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Analyzing Glacier Surface Motion Using Lidar Data, Jennifer W. Tellig, Craig Glennie, Andrew G. Fountain, David C. Finnegan 2017 University of Houston

Analyzing Glacier Surface Motion Using Lidar Data, Jennifer W. Tellig, Craig Glennie, Andrew G. Fountain, David C. Finnegan

Andrew G. Fountain

Understanding glacier motion is key to understanding how glaciers are growing, shrinking, and responding to changing environmental conditions. In situ observations are often difficult to collect and offer an analysis of glacier surface motion only at a few discrete points. Using light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data collected from surveys over six glaciers in Greenland and Antarctica, particle image velocimetry (PIV) was applied to temporally-spaced point clouds to detect and measure surface motion. The type and distribution of surface features, surface roughness, and spatial and temporal resolution of the data were all found to be important factors, which limited the ...


Investigation Of Wing Crack Formation With A Combined Phase-Field And Experimental Approach, Sanghyun Lee, Jacqueline E. Reber, Nicholas W. Hayman, Mary F. Wheeler 2017 University of Texas at Austin

Investigation Of Wing Crack Formation With A Combined Phase-Field And Experimental Approach, Sanghyun Lee, Jacqueline E. Reber, Nicholas W. Hayman, Mary F. Wheeler

Jacqueline Reber

Fractures that propagate off of weak slip planes are known as wing cracks and often play important roles in both tectonic deformation and fluid flow across reservoir seals. Previous numerical models have produced the basic kinematics of wing crack openings but generally have not been able to capture fracture geometries seen in nature. Here we present both a phase-field modeling approach and a physical experiment using gelatin for a wing crack formation. By treating the fracture surfaces as diffusive zones instead of as discontinuities, the phase-field model does not require consideration of unpredictable rock properties or stress inhomogeneities around crack ...


Toward The Development Of A 10be Chronology Of Glaciation In The Mosquito Range, Colorado: A Progress Report, Noah Bensen, Keith A. Brugger 2017 University of Minnesota, Morris

Toward The Development Of A 10be Chronology Of Glaciation In The Mosquito Range, Colorado: A Progress Report, Noah Bensen, Keith A. Brugger

Undergraduate Research Symposium 2017

The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the Rocky Mountain region occurred about 21 ka (20,000 years before present). However, dated glacial chronologies suggest that while LGM glacier advances in individual ranges in Colorado were somewhat synchronous, retreat from their maximum extents was asynchronous, varying between ~20 and 15 ka or later. The precise timing and spatial variation of glacier advance and retreat provides insights into LGM climate change and is necessary to calibrate climate models. To better understand the timing of the LGM in the Mosquito Range in Colorado, we collected 12 samples from granitic boulders on moraine crests ...


Gravity And Passive Seismic Methods Used Jointly For Understanding The Subsurface In A Glaciated Terrain: Dowling And Maple Grove Quadrangles, Barry County, Michigan, Scott A. Feldpausch 2017 Western Michigan University

Gravity And Passive Seismic Methods Used Jointly For Understanding The Subsurface In A Glaciated Terrain: Dowling And Maple Grove Quadrangles, Barry County, Michigan, Scott A. Feldpausch

Master's Theses

The Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) passive, single sensor seismic technique has been used together with gravimetry to study the topography hidden below the glacial drift of two 7.5’ quadrangles in Barry Co., MI. 265 stations were observed with both instruments along roads at nominal spacings of about 0.4 to 0.8 km. Occasional water wells and oil wells with documented penetrations of the base of glacial were used to calibrate the local power law regression calibration. This was also compared with the statewide calibration curve previously established. Results are presented as maps of Simple Bouguer Anomaly ...


Assessing Seasonal And Spatial Variability In The Hydrogeochemistry Of Glacial Meltwater In Iceland, Anisha Tuladhar 2017 Western Kentucky University

Assessing Seasonal And Spatial Variability In The Hydrogeochemistry Of Glacial Meltwater In Iceland, Anisha Tuladhar

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

A detailed comparative geochemical characterization of three different types of Iceland glacial systems was conducted during June, August, and October, 2016. The study was carried out at a total of 11 outlet glacier rivers flowing from the icecaps Vatnajökull, Eyjafjallajökull, and Mýrdalsjökull. A total of 75 grab samples were collected (25 for each sampling period). The hydrogeochemical variations of Icelandic glacial meltwater are influenced by volcanic activity, temporal changes, and geographical location, which differed between the sampling sites within the glaciers and icecaps. Lower pH range, and comparatively higher and variable specific conductivity, SO4, S and F is linked to ...


