Extremely High Diversity Of Sulfate Minerals In Caves Of The Irazú Volcano (Costa Rica) Related To Crater Lake And Fumarolic Activity, Andrés Ulloa, Fernando Gázquez, Aurelio Sanz-Arranz, Jesús Medina, Fernando Rull, José María Calaforra, Guillermo E. Alvarado, María Martínez, Geoffroy Avard, J. Maarten De Moor, Jo De Waele
International Journal of Speleology
The caves of the Irazú volcano (Costa Rica), became accessible after the partial collapse of the NW sector of the Irazú volcano in 1994, offering the opportunity to investigate active minerogenetic processes in volcanic cave environments. We performed a detailed mineralogical and geochemical study of speleothems in the caves Cueva los Minerales and Cueva Los Mucolitos, both located in the northwest foothills of the main crater. Mineralogical analyses included X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy, while geochemical characterization used Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) coupled to Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). In addition, measurements of environmental parameters in the caves, cave ...
Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender
Student Theses 2015-Present
This paper aims to shed light on the dissonance caused by the superimposition of Dominant Human Systems on Natural Systems. I highlight the synthetic nature of Dominant Human Systems as egoic and linguistic phenomenon manufactured by a mere portion of the human population, which renders them inherently oppressive unto peoples and landscapes whose wisdom were barred from the design process. In pursuing a radical pragmatic approach to mending the simultaneous oppression and destruction of the human being and the earth, I highlight the necessity of minimizing entropic chaos caused by excess energy expenditure, an essential feature of systems that aim ...
Hydrothermal Alteration At Devil's Kitchen In The Lassen Volcanic National Park: A Mars Analogue, 2018 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
Hydrothermal Alteration At Devil's Kitchen In The Lassen Volcanic National Park: A Mars Analogue, Andy Wanta
Theses and Dissertations
The Devil’s Kitchen hydrothermal site, within the Lassen Volcanic National Park, has hydrothermal features that cover a wide range of pH conditions (2-7). Analysis of mineral precipitates, hot spring mud, unaltered substrate rock, and hot spring and meteoric water reveal a wide variety of alteration minerals, geochemical conditions, and water chemistry. Mineral suites included primary igneous phases, silica phases, clay minerals, and sulfate phases. Aluminum sulfates are the dominant sulfate species present with abundant Na+, Fe3+, and Ca2+ sulfate phases and less common K+ sulfates. Amorphous silica precipitates were observed in three samples from a near-neutral hot spring and ...
Multivariate Spectral Analysis Of Crism Data To Characterize The Composition Of Mawrth Vallis, 2018 Wesleyan University
Multivariate Spectral Analysis Of Crism Data To Characterize The Composition Of Mawrth Vallis, Melissa Luna
No abstract provided.
Diamond Intracrystalline Stable Isotope Chemical Image Analysis By Time-Of-Flight Secondary Ionization Mass Spectrometery, 2018 Missouri State University
Diamond Intracrystalline Stable Isotope Chemical Image Analysis By Time-Of-Flight Secondary Ionization Mass Spectrometery, Tyler J. Sundell
MSU Graduate Theses
The chemical resistance of diamond allows in-situ study of the diamond source regions. For a majority of gem quality diamonds, this source region is the sublithospheric mantle keel of a cratonic nuclei. Through analysis of stable isotopes, radiogenic isotopes and trace elements, diamond geochemical analyses can define chemical fluxes in the mantle keel. However, such studies require multiple methodologies for each chemical suite, high spatial resolution and analytical precision. Here, I evaluate Time-of-Flight Secondary Ionization Mass Spectrometer (ToF-SIMS) as an alternative method for diamond geochemical analyses. ToF-SIMS analysis can perform in cation and anion mode to measure the entire periodic ...
Deformation Of Fine-Grained Quartz Aggregates By Mixed Diffusion And Dislocation Creep, 2017 University of Akron
Deformation Of Fine-Grained Quartz Aggregates By Mixed Diffusion And Dislocation Creep, Junichi Fukuda, Caleb Holyoke, Andreas Kronenberg
No abstract provided.
De Paepe, Duane - Collector (Mss 625), 2017 Western Kentucky University
De Paepe, Duane - Collector (Mss 625), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives
MSS Finding Aids
Finding aid only for Manuscripts Collection 625. The Duane De Paepe Kentucky Cave Saltpetre History Research Collection, a collection of historical research, field notes, cave surveys, photographs, maps, reports, and scholarly writing on saltpetre mining in Kentucky, especially at Mammoth Cave. The collection was created under a research program sponsored by the Cave Research Foundation and the National Geographic Society in Kentucky, 1976-1980, and directed by De Paepe.
