ross Ice Shelf re-grounded ~1 kyr BP. We present new ice-penetrating radar data from two systems operating at center frequencies of 7 and 750 MHz that confirm the ice rise is composed of a former ice shelf buried by subsequent accumulation. Stacks of englacial diffraction hyperbolas are present almost everywhere across the central ice rise and extend up to ~350 m above the bed. In many cases, bed reflections beneath the diffraction hyperbolas are obscured for distances up to 1 km. Waveform modeling indicates that the diffraction hyperbolas are likely caused by marine ice ...


Glacier Changes Over The Past 144 Years At Alexandra Fiord, Ellesmere Island, Canada, Allison N. Curley, William Hardy Kochtitzky, Benjamin R. Edwards, Luke Copland 2021 Dickinson College

Glacier Changes Over The Past 144 Years At Alexandra Fiord, Ellesmere Island, Canada, Allison N. Curley, William Hardy Kochtitzky, Benjamin R. Edwards, Luke Copland

Faculty and Staff Publications By Year

In this study, we use aerial photographs, satellite imagery and field observations to quantify changes in the area, terminus length, snowline elevation and surface elevation of eight glaciers in the Alexandra Fiord region, eastern Ellesmere Island, between 1959 and 2019. Comparisons to written and pictorial descriptions from the British Arctic Expedition extend the record of change in terminus position and surface elevation to 1875 for Twin Glacier. Glacier area at Alexandra Fiord decreased by a total of 15.77 ± 0.65 km2 (11.77 ± 0.49%) between 1959 and 2019, the mean end of summer snowline increased in elevation ...


Rock Glaciers And Related Cold Rocky Landforms: Overlooked Climate Refugia For Mountain Biodiversity, Stefano Brighenti, Scott Hotaling, Debra S. Finn, Andrew G. Fountain, Masaki Hayashi, David Herbst, Jasmine E. Saros, Lusha M. Tronstad, Constance I. Millar 2021 Free University of Bozen-Bolzano

Rock Glaciers And Related Cold Rocky Landforms: Overlooked Climate Refugia For Mountain Biodiversity, Stefano Brighenti, Scott Hotaling, Debra S. Finn, Andrew G. Fountain, Masaki Hayashi, David Herbst, Jasmine E. Saros, Lusha M. Tronstad, Constance I. Millar

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Mountains are global biodiversity hotspots where cold environments and their associated ecological communities are predicted to be threatened by climate warming. Considerable research attention has been devoted to understanding the ecological effects of alpine glacier and snowfield recession. However, much less attention has been given to identifying climate refugia in mountain ecosystems where present-day environmental conditions will be maintained, at least in the near-term, as other habitats change. Around the world, montane communities of microbes, animals, and plants live on, adjacent to, and downstream of rock glaciers and related cold rocky landforms (CRL). These geomorphological features have been overlooked in ...


Temperature Variance Portends And Indicates The Extent Of Abrupt Climate Shifts, Christine Ramadhin, Chuixiang Yi, George Hendrey 2021 CUNY Queens College

Temperature Variance Portends And Indicates The Extent Of Abrupt Climate Shifts, Christine Ramadhin, Chuixiang Yi, George Hendrey

Publications and Research

Here, we show a discernable increase in temperature variance before a glacial termination by both the Ansari-Bradley test and the moving variance methods plus introduce the idea that there is a correlation between the peak variance and peak temperature increase. The behavior of temperature variance shows potential as a useful tool in analyzing time series data of Earth systems to assess the risk and extent of an upcoming abrupt climate transition.


