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A Pressure And Stress Study Of Reidite, Gillian G. Noonan 2022 Western University

A Pressure And Stress Study Of Reidite, Gillian G. Noonan

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Zircon is a mineral that can commonly be found in many rocks in the Earth’s crust and other planetary bodies. Meteorite impact sites have also been shown to contain zircon and its high-pressure polymorph, Reidite.


Heat Flow In Terrestrial-Type Bodies From High P,T Electrical Resistivity Measurements Of Au, Fe-Si And Fe-Ni-Si Solid And Liquid Alloys, Meryem Berrada 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Heat Flow In Terrestrial-Type Bodies From High P,T Electrical Resistivity Measurements Of Au, Fe-Si And Fe-Ni-Si Solid And Liquid Alloys, Meryem Berrada

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The source of the fluid stirring mechanism that powers the dynamo of terrestrial-type bodies during their active magnetic field era is debated. Prior to the formation of a solid inner core, thermal convection may cause enough mechanical stirring of the core fluid to generate a magnetic field through dynamo action. After inner core formation, compositional convection in the liquid outer core becomes the main source of fluid stirring mechanism to power a dynamo. Constraints on the likelihood and duration of these convection mechanisms may be obtained by the experimental determination of the thermal properties of core materials. These cores consist ...


Using Geologic Principles And Data To Create A Symphony For Wind Ensemble, Thomas J. Davis 2022 Eastern Washington University

Using Geologic Principles And Data To Create A Symphony For Wind Ensemble, Thomas J. Davis

2022 Symposium

Geology and geologic processes have featured in many pieces of classical music such as Alan Hovhaness’ symphonic works after Mt. St. Helens and Glacier Peak but these pieces are impressionistic and only take general inspiration from the geology of their subjects. This paper describes the creation of Tectonics (2021) a piece which incorporates and describes many geologic principles and processes, such as mantle convection, through the musical form of cannon, the formation of fold and thrust belts whose cross sections are directly visually recreated in the score, and the physical dynamics of earthquake waves demonstrated through variations of pitch and ...


Pascoite Minerals And Potential Application Of Nmr Spectroscopy, Craig C. McLauchlan, Beth Trent-Ringer, Debbie C. Crans 2022 Illinois State University

Pascoite Minerals And Potential Application Of Nmr Spectroscopy, Craig C. Mclauchlan, Beth Trent-Ringer, Debbie C. Crans

Faculty Publications – Chemistry

The 20 minerals encompassing the pascoite family of decavanadate isopolyanion-containing [V10O28]6− minerals include a few minerals, such as rakovanite, that have been described as containing a protonated decavanadate anion. Rakovanite was originally assigned the formula Na3[H3V10O28]•15H2O and now is redefined with an ideal formula (NH4)3Na3[V10O28]•12H2O. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and particularly 51V NMR spectroscopy is an informative method used to describe the protonation state and speciation in both solid and solution states of materials ...


Heat Flow In The Core Of Ganymede: High Pressure-Temperature Electrical Resistivity Measurements Of Solid And Liquid Ag And Fe-S Alloys, Joshua A.H. Littleton 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Heat Flow In The Core Of Ganymede: High Pressure-Temperature Electrical Resistivity Measurements Of Solid And Liquid Ag And Fe-S Alloys, Joshua A.H. Littleton

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Experimental investigations of materials at high pressures (P) and temperatures (T) provide insight into the properties and behaviours expected within the inaccessible interiors of planetary bodies. Using a four-wire electrical resistance technique, the electrical resistivity (ρ) of 4d transition metal (Ag) and 3d transition metal alloys (Fe-S) were measured in the solid and molten states at high P. The thermal conductivity (κ) of these materials is inversely proportional to ρ, as described by the Wiedemann-Franz Law. When applied to planetary cores, κ is an important parameter that regulates heat transport mechanisms and magnetic field production.

A hypothesis of ‘resistivity invariance ...


