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Heat Flow In The Core Of Ganymede: High Pressure-Temperature Electrical Resistivity Measurements Of Solid And Liquid Ag And Fe-S Alloys, Joshua A.H. Littleton 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Heat Flow In The Core Of Ganymede: High Pressure-Temperature Electrical Resistivity Measurements Of Solid And Liquid Ag And Fe-S Alloys, Joshua A.H. Littleton

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Experimental investigations of materials at high pressures (P) and temperatures (T) provide insight into the properties and behaviours expected within the inaccessible interiors of planetary bodies. Using a four-wire electrical resistance technique, the electrical resistivity (ρ) of 4d transition metal (Ag) and 3d transition metal alloys (Fe-S) were measured in the solid and molten states at high P. The thermal conductivity (κ) of these materials is inversely proportional to ρ, as described by the Wiedemann-Franz Law. When applied to planetary cores, κ is an important parameter that regulates heat transport mechanisms and magnetic field production.

A hypothesis of ‘resistivity invariance ...


Investigation Of The Energy Source For An Early Dynamo In Vesta From Experiments On Electrical Resistivity Of Liquid Fe-10wt%Ni At High Pressures, Eric M. Lenhart 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Investigation Of The Energy Source For An Early Dynamo In Vesta From Experiments On Electrical Resistivity Of Liquid Fe-10wt%Ni At High Pressures, Eric M. Lenhart

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Investigation of energy sources in an early dynamo in Vesta has been carried out using high pressure-temperature experimental studies. Electrical resistivity of Fe‐10wt%Ni was measured at 2-5 GPa up to 2082 K in the liquid state and compared to previous results of pure Fe and pure Ni. Thermal conductivity was calculated from electrical resistivity to determine adiabatic core heat flux. The results are applied to determine whether thermal convection could be responsible for the putative dynamo in early Vesta’s core. An adiabatic core heat flux of ~300 MW at the top of Vesta’s core is estimated ...


The Physical Properties Of Volcanic And Impact Melt, Gavin Douglas Tolometti 2021 The University of Western Ontario

The Physical Properties Of Volcanic And Impact Melt, Gavin Douglas Tolometti

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The emplacement mechanisms of lunar impact melt flows, that form from hypervelocity impact events, have been a subject of debate in the lunar science community, because of their unique physical properties that separate them from other geologic features. Understanding how lunar impact melt flows were emplaced on the surface of the Moon will not only grant us new information about the flow dynamics of impact melt but provide insight into the production and distribution of impact melt and how it built and modified the surfaces of planetary surfaces.

Lunar impact melt flows exhibit surface roughness textures and morphologies that are ...


Rare And Critical Metals In Pyrite, Chalcopyrite, Magnetite, And Titanite From The Vathi Porphyry Cu-Au±Mo Deposit, Northern Greece, Christos L. Stergiou, Vasilios Melfos, Panagiotis Voudouris, Lambrini Papadopoulou, Paul G. Spry, Irena Peytcheva, Dimitrina Dimitrova, Elitsa Stefanova, Katerina Giouri 2021 Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

Rare And Critical Metals In Pyrite, Chalcopyrite, Magnetite, And Titanite From The Vathi Porphyry Cu-Au±Mo Deposit, Northern Greece, Christos L. Stergiou, Vasilios Melfos, Panagiotis Voudouris, Lambrini Papadopoulou, Paul G. Spry, Irena Peytcheva, Dimitrina Dimitrova, Elitsa Stefanova, Katerina Giouri

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

The Vathi porphyry Cu-Au±Mo deposit is located in the Kilkis ore district, northern Greece. Hydrothermally altered and mineralized samples of latite and quartz monzonite are enriched with numerous rare and critical metals. The present study focuses on the bulk geochemistry and the mineral chemistry of pyrite, chalcopyrite, magnetite, and titanite. Pyrite and chalcopyrite are the most abundant ore minerals at Vathi and are related to potassic, propylitic, and sericitic hydrothermal alterations (A- and D-veins), as well as to the late-stage epithermal overprint (E-veins). Magnetite and titanite are found mainly in M-type veins and as disseminations in the potassic-calcic alteration ...


