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Cover Crops/Annuals And Grazing, Roger Staff 2017 US Department of Agriculture

Cover Crops/Annuals And Grazing, Roger Staff

Kentucky Grazing Conference

The use of annual forages (cover crops), both summer and winter, have been utilized for several years. When cover crops first were used to extend the grazing season, it began with one to three species in a mixture. That was before the soil health benefits were being observed and discussed as they are now. There have been a wide variety of planting methods used: airplanes, helicopters, conventional and No-till drills. Some seeding methods is simply broadcast on the soils surface and lightly tilled in or just rained in depending upon the weather. Then we discovered the herbicides and amounts used ...


Mitigating The Challenges Of Grazing Lush, Spring Forages, W. Travis Meteer 2017 University of Illinois

Mitigating The Challenges Of Grazing Lush, Spring Forages, W. Travis Meteer

Kentucky Grazing Conference

During the winter season most cattle are supplemented with dry forages, grains, and co-products. This ration is balanced and delivered to cattle. Then spring comes along and cattle are put out to grass. While green grass solves a lot of problems associated with winter feeding (manure, pen maintenance, calf health, and labor demands), it can pose nutritional challenges. Lush, spring forage has three major challenges when it comes to meeting cattle nutrition requirements.


Seedhead Suppression In Tall Fescue With Chaparral Herbicide, E. S. Flynn, P. B. Burch 2017 University of Kentucky

Seedhead Suppression In Tall Fescue With Chaparral Herbicide, E. S. Flynn, P. B. Burch

Kentucky Grazing Conference

Tall Fescue (Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.)) is cool-season perennial grass found in pastures throughout the Eastern US, most commonly in the transition zone. It’s tolerance to extreme temperatures, drought, poor soil fertility, heavy grazing, and pests have made it a reliable forage base for livestock pastures. Released in 1943, ‘KY-31’ tall fescue was quickly adopted by cattle producers and now inhabits an estimated 40 million acres in the US.

Soon after its adoption, cattle producers began to notice a reduction in animal performance and signs that animals were heat stressed following tall fescue consumption. These symptoms were an indication of ...


Fescue Tolerance Testing, Monty Kerley 2017 University of Missouri

Fescue Tolerance Testing, Monty Kerley

Kentucky Grazing Conference

Fescue toxicosis is characterized by clinical symptoms such as vasoconstriction, immunosuppression, and poor thermoregulation. Fescue toxins bind to membrane receptors of cells that control constriction of blood through capillaries responsible for heat dissipation. When cattle consume toxic tall fescue, they lose ability to move blood to their skin where heat can be lost to the environment. As they lose this ability they become more prone to heat stress. In the winter, this lack of blood flow leads to other clinical symptoms, such as fescue foot and loss of tail switch, that occur from restricted blood flow.


Research Update: Beef Cattle Management Considerations For Grazing Tall Fescue, Frank Ireland 2017 University of Illinois

Research Update: Beef Cattle Management Considerations For Grazing Tall Fescue, Frank Ireland

Kentucky Grazing Conference

It has been reported that 8 million beef cattle graze an estimated 35 million acres of endophyte-infected tall fescue in the United States with the majority of tall fescue being produced in the Midwest and southeastern regions of the United States. In the presence of the endophytic fungus, ergot alkaloids are present that when consumed by beef cattle results in decreased animal performance as measured in reduced weight gains, lower body condition scores, decreased conception rates, rough hair coats and the inability to regulate body temperatures. It has been estimated that this loss in animal performance accounts for a $600 ...


In Defense Of Soil Health, Allen R. Williams 2017 University of Kentucky

In Defense Of Soil Health, Allen R. Williams

Kentucky Grazing Conference

Soil health is a hot topic today in sustainable agriculture circles and is even becoming more popular in conventional agriculture. However, the term is often thrown around loosely, and sometimes the meaning gets muddled.


Foreword And Conference Information [2017], Matt Bunger 2017 University of Kentucky

Foreword And Conference Information [2017], Matt Bunger

Kentucky Grazing Conference

This is the front matter of the proceedings.


Closing The Water Budget In An Experimental Urban Watershed: A Comparative Assessment Of Methods For Measuring Evapotranspiration, Leana M. Weissberg, Gaboury Benoit 2017 Yale University

Closing The Water Budget In An Experimental Urban Watershed: A Comparative Assessment Of Methods For Measuring Evapotranspiration, Leana M. Weissberg, Gaboury Benoit

Yale Day of Data

No abstract provided.