Carbonaceous Matter In The Atmosphere And Glaciers Of The Himalayas And The Tibetan Plateau: An Investigative Review, Chaoliu Li, Fangping Yan, Shichang Kang, Caiqing Yan, Zhaofu Hu, Pengfei Chen, Shaopeng Gao, Chao Zhang, Cenlin He, Susan Kaspari, Aron Stubbins 2021 Chinese Academy of Sciences

Carbonaceous Matter In The Atmosphere And Glaciers Of The Himalayas And The Tibetan Plateau: An Investigative Review, Chaoliu Li, Fangping Yan, Shichang Kang, Caiqing Yan, Zhaofu Hu, Pengfei Chen, Shaopeng Gao, Chao Zhang, Cenlin He, Susan Kaspari, Aron Stubbins

Geological Sciences Faculty Scholarship

Carbonaceous matter, including organic carbon (OC) and black carbon (BC), is an important climate forcing agent and contributes to glacier retreat in the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau (HTP). The HTP – the so-called “Third Pole” – contains the most extensive glacial area outside of the polar regions. Considerable research on carbonaceous matter in the HTP has been conducted, although this research has been challenging due to the complex terrain and strong spatiotemporal heterogeneity of carbonaceous matter in the HTP. A comprehensive investigation of published atmospheric and snow data for HTP carbonaceous matter concentration, deposition and light absorption is presented, including how ...


Model Data For 'Co2 And Tectonic Controls On Antarctic Climate And Ice-Sheet Evolution In The Mid-Miocene', Anna Ruth Halberstadt 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Model Data For 'Co2 And Tectonic Controls On Antarctic Climate And Ice-Sheet Evolution In The Mid-Miocene', Anna Ruth Halberstadt

Data and Datasets

This is the data repository associated with the manuscript "CO2 and Tectonic Controls on Antarctic Climate and Ice-Sheet Evolution in the Mid-Miocene" containing all model output files relevant to the project. We use an ensemble of asynchronously coupled climate - ice sheet - vegetation model simulations spanning a range of CO2 concentrations, Transantarctic Mountain uplift scenarios, and glacial/interglacial climatic conditions to identify climate and ice-sheet conditions consistent with Antarctic mid-Miocene terrestrial and marine geological records. Details about the content of the data repository can be found in the readme.txt file located in the repository.


Migration Of The Frozen/Melted Basal Boundary Linked To ~100 Kilometers Of Ice Margin Retreat, Western Greenland Ice Sheet, Aidan Ripley Stansberry 2021 University of Montana

Migration Of The Frozen/Melted Basal Boundary Linked To ~100 Kilometers Of Ice Margin Retreat, Western Greenland Ice Sheet, Aidan Ripley Stansberry

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

The geometry and thermal structure of western Greenland ice sheet have evolved over the last 11 kyr in response to Holocene climate. Evolution of the frozen and melted fractions of the bed associated with the ice sheet retreat over this time frame remains unclear. We address this question using a thermo-mechanically coupled flowline model to simulate a 11 kyr period of ice sheet retreat in west central Greenland. Our transient flow-line modeling includes high order stresses, thermally active bedrock, a well-informed climate that is constrained by an established record of ice margin retreat. We partition the transient heat balance into ...


Core Handling, Transportation And Processing For The South Pole Ice Core (Spicecore) Project, Joseph M. Souney, Mark S. Twickler, Murat Aydin, Eric J. Steig, T.J. Fudge, Leah V. Street, Melinda R. Nicewonger, Emma C. Kahle, Jay A. Johnson, Tanner W. Kuhl, Kimberly A. Casey, John M. Fegyveresi, Richard M. Nunn, Geoffrey M. Hargreaves 2020 Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space

Core Handling, Transportation And Processing For The South Pole Ice Core (Spicecore) Project, Joseph M. Souney, Mark S. Twickler, Murat Aydin, Eric J. Steig, T.J. Fudge, Leah V. Street, Melinda R. Nicewonger, Emma C. Kahle, Jay A. Johnson, Tanner W. Kuhl, Kimberly A. Casey, John M. Fegyveresi, Richard M. Nunn, Geoffrey M. Hargreaves

Earth Systems Research Center

An intermediate-depth (1751 m) ice core was drilled at the South Pole between 2014 and 2016 using the newly designed US Intermediate Depth Drill. The South Pole ice core is the highest-resolution interior East Antarctic ice core record that extends into the glacial period. The methods used at the South Pole to handle and log the drilled ice, the procedures used to safely retrograde the ice back to the National Science Foundation Ice Core Facility (NSF-ICF), and the methods used to process and sample the ice at the NSF-ICF are described. The South Pole ice core exhibited minimal brittle ice ...


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