Ultralow Velocities Of Caco3 And The Origin Of Seismic Anomalies In The Earth's Upper Mantle, Mingqiang Hou, Ming Hao, Jin Liu, Xiaowan Su, Wen-Yi Zhou, Rostislav Hrubiak, Jin S. Zhang 2021 University of New Mexico

Ultralow Velocities Of Caco3 And The Origin Of Seismic Anomalies In The Earth's Upper Mantle, Mingqiang Hou, Ming Hao, Jin Liu, Xiaowan Su, Wen-Yi Zhou, Rostislav Hrubiak, Jin S. Zhang

Earth and Planetary Sciences Faculty and Staff Publications

Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is a major host for CO2 in the deep Earth. The physical and chemical properties of CaCO3 at extreme pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions are indispensable to decipher the circulation of carbon between the Earth's interior and surface via volcanism and subduction. Using the pulse-echo-overlap method combined with Paris-Edinburgh press, we measured velocities of CaCO3 and observed an anomalous drop associated with the amorphization of aragonite under upper mantle conditions. The compressional (VP) and shear (VS) wave velocities of the partially amorphized CaCO3 are reduced by ~35% and 52% respectively, at ...


Equation Of State For Natural Almandine, Spessartine, Pyrope Garnet: Implications For Quartz-In-Garnet Elastic Geobarometry, Suzanne R. Mulligan, Elissaios Stavrou, Stella Chariton, Oliver Tschauner, Ashkan Salamat, Michael Wells, Alexander G. Smith, Thomas D. Hoisch, Vitali Prakapenka 2021 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Equation Of State For Natural Almandine, Spessartine, Pyrope Garnet: Implications For Quartz-In-Garnet Elastic Geobarometry, Suzanne R. Mulligan, Elissaios Stavrou, Stella Chariton, Oliver Tschauner, Ashkan Salamat, Michael Wells, Alexander G. Smith, Thomas D. Hoisch, Vitali Prakapenka

Geoscience Faculty Publications

The equation of state (EoS) of a natural almandine74spessartine13pyrope10grossular3 garnet of a typical composition found in metamorphic rocks in Earth’s crust was obtained using single crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction under isothermal room temperature compression. A third-order Birch-Murnaghan EoS was fitted to P-V data and the results are compared with published EoS for iron, manganese, magnesium, and calcium garnet compositional end-members. This comparison reveals that ideal solid solution mixing can reproduce the EoS for this intermediate composition of garnet. Additionally, this new EoS was used to calculate geobarometry on a garnet sample from the same rock, which was collected from ...


Bat Guano Minerals And Mineralization Processes In Chameau Cave, Eastern Morocco, Philippe Audra, Vasile Heresanu, Lionel Barriquand, Mohamed El Kadiri Boutchich, Stephane Jaillet, Edwige Pons-Branchu, Pavel Bosak, Hai Cheng, R Lawrence Edwards, Michel Renda 2021 University of Nice Sophia Antipolis (France)

Bat Guano Minerals And Mineralization Processes In Chameau Cave, Eastern Morocco, Philippe Audra, Vasile Heresanu, Lionel Barriquand, Mohamed El Kadiri Boutchich, Stephane Jaillet, Edwige Pons-Branchu, Pavel Bosak, Hai Cheng, R Lawrence Edwards, Michel Renda

International Journal of Speleology

The decay of bat guano deposits in caves produces mineral accumulations, mainly phosphates and secondary sulfates. Chameau Cave, Eastern Morocco, is located in the semi-arid Bni Snassen Mountains. It is composed of semi-active and dry passages, and is featured by strong condensation-corrosion on the walls, presence of fluvial sediments, and old corroded flowstones. Due to forced and convective airflow, the cave is generally very dry, with some damp sites related to condensation. Samples collected on the surface of different passages and along two sediment profiles yielded minerals related to bat guano decay. On recent or fresh guano, precursor minerals correspond ...


Frozen In Time: A Numerical Modeling Approach To The Study Of Ice Bearing Planetesimals Through Carbonaceous Chondrites, Jasmine M. Bayron 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Frozen In Time: A Numerical Modeling Approach To The Study Of Ice Bearing Planetesimals Through Carbonaceous Chondrites, Jasmine M. Bayron

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Icy planetesimals are significant objects of study for meteoritics, planetary science, and astrobiology due to their connections to the origins of life and liquid water on Earth. An existing closed system aqueous alteration model was adapted to simulate several scenarios involving early Solar System geologic processes occurring in an icy planetesimal interior. The model described in this work has been developed not only to test the validity of constraints currently thought to apply to CM1 parent bodies, but to directly compare the implications of these constraints for the isotopic composition and the modal mineralogy of carbonaceous chondrites. Isotopic ratios of ...