Upscaling Stem To Community-Level Transpiration For Two Sand-Fixing Plants: Salix Gordejevii And Caragana Microphylla, Limin Duan, Yang Li, Xue Yan, Tingxi Liu, Xixi Wang 2017 Old Dominion University

Upscaling Stem To Community-Level Transpiration For Two Sand-Fixing Plants: Salix Gordejevii And Caragana Microphylla, Limin Duan, Yang Li, Xue Yan, Tingxi Liu, Xixi Wang

Civil & Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications

The information on transpiration is vital for sustaining fragile ecosystem in arid/semiarid environment, including the Horqin Sandy Land (HSL) located in northeast China. However, such information is scarce in existing literature. The objectives of this study were to: (1) measure sap flow of selected individual stems of two sand-fixing plants, namely Salix gordejevii and Caragana microphylla, in HSL; and (2) upscale the measured stem-level sap flow for estimating the community-level transpiration. The measurements were done from 1 May to 30 September 2015 (i.e., during the growing season). The upscaling function was developed to have one dependent variable, namely ...


Surface Soil Moisture Dynamics From Remote Sensing, Modeling, And In Situ Observations, Peter Judd Shellito 2017 University of Colorado at Boulder

Surface Soil Moisture Dynamics From Remote Sensing, Modeling, And In Situ Observations, Peter Judd Shellito

Geological Sciences Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Soil moisture content plays a central role in the coupled water and energy exchange between the land surface and the atmosphere. It also controls infiltration rates and is therefore key to predicting groundwater recharge and discharge. Land Surface Models (LSMs) use meteorologic data with parameterizations of local soil and vegetation conditions to simulate soil moisture, runoff, and turbulent fluxes. Accurate predictions of droughts, floods, crop productivity, and climate change depend on our ability to understand and model the state and dynamics of surface soil moisture.

Satellite-based remote sensing missions provides global coverage and therefore offer the potential to improve existing ...


Soil Response To Cropping Sequences And Grazing Under Integrated Crop-Livestock System, Hanxiao Feng 2017 South Dakota State

Soil Response To Cropping Sequences And Grazing Under Integrated Crop-Livestock System, Hanxiao Feng

Theses and Dissertations

Integrated crop-livestock system (ICLS) is helpful in diversifying a farm for improving its long-term sustainability and economic benefits. In the United States, the ICLS has been increasing in recent years because of its economic and environmental benefits. However, the impacts of ICLS on soil quality is not well documented in North Dakota. The objective of our study is to assess the impacts of cropping sequences and cattle grazing on the selected soil properties in the crop diversity and livestock integration practice. This study site was established in 2010 at the Dickinson Research Extension Center, Dickinson, North Dakota. The study design ...


The Optical Trapezoid Model: A Novel Approach To Remote Sensing Of Soil Moisture Applied To Sentinel-2 And Landsat-8 Observations, Morteza Sadeghi, Ebrahim Babaeian, Markus Tuller, Scott B. Jones 2017 Utah State University

The Optical Trapezoid Model: A Novel Approach To Remote Sensing Of Soil Moisture Applied To Sentinel-2 And Landsat-8 Observations, Morteza Sadeghi, Ebrahim Babaeian, Markus Tuller, Scott B. Jones

Plants, Soils, and Climate Faculty Publications

The “trapezoid” or “triangle” model constitutes the most popular approach to remote sensing (RS) of surface soil moisture based on coupled thermal (i.e., land surface temperature) and optical RS observations. The model, hereinafter referred to as Thermal-Optical TRAapezoid Model (TOTRAM), is based on interpretation of the pixel distribution within the land surface temperature - vegetation index (LST-VI) space. TOTRAM suffers from two inherent limitations. It is not applicable to satellites that do not provide thermal data (e.g., Sentinel-2) and it requires parameterization for each individual observation date. To overcome these restrictions we propose a novel OPtical TRApezoid Model (OPTRAM ...


Measuring Soil Electrical Conductivity To Delineate Zones Of Variability In Production Fields, Gretchen Sassenrath, S. Kulesza 2017 Kansas State University

Measuring Soil Electrical Conductivity To Delineate Zones Of Variability In Production Fields, Gretchen Sassenrath, S. Kulesza

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Production fields in southeast Kansas are highly variable. Differences in elevation and changes in soil texture contribute to unevenness in plant-available moisture and nutrients, resulting in significant inconsistencies in crop production and yield within a field. These variabilities complicate management and impact the return on investments from different areas of the field. Identification of the regions of variability is possible through several methods, including visual inspection, remote imagery, and yield maps. An additional method of assessing soil variability is by measuring the electrical conductivity of the soil. Measuring apparent electrical conductivity gives a map of the spatial distribution of soil ...


The Use Of Bokashi As A Soil Fertility Amendment In Organic Spinach Cultivation, Dana Mae Christel 2017 University of Vermont

The Use Of Bokashi As A Soil Fertility Amendment In Organic Spinach Cultivation, Dana Mae Christel

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Soil fertility management presents the organic farmer with assorted challenges. Organic farmers generally don't follow the typical nutrient prescription approach for fertilizing crops as their conventional counterparts do, having to respond to criteria established by the USDA National Organic Program (NOP). Instead they aim towards improving the organic matter and biological activity of soil. Often this is achieved through the use of composts, either made on farm or purchased. Yet, composting presents challenges to the farmer too, requiring considerable land base, specialized equipment, and attention to various parameters to ensure compost meets NOP standards. There are alternatives to composts ...