Phase Transitions In Mgsio3 Post-Perovskite In Super-Earth Mantles, 2017 Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory
Phase Transitions In Mgsio3 Post-Perovskite In Super-Earth Mantles, Koichiro Umemoto, Renata M. Wentzcovitch, Shunqing Wu, Min Ji, Cai-Zhuang Wang, Kai-Ming Ho
Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts
The highest pressure form of the major Earth-forming mantle silicate is MgSiO3 post-perovskite (PPv). Understanding the fate of PPv at TPa pressures is the first step for understanding the mineralogy of super-Earths-type exoplanets, arguably the most interesting for their similarities with Earth. Modeling their internal structure requires knowledge of stable mineral phases, their properties under compression, and major element abundances. Several studies of PPv under extreme pressures support the notion that a sequence of pressure induced dissociation transitions produce the elementary oxides SiO2 and MgO as the ultimate aggregation form at ∼3 TPa. However, none of these studies have addressed ...
Faust, Burton Sherwood, 1898-1967 (Mss 620), 2017 Western Kentucky University
Faust, Burton Sherwood, 1898-1967 (Mss 620), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives
MSS Finding Aids
Finding aid only for Manuscripts Collection 620. Correspondence, research notes, drafts, photographs, reference works and bibliographic material of Burton S. Faust relating to his studies of the chemical, historical and cultural aspects of saltpetre and of spelean saltpetre mining in the United States.
Further Study Of Garnet Xenocrysts In New York City Migmatites, 2017 York College CUNY
Further Study Of Garnet Xenocrysts In New York City Migmatites, Stanley Schleifer, Nazrul I. Khandaker
Publications and Research
The authors have previously published an article at the 2004 Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Petrogenetic Significance of Garnets in the Bedrock of New York City, in which they suggested that the garnet xenocrysts observed in the quartzofeldspathic zones of the migmatites, so frequently seen both at the surface, and below the surface pursuant to the construction of the Manhattan portion of New york City Water Tunnel #3, were a refractory residue of the anatectic melting of the immediately surrounding schistose bedrock. Although the relatively high melting point temperature of garnet compared to other minerals in the surrounding schists ...
Eureka! Discovering A New Mineral: Meralaniite, 2017 Michigan Technological University
Eureka! Discovering A New Mineral: Meralaniite, John A. Jaszczak
A series of serendipitous events and four years of collaborative research has led to the discovery and description of a new mineral- merelaniite. It is a natural nanocomposite composed primarily of MoS2 and PbS layers from the famous tanzanite gem mines in northern Tanzania. It's crystal structure and chemistry is unusual and complex, and forms unusual silvery, scroll-like whiskers. It was selected by the International Mineralogical Association as the 2016 Mineral of the Year.
A Geophysical Analysis Of The Great Falls Tectonic Zone And The Surrounding Area, Montana Usa, 2017 Missouri State University
A Geophysical Analysis Of The Great Falls Tectonic Zone And The Surrounding Area, Montana Usa, Travis Lane Fultz
MSU Graduate Theses
The Great Falls Tectonic Zone (GFTZ) is a northeast trending zone of high angle faults and lineaments extending from northeastern Idaho into Saskatchewan, Canada. The GFTZ is believed to have facilitated the collision between the Archean Wyoming and Hearne cratons. Previous geophysical studies have analyzed seismic refraction data across the boundary between the Paleoproterozoic GFTZ and Archean Wyoming Craton (WC), this indicated the lower crustal layer thickens as it dips beneath the boundary towards the WC. In this study, three 2 dimensional (2D) gravity models that crossed the central region of the GFTZ were produced using constraints from existing geologic ...
Experimental Studies Of Electrical Resistivity Behavior Of Cu, Zn And Co Along Their Melting Boundaries: Implications For Heat Flux At Earth’S Inner Core Boundary, 2017 The University of Western Ontario
Experimental Studies Of Electrical Resistivity Behavior Of Cu, Zn And Co Along Their Melting Boundaries: Implications For Heat Flux At Earth’S Inner Core Boundary, Innocent Chinweikpe Ezenwa
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
The electrical resistivity of high purity Cu, Zn and Co has been measured at pressures (P) up to 5GPa and at temperatures (T) in the liquid phase. The electrical resistivity of solid state Nb was also measured up to 5GPa and ~1900K. All measurements were made in a large volume cubic anvil press. Using two thermocouples placed at opposite ends of the sample wire, serving as temperature probes as well as resistance leads, a four-wire technique resistivity measurement was employed along with a polarity switch. Post-experiment compositional analyses were carried out on an electron microprobe.
The expected resistivity decrease ...
Bat Urea-Derived Minerals In Arid Environment. First Identification Of Allantoin, C4H6N4O3, In Kahf Kharrat Najem Cave, United Arab Emirates, 2017 University of Nice Sophia-Antipolis
Bat Urea-Derived Minerals In Arid Environment. First Identification Of Allantoin, C4H6N4O3, In Kahf Kharrat Najem Cave, United Arab Emirates, Philippe Audra, Pavel Bosák, Fernando Gázquez, Didier Cailhol, Roman Skála, Lenka Lisá, Šárka Jonášová, Amos Frumkin, Martin Knez, Tadej Slabe, Nadja Zupan Hajna, Asma Al-Farraj
International Journal of Speleology
Kahf Kharrat Najem Cave is a small cave in United Arab Emirates (UAE) that hosts a bat colony which is the source of guano deposits and peculiar centimeter-long yellowish stalactites. The mineralogy and geochemistry of these deposits were analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic microanalysis (EDX), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and stable isotope composition (δ13C and δ15N). Urea CO(NH2)2 was found to be the main compound of these stalactites, while allantoin C4H6N4O3 was found to be an accessory urea byproduct. This paper ...