Analyzing Glacier Surface Motion Using Lidar Data, Jennifer W. Tellig, Craig Glennie, Andrew G. Fountain, David C. Finnegan 2017 University of Houston

Analyzing Glacier Surface Motion Using Lidar Data, Jennifer W. Tellig, Craig Glennie, Andrew G. Fountain, David C. Finnegan

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Understanding glacier motion is key to understanding how glaciers are growing, shrinking, and responding to changing environmental conditions. In situ observations are often difficult to collect and offer an analysis of glacier surface motion only at a few discrete points. Using light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data collected from surveys over six glaciers in Greenland and Antarctica, particle image velocimetry (PIV) was applied to temporally-spaced point clouds to detect and measure surface motion. The type and distribution of surface features, surface roughness, and spatial and temporal resolution of the data were all found to be important factors, which limited the ...


Utilizing Remote And Numerical Methods To Provide Constraints For The Seasonal Development And Topographic Profiles Of Rock Glaciers, Brett Oliver 2017 University of Colorado, Boulder

Utilizing Remote And Numerical Methods To Provide Constraints For The Seasonal Development And Topographic Profiles Of Rock Glaciers, Brett Oliver

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Rock glaciers represent the dynamic interaction between rock and ice in many alpine settings that lie below the Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA). These periglacial systems are formed by avalanched snow and debris from an overlying headwall, and are adorned with distinct topographic lobes collectively known as rumples. The central rock glacier of Mount Sopris presents a clear expression of rumples, where the structures are well-defined throughout the 1.8 km long glacier. In addition to clearly-expressed rumples, the accumulation area is constrained to a narrow bowl at the base of the headwall that is easy to identify. To inform our ...


Hall Basin And The Petermann Glacier, Nw Greenland: A Late Quaternary Provenance Glacial History, Blythe Befus 2017 University of Colorado, Boulder

Hall Basin And The Petermann Glacier, Nw Greenland: A Late Quaternary Provenance Glacial History, Blythe Befus

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Petermann Ice Tongue, located in the northwest region of Greenland, has experienced large caving events since 2010. It is one of the few remaining ice tongues and or ice shelves still present in Greenland. The Petermann Glacier and its ice tongue are important to study as little is known about their glacial history since the deglaciation that likely began in the early Holocene. Through analyzing two cores, 18GC in Hall Basin and 003TC/41GC/003PC in the Petermann Fjord, in conjunction with prior analysis of the HLY03-05GC core in Hall Basin (Jennings et al., 2011), a relative glacial history ...


Teleconnections In Steam: Antarctic Field-Camp Art, Craig Stevens, Gabby O'Connor 2016 National Institute for Water and Atmospheric Research; The University of Auckland, New Zealand; New Zealand Association of Scientists.

Teleconnections In Steam: Antarctic Field-Camp Art, Craig Stevens, Gabby O'Connor

The STEAM Journal

We describe a component of a multi-element STEAM collaboration looking to explore ideas around the life cycle of Antarctic sea ice. One of the intermediate phases of the work involved the scientist deploying partially pre-made art components. Results were modulated by weather and operational constraints and generated a sequence of images and recordings as well as greater understanding of the creative collaboration process.


Glacial Landscape Evolution By Subglacial Quarrying: A Multiscale Computational Approach, Sofie V. Ugelvig, David L. Egholm, Neal R. Iverson 2016 Aarhus University

Glacial Landscape Evolution By Subglacial Quarrying: A Multiscale Computational Approach, Sofie V. Ugelvig, David L. Egholm, Neal R. Iverson

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

Quarrying of bedrock is a primary agent of subglacial erosion. Although the mechanical theory behind the process has been studied for decades, it has proven difficult to formulate the governing principles so that large-scale landscape evolution models can be used to integrate erosion over time. The existing mechanical theory thus stands largely untested in its ability to explain postglacial topography. In this study we relate the physics of quarrying to long-term landscape evolution with a multiscale approach that connects meter-scale cavities to kilometer-scale glacial landscapes. By averaging the quarrying rate across many small-scale bedrock steps, we quantify how regional trends ...