Investigation Of The Energy Source For An Early Dynamo In Vesta From Experiments On Electrical Resistivity Of Liquid Fe-10wt%Ni At High Pressures, Eric M. Lenhart 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Investigation Of The Energy Source For An Early Dynamo In Vesta From Experiments On Electrical Resistivity Of Liquid Fe-10wt%Ni At High Pressures, Eric M. Lenhart

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Investigation of energy sources in an early dynamo in Vesta has been carried out using high pressure-temperature experimental studies. Electrical resistivity of Fe‐10wt%Ni was measured at 2-5 GPa up to 2082 K in the liquid state and compared to previous results of pure Fe and pure Ni. Thermal conductivity was calculated from electrical resistivity to determine adiabatic core heat flux. The results are applied to determine whether thermal convection could be responsible for the putative dynamo in early Vesta’s core. An adiabatic core heat flux of ~300 MW at the top of Vesta’s core is estimated ...


The Physical Properties Of Volcanic And Impact Melt, Gavin Douglas Tolometti 2021 The University of Western Ontario

The Physical Properties Of Volcanic And Impact Melt, Gavin Douglas Tolometti

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The emplacement mechanisms of lunar impact melt flows, that form from hypervelocity impact events, have been a subject of debate in the lunar science community, because of their unique physical properties that separate them from other geologic features. Understanding how lunar impact melt flows were emplaced on the surface of the Moon will not only grant us new information about the flow dynamics of impact melt but provide insight into the production and distribution of impact melt and how it built and modified the surfaces of planetary surfaces.

Lunar impact melt flows exhibit surface roughness textures and morphologies that are ...


Ultralow Velocities Of Caco3 And The Origin Of Seismic Anomalies In The Earth's Upper Mantle, Mingqiang Hou, Ming Hao, Jin Liu, Xiaowan Su, Wen-Yi Zhou, Rostislav Hrubiak, Jin S. Zhang 2021 University of New Mexico

Ultralow Velocities Of Caco3 And The Origin Of Seismic Anomalies In The Earth's Upper Mantle, Mingqiang Hou, Ming Hao, Jin Liu, Xiaowan Su, Wen-Yi Zhou, Rostislav Hrubiak, Jin S. Zhang

Earth and Planetary Sciences Faculty and Staff Publications

Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is a major host for CO2 in the deep Earth. The physical and chemical properties of CaCO3 at extreme pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions are indispensable to decipher the circulation of carbon between the Earth's interior and surface via volcanism and subduction. Using the pulse-echo-overlap method combined with Paris-Edinburgh press, we measured velocities of CaCO3 and observed an anomalous drop associated with the amorphization of aragonite under upper mantle conditions. The compressional (VP) and shear (VS) wave velocities of the partially amorphized CaCO3 are reduced by ~35% and 52% respectively, at ...


Equation Of State For Natural Almandine, Spessartine, Pyrope Garnet: Implications For Quartz-In-Garnet Elastic Geobarometry, Suzanne R. Mulligan, Elissaios Stavrou, Stella Chariton, Oliver Tschauner, Ashkan Salamat, Michael Wells, Alexander G. Smith, Thomas D. Hoisch, Vitali Prakapenka 2021 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Equation Of State For Natural Almandine, Spessartine, Pyrope Garnet: Implications For Quartz-In-Garnet Elastic Geobarometry, Suzanne R. Mulligan, Elissaios Stavrou, Stella Chariton, Oliver Tschauner, Ashkan Salamat, Michael Wells, Alexander G. Smith, Thomas D. Hoisch, Vitali Prakapenka

Geoscience Faculty Publications

The equation of state (EoS) of a natural almandine74spessartine13pyrope10grossular3 garnet of a typical composition found in metamorphic rocks in Earth’s crust was obtained using single crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction under isothermal room temperature compression. A third-order Birch-Murnaghan EoS was fitted to P-V data and the results are compared with published EoS for iron, manganese, magnesium, and calcium garnet compositional end-members. This comparison reveals that ideal solid solution mixing can reproduce the EoS for this intermediate composition of garnet. Additionally, this new EoS was used to calculate geobarometry on a garnet sample from the same rock, which was collected from ...