The Lavrion Mines: A Unique Site Of Geological And Mineralogical Heritage, Panagiotis Voudouris, Vasilios Melfos, Constantinos Mavrogonatos, Adonis Photiades, Eugenia Moraiti, Branko Rieck, Uwe Kolitsch, Alexandre Tarantola, Christophe Scheffer, Denis Morin, Olivier Vanderhaeghe, Paul G. Spry, James Ross, Konstantinos Soukis, Markos Vaxevanopoulos, Igor V. Pekov, Nikita V. Chukanov, Andreas Magganas, Marianna Kati, Athanasios Katerinopoulos, Stefanos Zaimis 2021 National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

The Lavrion Mines: A Unique Site Of Geological And Mineralogical Heritage, Panagiotis Voudouris, Vasilios Melfos, Constantinos Mavrogonatos, Adonis Photiades, Eugenia Moraiti, Branko Rieck, Uwe Kolitsch, Alexandre Tarantola, Christophe Scheffer, Denis Morin, Olivier Vanderhaeghe, Paul G. Spry, James Ross, Konstantinos Soukis, Markos Vaxevanopoulos, Igor V. Pekov, Nikita V. Chukanov, Andreas Magganas, Marianna Kati, Athanasios Katerinopoulos, Stefanos Zaimis

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

The Lavrion area corresponds to the western part of the Attic-Cycladic metamorphic belt, in the back-arc region of the active Hellenic subduction zone. Between the Eocene and the Miocene, metamorphic rocks (mainly marbles and schists) underwent several stages of metamorphism and deformation due to collision and collapse of the Cycladic belt. Exhumation during the Miocene was accommodated by the movement of a large-scale detachment fault system, which also enhanced emplacement of magmatic rocks, leading to the formation of the famous Lavrion silver deposits. The area around the mines shows the stacking of nappes, with ore deposition mainly localized within the ...


The Geology, Geochemistry, And Origin Of The Porphyry Cu-Au-(Mo) System At Vathi, Serbo-Macedonian Massif, Greece, Christos L. Stergiou, Vasilios Melfos, Panagiotis Voudouris, Paul G. Spry, Lambrini Papadopoulou, Alexandros Chatzipetros, Katerina Giouri, Constantinos Mavrogonatos, Anestis Filippidis 2021 University of Thessaloniki

The Geology, Geochemistry, And Origin Of The Porphyry Cu-Au-(Mo) System At Vathi, Serbo-Macedonian Massif, Greece, Christos L. Stergiou, Vasilios Melfos, Panagiotis Voudouris, Paul G. Spry, Lambrini Papadopoulou, Alexandros Chatzipetros, Katerina Giouri, Constantinos Mavrogonatos, Anestis Filippidis

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

The Vathi porphyry Cu-Au ± Mo mineralization is located in the Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province of the Western Tethyan Metallogenic Belt. It is mainly hosted by a latite and is genetically associated with a quartz monzonite intrusion, which intruded the basement rocks of the Vertiskos Unit and the latite, 18 to 17 Ma ago. A phreatic breccia crosscuts the latite. The quartz monzonite was affected by potassic alteration, whereas the latite was subjected to local propylitic alteration. Both styles of alteration were subsequently overprinted by intense sericitic alteration. M-type and A-type veins are spatially associated with potassic alteration, whereas D-type veins are ...


The Effects Of Heterogeneities And Syn-Deformational Partial Melting On Rock Strength Evolution And Melt Migration, Nicole Wagner 2021 The University of Akron

The Effects Of Heterogeneities And Syn-Deformational Partial Melting On Rock Strength Evolution And Melt Migration, Nicole Wagner

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

In nature, the segregation of granitic melts at the source may be controlled by fabric and compositional heterogeneities in the source rock, such as foliation and lineation. To investigate the influence of foliation/lineation orientation and composition on rock strength and melt interconnectivity, I performed a series of experiments on cores of a fine-grained gneiss (Gneiss Minuti) and a fine-grained muscovite-bearing quartzite (Moine Thrust quartzite). These rocks were cored at six primary orientations parallel, 45 degrees, and perpendicular to the foliation and lineation and were deformed at a constant temperature of 900°C, pressure of ~2 GPa, and strain rate ...


Analysis Of Water Concentration Formed Within Deformed Synthetic Quartz Crystals, Andrew Steward 2021 The University of Akron

Analysis Of Water Concentration Formed Within Deformed Synthetic Quartz Crystals, Andrew Steward

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Analyzing the strength of synthetic quartz is essential to understanding the strength of natural milky quartz, which likely controls the strength of Earth’s continental crust. Synthetic quartz is sometimes used for deformation experiments because it has a homogenous water distribution unlike natural milky quartz. The purpose of this study is to determine if annealing synthetic quartz at T = 600°C will convert the water in synthetic quartz to free water, like milky quartz, but with little water loss. Following two annealing experiments at Texas A&M University, I performed four annealing experiments to measure the water content of five ...