Glaciers In Equilibrium, Mcmurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, Andrew G. Fountain, Hassan J. Basagic, Spencer Niebuhr 2016 Portland State University

Glaciers In Equilibrium, Mcmurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, Andrew G. Fountain, Hassan J. Basagic, Spencer Niebuhr

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

The McMurdo Dry Valleys are a cold, dry polar desert and the alpine glaciers therein exhibit small annual and seasonal mass balances, often


Modeling The Thickness Of Perennial Ice Covers On Stratified Lakes Of The Taylor Valley, Antarctica, Maciej K. Obryk, Peter T. Doran, Jared A. Hicks, Christopher P. McKay, John Charles Priscu 2016 Portland State University

Modeling The Thickness Of Perennial Ice Covers On Stratified Lakes Of The Taylor Valley, Antarctica, Maciej K. Obryk, Peter T. Doran, Jared A. Hicks, Christopher P. Mckay, John Charles Priscu

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

A 1-D ice cover model was developed to predict and constrain drivers of long-term ice thick-ness trends in chemically stratified lakes of Taylor Valley, Antarctica. The model is driven by surface ra-diative heat fluxes and heat fluxes from the underlying water column. The model successfully reproduced 16 a (between 1996 and 2012) of ice thickness changes for the west lobe of Lake Bonney (average ice thickness = 3.53 m) and Lake Fryxell (average ice thickness = 4.22 m). Long-term ice thick-ness trends require coupling with the thermal structure of the water column. The heat stored within the temperature maximum of ...


Montauk Point, An Essential Field Experience For Students In The New York City Area, Stanley Schleifer, Nazrul I. Khandaker, Keshaw Narine 2016 CUNY York College

Montauk Point, An Essential Field Experience For Students In The New York City Area, Stanley Schleifer, Nazrul I. Khandaker, Keshaw Narine

Publications and Research

Except for a thin strip of Proterozoic and Paleozoic metamorphic and igneous rock along its very western edge and an outcropping of coastal plain deposits along its northwestern edge, the surface of Long Island is immediately underlain by unconsolidated deposits consisting of moraines of glacial till, outwash plains of stratified drift, and beach and dune complex formed by wave action. Two very prominent features of the island are the Harbor Hill Moraine, which marks the southernmost extent of the last major advance of continental glacier ice in the New York area during the Pleistocene and the Ronkonkoma Moraine, which marks ...


Surficial Geology Of York College Campus (Queens) And Montauk Point (Long Island): An Open Access To Geoscience Education, Nazrul I. Khandaker, Stanley Schleifer, Krishna Mahabir, Erik Menjivar, Ality Aghedo, Dennis Baidoo, Tenzin Choeying, Vanessa Erwin, Jonathan Xavier, Laboni Molla, Akeed Alrubay 2016 CUNY York College

Surficial Geology Of York College Campus (Queens) And Montauk Point (Long Island): An Open Access To Geoscience Education, Nazrul I. Khandaker, Stanley Schleifer, Krishna Mahabir, Erik Menjivar, Ality Aghedo, Dennis Baidoo, Tenzin Choeying, Vanessa Erwin, Jonathan Xavier, Laboni Molla, Akeed Alrubay

Publications and Research

To evaluate compositional and textural differences among the samples collected from York College (YC) campus (Queens), Montauk Point (MP) and Hither Hills (HH), Long Island, emphasis is given to the general geologic setting, overall grain size distribution, and relative abundances of light and heavy mineral assemblages. Geologic setting encompasses outwash plains (York College), fluvioglacial and glacial (Montauk Point) and beach and dune complex (Hither Hills). YC samples were collected from depth ranging 40 cm to 250 cm and are mostly an assortment of medium to coarse sand, granule to cobble sized, minor silt, and clay. Presence of low angle cross ...


Investigation Of Wing Crack Formation With A Combined Phase-Field And Experimental Approach, Sanghyun Lee, Jacqueline E. Reber, Nicholas W. Hayman, Mary F. Wheeler 2016 University of Texas at Austin

Investigation Of Wing Crack Formation With A Combined Phase-Field And Experimental Approach, Sanghyun Lee, Jacqueline E. Reber, Nicholas W. Hayman, Mary F. Wheeler

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

Fractures that propagate off of weak slip planes are known as wing cracks and often play important roles in both tectonic deformation and fluid flow across reservoir seals. Previous numerical models have produced the basic kinematics of wing crack openings but generally have not been able to capture fracture geometries seen in nature. Here we present both a phase-field modeling approach and a physical experiment using gelatin for a wing crack formation. By treating the fracture surfaces as diffusive zones instead of as discontinuities, the phase-field model does not require consideration of unpredictable rock properties or stress inhomogeneities around crack ...