Murray Energy Corporation V. Mccarthy, 2017 University of Montana School of Law
Murray Energy Corporation V. Mccarthy, Sarah M. Danno
Public Land & Resources Law Review
Holding that the widespread effects of environmental regulation on the coal industry constituted sufficient importance, the Northern District of West Virginia ordered the Environmental Protection Agency to conduct analysis on employment loss and plant reduction resulting from regulatory effects. In admonishing the EPA’s inaction, the court ruled that the Agency had a non-discretionary duty to evaluate employment and plant reduction. Furthermore, the court held that the EPA’s attempt to put forth general reports in place of required evaluations was an invalid attempt to circumvent its statutory duty.
Secondary Minerals From Salt Caves In The Atacama Desert (Chile): A Hyperarid And Hypersaline Environment With Potential Analogies To The Martian Subsurface, Jo De Waele, Cristina Carbone, Laura Sanna, Marco Vattano, Ermanno Galli, Francesco Sauro, Paolo Forti
International Journal of Speleology
Over the past 15 years several expeditions by French, American and especially Italian cavers have unveiled over 50 caves in the Cordillera de la Sal (Atacama Desert, Northern Chile). Many of these caves contain a variety of speleothems and minerals, some of which have rarely been observed within karst systems. Most of the secondary deposits in these caves are composed of halite, but also other halide, carbonate, sulphate, nitrate, phosphate, and silicate minerals have been found. Among the sixteen cave mineral species recognized, atacamite, darapskite, blödite, leonite, anhydrite, and especially antarcticite are worth mentioning. In one of the samples an ...
Geochemical And Mineralogical Analyses Of Cold Spring Deposits From Borup Fiord Pass, A Sulfur-Dominated Arctic Analog For Planetary Environments On Mars And Europa, 2017 University of Colorado at Boulder
Geochemical And Mineralogical Analyses Of Cold Spring Deposits From Borup Fiord Pass, A Sulfur-Dominated Arctic Analog For Planetary Environments On Mars And Europa, Graham Elliot Lau
Geological Sciences Graduate Theses & Dissertations
Sulfur is one of the most ubiquitous elements in the universe and one of those that is crucial for life, as we know it. This graduate dissertation presents the culmination of work conducted to better understand biological and geochemical processes related to sulfur cycling at a sulfur-dominated field site in the Canadian High Arctic. This site, situated in a valley called Borup Fiord Pass, provides a unique environment where sulfide-rich fluids emerge from a glacier and form large deposits of ice that become covered in elemental sulfur. The role of biology is compelling and yet challenging to define in each ...
Quartz Crystal Preferred Orientation And Recrystallization Patterns From Naturally Deformed Rocks Under Constriction, 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Quartz Crystal Preferred Orientation And Recrystallization Patterns From Naturally Deformed Rocks Under Constriction, Riley Quine
This study analyzes crystal preferred orientation (CPO) patterns within constrictional quartz-rich gneisses. Quartz deformation and CPO patterns are an area of interest because quartz is one of the most prevalent minerals in earth's crust. Understanding the typical way that quartz crystals reorient under different states of strain can provide geologists with an additional tool for understanding paleo-strain. Temperature and strain geometry are two dominant factors that control the orientation of quartz crystals within a rock. Temperature determines which slip planes are active and slip planes typically reorient so that they are perpendicular to maximum stress. Previous workers have suggested ...
Investigating Mineral Stability Under Venus Conditions: A Focus On The Venus Radar Anomalies, 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Investigating Mineral Stability Under Venus Conditions: A Focus On The Venus Radar Anomalies, Erika Kohler
Theses and Dissertations
Radar studies of the surface of Venus have identified regions with high radar reflectivity concentrated in the Venusian highlands: between 2.5 and 4.75 km above a planetary radius of 6051 km, though it varies with latitude. Previous research has proposed several theories on the source of these anomalies, including increased surface roughness, metallic materials with higher dielectric constants, or ferroelectric materials. Prior work suggests several processes that could be the origin of these anomalies, such as surface-atmospheric interactions or low lying clouds or fog. Alternatively, these anomalies could result from a semi-metallic compound trapped at the cooler conditions ...
Growth Of Synthetic Silver Wires From Natural Acanthite, 2016 Cedarville University
Growth Of Synthetic Silver Wires From Natural Acanthite, Calvin J. Anderson
The Research and Scholarship Symposium
Wire silver is an unusual crystal habit of native silver which is intimately associated with acanthite (Ag2S). These delicate wires have been collected for several centuries, but much remains unknown regarding their growth mechanism and crystal structure. This study has successfully produced synthetic silver wires from natural acanthite in order to investigate the nature of their crystallinity.
Chunks of crude acanthite crystals from the Hongda mine, Shanxi Province, China, were trimmed into roughly 1 cm chunks for growth experiments. Preexisting silver wires, which appeared to be natural, were avoided.
Several techniques were explored with varying degrees of success. Attempts using ...