Local Structure And Dynamic Studies Of Mixed Ch4-Co2 Gas Hydrates Via Computational Simulation And Neutron Scattering, Bernadette Rita Cladek 2020 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Local Structure And Dynamic Studies Of Mixed Ch4-Co2 Gas Hydrates Via Computational Simulation And Neutron Scattering, Bernadette Rita Cladek

Doctoral Dissertations

Permeated throughout the ocean floor and arctic permafrost, natural gas hydrates contain an estimated 3000 trillion cubic meters, over three times that of traditional shale deposits, of CH4 that is accessible for extraction. Gas hydrates are a crystal structure in which water molecules form a cage network, the host, through hydrogen bonds while trapping a guest molecule such as CH4 in the cavities. These compounds form naturally where the appropriate low temperature and high pressure conditions occur. A promising and tested method of methane recovery is through exchange with CO2, which energetically takes place of the methane ...


Framework Grain Composition And Texture Of The Wedington Sandstone Member, Fayetteville Shale, As A Provenance And Sediment Dispersal Indicator For Clastic Depositional Systems Across The Northern Arkansas Structural Platform During The Late Mississippian, Tanner Wayne Corbin 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Framework Grain Composition And Texture Of The Wedington Sandstone Member, Fayetteville Shale, As A Provenance And Sediment Dispersal Indicator For Clastic Depositional Systems Across The Northern Arkansas Structural Platform During The Late Mississippian, Tanner Wayne Corbin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Wedington Sandstone Member of the Fayetteville Shale is a constructive delta complex in the Chesterian section of the Late Mississippian record in Northwest Arkansas. A comparative analysis of framework grain composition between the Wedington and two other stratigraphically proximal Carboniferous sandstones: the Batesville Sandstone (older) and the Basal Atoka-Spiro Sandstone (younger) has addressed three questions: 1) Is there similarity in sediment provenance for the three sandstones? 2) Do these three sandstone units have a similar sediment dispersal vector? 3) What are likely sediment source terrains for the Wedington Sandstone? Wedington samples overwhelmingly plot as quartzarenites with fewer samples plotting ...


Structure Analysis Of Natural Wangdaodeite—Linbo3-Type Fetio3, Oliver Tschauner, Chi Ma, Matthew G. Newville, Antonio Lanzirotti 2020 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Structure Analysis Of Natural Wangdaodeite—Linbo3-Type Fetio3, Oliver Tschauner, Chi Ma, Matthew G. Newville, Antonio Lanzirotti

Geoscience Faculty Publications

© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This paper reports the first structure refinement of natural wangdaodeite, LiNbO3-type FeTiO3 from the Ries impact structure. Wangdaodeite occurs together with recrystallized ilmenite clasts in shock melt veins which have experienced peak shock pressures of between 17 and 22 GPa. Comparison of natural and synthetic wangdaodeite points toward a correlation between the distortion of ferrate-and titanate-polyhedra and the c/a ratio of the unit cell. The Raman spectrum of wangdaodeite is calculated based on the refined structure. Comparison to the reported spectrum of the type-material shows that the Raman peak at 738 ...


Multi-Stage Introduction Of Precious And Critical Metals In Pyrite: A Case Study From The Konos Hill And Pagoni Rachi Porphyry/Epithermal Prospects, Ne Greece, Constantinos Mavrogonatos, Panagiotis Voudouris, Federica Zaccarini, Stephan Klemme, Jasper Berndt, Alexandre Tarantola, Vasilios Melfos, Paul G. Spry 2020 National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

Multi-Stage Introduction Of Precious And Critical Metals In Pyrite: A Case Study From The Konos Hill And Pagoni Rachi Porphyry/Epithermal Prospects, Ne Greece, Constantinos Mavrogonatos, Panagiotis Voudouris, Federica Zaccarini, Stephan Klemme, Jasper Berndt, Alexandre Tarantola, Vasilios Melfos, Paul G. Spry

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

The Konos Hill and Pagoni Rachi porphyry-epithermal prospects in northeastern Greece are characterized by abundant pyrite that displays important textural and geochemical variations between the various ore stages. It is commonly fine-grained and anhedral in the porphyry-related mineralization (M- and D-type veins), while it forms idiomorphic, medium- to coarse-grained crystals in the late, epithermal style veins (E-type). Porphyry-style pyrite from both prospects is characterized by an enrichment in Co, Se, Cu, and minor Zn, and a depletion in other trace elements, like Bi, Mo, Ag, etc. Pyrite in epithermal-style mineralization is mostly characterized by the presence of As, Bi, Pb ...