Rate-Weakening Drag During Glacier Sliding, Lucas K. Zoet, Neal R. Iverson 2016 University of Wisconsin-Madison

Rate-Weakening Drag During Glacier Sliding, Lucas K. Zoet, Neal R. Iverson

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

Accurately specifying the relationship between basal drag on a hard, rough glacier bed and sliding speed is a long-standing and central challenge in glaciology. Drag on a rigid bed consisting of steps with linear treads inclined upglacier—a good idealization for the bedrock morphology of some hard-bedded glaciers—has been considered in sliding theories but never studied empirically. Balancing forces parallel to step treads indicates that drag should be independent of sliding speed and cavity size and set by the limit-equilibrium condition sometimes called Iken's bound. In this study we used a large ring-shear device to slide ice at ...


Linking In-Situ Data With Remote Sensing To Analyze Tropical Glacier Stability And Retreat In The Cordillera Blanca, Peru, Chandler H. Santos 2016 Western Kentucky University

Linking In-Situ Data With Remote Sensing To Analyze Tropical Glacier Stability And Retreat In The Cordillera Blanca, Peru, Chandler H. Santos

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Glaciers are a major source of freshwater around the world, but they are melting at an increased rate due to atmospheric warming resulting from anthropogenic climate change. In addition to temperature increases, light-absorbing particulates on glaciers also are contributing to glacial melt. This research examines how black carbon, released into the air through partial combustion of biofuels, is affecting the surface albedo of glaciers. I also delineate possible sources of black carbon in the Cordillera Blanca region of Peru. Ground data were collected each year from 2011 to 2013 during the local dry season. Effective black carbon (eBC) values were ...


Trajectory Analysis Of Black Carbon In The Arctic Region, Kimberly Gottschalk 2016 Portland State University

Trajectory Analysis Of Black Carbon In The Arctic Region, Kimberly Gottschalk

PSU McNair Scholars Online Journal

Black carbon (BC) is a troubling particulate. Commonly known as soot, BC forms through the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biofuels, and biomass. It has a very low albedo compared to natural particulates making it a very efficient absorber of solar radiation. As BC is deposited on snow and ice, albedo is decreased - enhancing solar heating and increasing meltwater production. With rising air temperatures, melting rates of polar ice are increasing and are being enhanced by BC, leading to accelerated global sea level rise.

This study aimed to document sources and deposition areas of BC in the Arctic. Utilizing HySplit ...


Late Holocene Climate And Environmental Reconstruction Derived From The Asian Ice Core Array (Aica), Bjorn Grigholm 2016 Climate Change Institution

Late Holocene Climate And Environmental Reconstruction Derived From The Asian Ice Core Array (Aica), Bjorn Grigholm

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Recent climate change has impacted natural and human systems across the Earth, emphasizing the need for greater understanding of both the existing and changing natural and anthropogenic forcing mechanisms and subsequent responses of the Earth’s climate system. High-resolution, multi-parameter ice core records retrieved and analyzed from two Asian Ice Core Array (AICA) sites, Geladaindong (central Tibetan Plateau) and Inilchek (central Tien Shan) were utilized to reconstruct atmospheric chemical concentrations and composition over the past ~100-500 years, improving the understanding of late Holocene climate and environmental variability in Asia. Both ice cores were analyzed for major and trace elements, major ...


Effects Of Changes In Moisture Source And The Upstream Rainout On Stable Isotopes In Precipitation – A Case Study In Nanjing, Eastern China, Y. Tang, H. Pang, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Shuang-Ye Wu, S. Hou 2016 Nanjing University

Effects Of Changes In Moisture Source And The Upstream Rainout On Stable Isotopes In Precipitation – A Case Study In Nanjing, Eastern China, Y. Tang, H. Pang, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Shuang-Ye Wu, S. Hou

Shuang-ye Wu

In the Asian monsoon region, variations in the stable isotopic composition of speleothems have often been attributed to the "amount effect". However, an increasing number of studies suggest that the "amount effect" in local precipitation is insignificant or even non-existent. To explore this issue further, we examined the variability of daily stable isotopic composition (δ18O) in precipitation from September 2011 to November 2014 in Nanjing, eastern China. We found that intra-seasonal variations of δ18O during summer were not significantly correlated with local rainfall amount but could be linked to changes in the moisture source location and rainout processes in the ...


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