Bat Guano Minerals And Mineralization Processes In Chameau Cave, Eastern Morocco, Philippe Audra, Vasile Heresanu, Lionel Barriquand, Mohamed El Kadiri Boutchich, Stephane Jaillet, Edwige Pons-Branchu, Pavel Bosak, Hai Cheng, R Lawrence Edwards, Michel Renda 2021 University of Nice Sophia Antipolis (France)

Bat Guano Minerals And Mineralization Processes In Chameau Cave, Eastern Morocco, Philippe Audra, Vasile Heresanu, Lionel Barriquand, Mohamed El Kadiri Boutchich, Stephane Jaillet, Edwige Pons-Branchu, Pavel Bosak, Hai Cheng, R Lawrence Edwards, Michel Renda

International Journal of Speleology

The decay of bat guano deposits in caves produces mineral accumulations, mainly phosphates and secondary sulfates. Chameau Cave, Eastern Morocco, is located in the semi-arid Bni Snassen Mountains. It is composed of semi-active and dry passages, and is featured by strong condensation-corrosion on the walls, presence of fluvial sediments, and old corroded flowstones. Due to forced and convective airflow, the cave is generally very dry, with some damp sites related to condensation. Samples collected on the surface of different passages and along two sediment profiles yielded minerals related to bat guano decay. On recent or fresh guano, precursor minerals correspond ...


Frozen In Time: A Numerical Modeling Approach To The Study Of Ice Bearing Planetesimals Through Carbonaceous Chondrites, Jasmine M. Bayron 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Frozen In Time: A Numerical Modeling Approach To The Study Of Ice Bearing Planetesimals Through Carbonaceous Chondrites, Jasmine M. Bayron

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Icy planetesimals are significant objects of study for meteoritics, planetary science, and astrobiology due to their connections to the origins of life and liquid water on Earth. An existing closed system aqueous alteration model was adapted to simulate several scenarios involving early Solar System geologic processes occurring in an icy planetesimal interior. The model described in this work has been developed not only to test the validity of constraints currently thought to apply to CM1 parent bodies, but to directly compare the implications of these constraints for the isotopic composition and the modal mineralogy of carbonaceous chondrites. Isotopic ratios of ...


Ultralow Velocities Of Caco3 And The Origin Of Seismic Anomalies In The Earth's Upper Mantle, Mingqiang Hou, Ming Hao, Jin Liu, Xiaowan Su, Wen-Yi Zhou, Jin S. Zhang, Rostislav Hrubiak 2021 University of New Mexico

Ultralow Velocities Of Caco3 And The Origin Of Seismic Anomalies In The Earth's Upper Mantle, Mingqiang Hou, Ming Hao, Jin Liu, Xiaowan Su, Wen-Yi Zhou, Jin S. Zhang, Rostislav Hrubiak

Earth and Planetary Sciences Faculty and Staff Publications

Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is a major mineral host for CO2 in deep Earth. The physical and chemical properties of CaCO3 at extreme pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions are important for understanding the CO2 circulation between the Earth's surface and interior primarily via volcanism and subduction. Using the pulse-echo-overlap method combined with Paris-Edinburgh (PE) press, we measured velocities of CaCO3 under upper mantle conditions and observed an anomalous velocity drop associated with the amorphization of aragonite. The compressional (VP) and shear (VS) wave velocities of the partially amorphized CaCO3 are reduced by ~35% and ...