Key Components Of Healthy Soils And Their Role In Crop Production, C. J. Hsiao, Gretchen Sassenrath, Charles Rice, L. Zeglin, G. Hettiarachchi 2017 Kansas State University

Key Components Of Healthy Soils And Their Role In Crop Production, C. J. Hsiao, Gretchen Sassenrath, Charles Rice, L. Zeglin, G. Hettiarachchi

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Soil health is a confusing term that means different things to different people. To a crop producer, healthy soils are critical for good crop growth and yield. Some soil properties include soil texture, such as the relative percentage of sand, silt and clay; the water content; nutrient levels; organic carbon content; the microbial community; and microbial activity. These properties are determinants of soil health. Our research confirmed that changes in soil management affect the composition and activity of soil microorganisms in surface soils. Greater concentrations of microbial biomass and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) in the no-till agricultural system indicated healthier ...


Restoration And Novel Community Structure: Investigation Of A Restored Prairie In Boulder, Colorado, Marguerite Behringer 2017 University of Colorado, Boulder

Restoration And Novel Community Structure: Investigation Of A Restored Prairie In Boulder, Colorado, Marguerite Behringer

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Factors that contribute to long-term persistence of restored natural areas remain largely unstudied. In Boulder, Colorado, a tallgrass prairie was mined and used as a gravel pit for 50 years before it was drilled with native grass species in 1998. The ecosystem was then allowed to revegetate without intervention. A study in 2004 investigated the sensitivity of plant community structure to nutrient manipulations. Authors of the study argued that low carbon and nitrogen levels at this site contributed to a novel, low-diversity plant community that was resistant to invasion by nonnative species. I reassessed the site in 2016 to determine ...


A New Data Set For Assessing The Cold Content Of The Rocky Mountain West Snowpack, Jeffrey Schmidt 2017 University of Colorado, Boulder

A New Data Set For Assessing The Cold Content Of The Rocky Mountain West Snowpack, Jeffrey Schmidt

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Abstract

Snowpack cold content (CCsnow) is the energy required to bring a snowpack to an isothermal temperature of 0.0°C. CCsnow is a snow characteristic that integrates the response of a snowpack to components of the snow-cover energy balance. An improved understanding of the spatiotemporal variability of CCsnow may provide insight into dynamics and sensitivity of the snowpack to climate change. In this study, snowpit observations of snow water equivalent (SWE), snow temperature (Tsnow) and snow density (⍴snow) from the United States Geologic Survey Rocky Mountain Snowpack Chemistry Program (USGS RMS) were used to evaluate ...


The Impacts Of Soil Properties On Mixed Conifer Seedling Recruitment In The Post-Fire Environment Of Eastern Oregon, Leah Bollin 2017 University of Colorado, Boulder

The Impacts Of Soil Properties On Mixed Conifer Seedling Recruitment In The Post-Fire Environment Of Eastern Oregon, Leah Bollin

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Climate change is increasing the frequency and severity of fires, especially in the Western United States, making it pertinent that tree regeneration rates and causes are understood. The goal of this research is to assess the impacts of post-fire environments on seedling regeneration in dry conifer forest of eastern Oregon’s Blue Mountain Ecoregion. Specifically, I seek to determine whether soil properties determine successful seedling recruitment. In the summer of 2016, sixty-eight soil samples from across four different fires in the Blue Mountain Ecoregion were collected to analyze for total carbon, total nitrogen, and pH. The soil variables were compared ...


Using Thermal Infrared Imagery To Estimate Soil Hydraulic Parameters: A Novel Approach, Matthew B. Thomas 2017 University of Montana, Missoula

Using Thermal Infrared Imagery To Estimate Soil Hydraulic Parameters: A Novel Approach, Matthew B. Thomas

Undergraduate Theses and Professional Papers

In this study, skin temperature measured with a thermal infrared (TIR) camera was used to estimate soil hydraulic parameters. These physical properties that control how soils transport and retain water are notoriously difficult to measure in the field due to spatial variability. Laboratory experiments were set up to record surface skin temperature response in a clean soil column using a TIR camera after an artificial wetting event. An array of thermocouples, a net radiometer, heat flux sensor and weather station were used to constrain the TIR data and the energy budget during the experiment. The soil column surface was then ...


The Potential For Phosphorus Release From Floodplain Soils: Temporal Variability And Management Strategies, Megan Amanda Reavis 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Potential For Phosphorus Release From Floodplain Soils: Temporal Variability And Management Strategies, Megan Amanda Reavis

Theses and Dissertations

Soils may contain large amounts of legacy phosphorus (P) due to past application of excess fertilizers, releasing P during runoff and flood events. As the level of P in soils increases, the release of P from the soils increases, but the temporal fluctuations of this release are not well known. Experiments were conducted to examine 1) the variability of soluble reactive P (SRP) release from the soil throughout a year and 2) the effect of repeated flooding and drying cycles on release rates. Soil cores were collected 7 times throughout a year from 2 sites within the Watershed Research and ...


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