Comparative Geochemical Analysis Of Ordovician And Mississippian Cherts In Relation To The Northern Arkansas And The Tri-State Mississippi Valley-Type Ore Districts, Jonathan T. Chick 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Comparative Geochemical Analysis Of Ordovician And Mississippian Cherts In Relation To The Northern Arkansas And The Tri-State Mississippi Valley-Type Ore Districts, Jonathan T. Chick

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

It has been hypothesized that Ordovician, Mississippian, and younger carbonate and clastic formations found within the Ouachita Basin of west-central Arkansas and northward onto the Ozark Dome have experienced interaction with hydrothermal fluids due to tectonic forces produced by the Ouachita Orogeny. Lead (Pb) isotope analyses and resulting values produced through previous and concurrent geochemical studies of several formations indicate that the Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) ores were produced from a mixing and cooling of these sedimentary basinal brines by meteoric or connate waters. Reduction of sulfate to sulfide is one of the possible mechanisms by which MVT ore precipitation may ...


Structure-Strength Relations Of Distinct Mon Phases From First-Principles Calculations, Cheng Lu, Changfeng Chen 2020 China University of Geosciences

Structure-Strength Relations Of Distinct Mon Phases From First-Principles Calculations, Cheng Lu, Changfeng Chen

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

Molybdenum mononitrides (MoN) exhibit superior strength and hardness among the large class of transition-metal light-element compounds, but the underlying atomistic mechanisms for their outstanding mechanical properties and the variations of those properties among various MoN phases adopting different crystal structures remain largely unexplored and require further investigation. Here we report first-principles calculations that examine the stress-strain relations of these materials, and systematically compare results under pure and indentation shear deformations. In particular, we examine the distinct bonding structures and the associated mechanical properties in four different crystal phases of MoN that have been experimentally synthesized and stabilized under various physical ...


Indentation-Strain Stiffening In Tungsten Nitrides: Mechanisms And Implications, Cheng Lu, Changfeng Chen 2020 China University of Geosciences

Indentation-Strain Stiffening In Tungsten Nitrides: Mechanisms And Implications, Cheng Lu, Changfeng Chen

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

We report on a systematic computational study of ideal strengths, i.e., the lowest stresses needed to destabilize a perfect crystal under a variety of loading conditions for six stable and metastable tungsten nitrides identified by advanced crystal structure search algorithms. We employ first-principles calculations to determine stress-strain relations and examine the corresponding atomistic bonding changes for a microscopic understanding of the structural deformation modes. The obtained results show that, in stark contrast to many previously studied transition-metal borides, carbides, and also most nitrides, the tungsten nitrides exhibit surprisingly broad and common patterns of strain-stiffening effects under indentation strains. These ...


Mineralogical Constraints On The Potassic And Sodic-Calcic Hydrothermal Alteration And Vein-Type Mineralization Of The Maronia Porphyry Cu-Mo ± Re ± Au Deposit In Ne Greece, Vasilios Melfos, Panagiotis Voudouris, Margarita Melfou, Matías G. Sánchez, Lambrini Papadopoulou, Anestis Filippidis, Paul G. Spry, Anna Schaarschmidt, Reiner Klemd, Karsten M. Haase, Alexandre Tarantola, Constantinos Mavrogonatos 2020 Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

Mineralogical Constraints On The Potassic And Sodic-Calcic Hydrothermal Alteration And Vein-Type Mineralization Of The Maronia Porphyry Cu-Mo ± Re ± Au Deposit In Ne Greece, Vasilios Melfos, Panagiotis Voudouris, Margarita Melfou, Matías G. Sánchez, Lambrini Papadopoulou, Anestis Filippidis, Paul G. Spry, Anna Schaarschmidt, Reiner Klemd, Karsten M. Haase, Alexandre Tarantola, Constantinos Mavrogonatos

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

The Maronia Cu-Mo ± Re ± Au deposit is spatially related to a microgranite porphyry that intruded an Oligocene monzonite along the Mesozoic Circum-Rhodope belt in Thrace, NE Greece. The magmatic rocks and associated metallic mineralization show plastic and cataclastic features at the south-eastern margin of the deposit that implies emplacement at the ductile-brittle transition, adjacent to a shear zone at the footwall of the Maronia detachment fault. The conversion from ductile to brittle deformation caused a rapid upward magmatic fluid flow and increased the volume of water that interacted with the host rocks through high permeable zones, which produced extensive zones ...


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