Analysis Of Water Concentration Formed Within Deformed Synthetic Quartz Crystals, Andrew Steward 2021 The University of Akron

Analysis Of Water Concentration Formed Within Deformed Synthetic Quartz Crystals, Andrew Steward

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Analyzing the strength of synthetic quartz is essential to understanding the strength of natural milky quartz, which likely controls the strength of Earth’s continental crust. Synthetic quartz is sometimes used for deformation experiments because it has a homogenous water distribution unlike natural milky quartz. The purpose of this study is to determine if annealing synthetic quartz at T = 600°C will convert the water in synthetic quartz to free water, like milky quartz, but with little water loss. Following two annealing experiments at Texas A&M University, I performed four annealing experiments to measure the water content of five ...


The Effects Of Heterogeneities And Syn-Deformational Partial Melting On Rock Strength Evolution And Melt Migration, Nicole Wagner 2021 The University of Akron

The Effects Of Heterogeneities And Syn-Deformational Partial Melting On Rock Strength Evolution And Melt Migration, Nicole Wagner

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

In nature, the segregation of granitic melts at the source may be controlled by fabric and compositional heterogeneities in the source rock, such as foliation and lineation. To investigate the influence of foliation/lineation orientation and composition on rock strength and melt interconnectivity, I performed a series of experiments on cores of a fine-grained gneiss (Gneiss Minuti) and a fine-grained muscovite-bearing quartzite (Moine Thrust quartzite). These rocks were cored at six primary orientations parallel, 45 degrees, and perpendicular to the foliation and lineation and were deformed at a constant temperature of 900°C, pressure of ~2 GPa, and strain rate ...


Local Structure And Dynamic Studies Of Mixed Ch4-Co2 Gas Hydrates Via Computational Simulation And Neutron Scattering, Bernadette Rita Cladek 2020 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Local Structure And Dynamic Studies Of Mixed Ch4-Co2 Gas Hydrates Via Computational Simulation And Neutron Scattering, Bernadette Rita Cladek

Doctoral Dissertations

Permeated throughout the ocean floor and arctic permafrost, natural gas hydrates contain an estimated 3000 trillion cubic meters, over three times that of traditional shale deposits, of CH4 that is accessible for extraction. Gas hydrates are a crystal structure in which water molecules form a cage network, the host, through hydrogen bonds while trapping a guest molecule such as CH4 in the cavities. These compounds form naturally where the appropriate low temperature and high pressure conditions occur. A promising and tested method of methane recovery is through exchange with CO2, which energetically takes place of the methane ...


Structure Analysis Of Natural Wangdaodeite—Linbo3-Type Fetio3, Oliver Tschauner, Chi Ma, Matthew G. Newville, Antonio Lanzirotti 2020 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Structure Analysis Of Natural Wangdaodeite—Linbo3-Type Fetio3, Oliver Tschauner, Chi Ma, Matthew G. Newville, Antonio Lanzirotti

Geoscience Faculty Publications

© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This paper reports the first structure refinement of natural wangdaodeite, LiNbO3-type FeTiO3 from the Ries impact structure. Wangdaodeite occurs together with recrystallized ilmenite clasts in shock melt veins which have experienced peak shock pressures of between 17 and 22 GPa. Comparison of natural and synthetic wangdaodeite points toward a correlation between the distortion of ferrate-and titanate-polyhedra and the c/a ratio of the unit cell. The Raman spectrum of wangdaodeite is calculated based on the refined structure. Comparison to the reported spectrum of the type-material shows that the Raman peak at 738 ...


Framework Grain Composition And Texture Of The Wedington Sandstone Member, Fayetteville Shale, As A Provenance And Sediment Dispersal Indicator For Clastic Depositional Systems Across The Northern Arkansas Structural Platform During The Late Mississippian, Tanner Wayne Corbin 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Framework Grain Composition And Texture Of The Wedington Sandstone Member, Fayetteville Shale, As A Provenance And Sediment Dispersal Indicator For Clastic Depositional Systems Across The Northern Arkansas Structural Platform During The Late Mississippian, Tanner Wayne Corbin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Wedington Sandstone Member of the Fayetteville Shale is a constructive delta complex in the Chesterian section of the Late Mississippian record in Northwest Arkansas. A comparative analysis of framework grain composition between the Wedington and two other stratigraphically proximal Carboniferous sandstones: the Batesville Sandstone (older) and the Basal Atoka-Spiro Sandstone (younger) has addressed three questions: 1) Is there similarity in sediment provenance for the three sandstones? 2) Do these three sandstone units have a similar sediment dispersal vector? 3) What are likely sediment source terrains for the Wedington Sandstone? Wedington samples overwhelmingly plot as quartzarenites with fewer samples plotting ...


Raman Spectroscopy And Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction Study Of Lunar And Terrestrial Plagioclase Feldspar At High-Pressure And High-Temperature Conditions, Tianqi Xie 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Raman Spectroscopy And Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction Study Of Lunar And Terrestrial Plagioclase Feldspar At High-Pressure And High-Temperature Conditions, Tianqi Xie

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Plagioclase feldspar is one of the abundant minerals on the surface of the Earth, the Moon and Mars, and is also commonly found in meteorites. This dissertation seeks to better understand the phase changes in plagioclase when subjected to meteorite impact and fundamental information about impact cratering process.

Shock features in plagioclase from Mistastin Lake impact structure, Canada, and Apollo samples returned from the Moon were investigated. A series of progressive optical shock features were observed, and their Raman spectra was collected systematically. Identified shock featurs include deformed twins, planar features, and partially to completely isotropic or diaplectic glass. However ...


Foliar Application Of Low Concentrations Of Titanium Dioxide And Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles To The Common Sunflower Under Field Conditions, Marek Kolenčík, Dávid Ernst, Martin Urík, Ľuba Ďurišová, Marek Bujdoš, Martin Šebesta, Edmund Dobročka, Samuel Kšiňan, Ramakanth Illa, Qian Yu, Huan Feng, Ivan Černý, Veronika Holišová, Gabriela Kratošová 2020 Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra

Foliar Application Of Low Concentrations Of Titanium Dioxide And Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles To The Common Sunflower Under Field Conditions, Marek Kolenčík, Dávid Ernst, Martin Urík, Ľuba Ďurišová, Marek Bujdoš, Martin Šebesta, Edmund Dobročka, Samuel Kšiňan, Ramakanth Illa, Qian Yu, Huan Feng, Ivan Černý, Veronika Holišová, Gabriela Kratošová

Department of Earth and Environmental Studies Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

Nano-fertilisers have only recently been introduced to intensify plant production, and there still remains inadequate scientific knowledge on their plant-related effects. This paper therefore compares the effects of two nano-fertilisers on common sunflower production under field conditions. The benefits arising from the foliar application of micronutrient-based zinc oxide fertiliser were compared with those from the titanium dioxide plant-growth enhancer. Both the zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) were delivered by foliar application in nano-size at a concentration of 2.6 mg·L−1. The foliar-applied nanoparticles (NPs) had good crystallinity and a mean size distribution under 30 nm ...


Storm Surges In The Bohai Sea: The Role Of Waves And Tides, Yuanyi Li, Huan Feng, Guillaume Vigouroux, Dekui Yuan, Guangyu Zhang, Xiaodi Ma, Kun Lei 2020 Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences

Storm Surges In The Bohai Sea: The Role Of Waves And Tides, Yuanyi Li, Huan Feng, Guillaume Vigouroux, Dekui Yuan, Guangyu Zhang, Xiaodi Ma, Kun Lei

Department of Earth and Environmental Studies Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

A storm surge is a complex phenomenon in which waves, tide and current interact. Even though wind is the predominant force driving the surge, waves and tidal phase are also important factors that influence the mass and momentum transport during the surge. Devastating storm surges often occur in the Bohai Sea, a semi-enclosed shallow sea in North China, due to extreme storms. However, the effects of waves on storm surges in the Bohai Sea have not been quantified and the mechanisms responsible for the higher surges that affect part of the Bohai Sea have not been thoroughly studied. In this ...


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