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Natural, Experimental, And Educational Explorations Of The Interiors Of Terrestrial Planetary Bodies, Nadine L. Grambling 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Natural, Experimental, And Educational Explorations Of The Interiors Of Terrestrial Planetary Bodies, Nadine L. Grambling

Doctoral Dissertations

Planetary interiors are enigmatic, inaccessible, and vital to the processes that have formed the rocks we see on the surface of bodies in the inner Solar System today. Based on geophysical explorations of the Moon and Earth, along with information gleaned from rocks at the surface today, there is understanding of the basic structure and processes at depth. Using a combination of natural samples and experimental studies, we attempt to learn more about the physical conditions beneath the surface, and their effect on material properties and tectonics processes in the mantle.

On Earth, mid-ocean ridge processes have long been debated, …


Security Of China’S Strategic And Critical Minerals Under Background Of Great Power Competition, Anjian WANG, Xiaojing YUAN 2022 Global Mineral Resources Strategy Research Center, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100037, China Institute of Mineral Resources, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100037, China

Security Of China’S Strategic And Critical Minerals Under Background Of Great Power Competition, Anjian Wang, Xiaojing Yuan

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

Strategic and critical minerals are a type of resource that is essential to the country's economic development, indispensable to strategic emerging industries, and closely related to geopolitics. The types of strategic and critical minerals show some laws of spatial-temporal evolution due to the different stages of national economic development, economic structure and global industrial division of labor. Especially since the new century, with the rapid development of strategic emerging industries such as information technology, artificial intelligence and renewable energy, the connotation of strategic critical minerals has been continuously extended and closely connected with the industrial chain, highlighting its important position …


Recycling Of Critical Metals In Green And Low-Carbon Transition: Strategies And Countermeasures, Gang LIU, Litao LIU, Xin OUYANG, Qiance LIU, Xiang LI, Qiang YAN 2022 College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China

Recycling Of Critical Metals In Green And Low-Carbon Transition: Strategies And Countermeasures, Gang Liu, Litao Liu, Xin Ouyang, Qiance Liu, Xiang Li, Qiang Yan

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

As green and low-carbon transition has gained world-wide recognition and become the inherent requirement of fully building a modern socialist China, the consumption of critical metals will increase drastically in the next decades. Meanwhile, this will mean a continually increasing potential of critical metals recycling. Facing changes and pandemic unseen in a century and increasing geopolitical conflicts, it has become a strategic consensus on the national security level for Western countries like the United States and Europe Union to acknowledge and enhance the role of recycling in secure provision of critical metals. Here, in this study, we have discussed the …


Challenges And Security Strategies Of China’S Critical Metals Supply For Carbon Neutrality Pledge, Weiqiang CHEN, Peng WANG, Weiqiong ZHONG 2022 CAS Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China Research Center for Strategy of Global Mineral Resources, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100037, China University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China

Challenges And Security Strategies Of China’S Critical Metals Supply For Carbon Neutrality Pledge, Weiqiang Chen, Peng Wang, Weiqiong Zhong

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

The grand transition to low-carbon energy system is essential to bend the growing carbon emission and further achieve the dual carbon goals. Critical metals such as rare earth elements, lithium, cobalt, nickel, and platinum are widely considered as the material base to support low-carbon technologies. However, given the supply of those metals are scarce and risky, the emerging conflicts between their supply and demand have spurred global attention and competition among countries. This study aims to explore the linkage between critical metals and low-carbon energy systems with a particular focus on the bottlenecks of China's supply chains of those critical …


Analysis Of Critical Mineral Strategies Of Us And Eu And Their Enlightenment To China, 2022 Chinese Academy of Sciences

Analysis Of Critical Mineral Strategies Of Us And Eu And Their Enlightenment To China

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

As the world's major consumers of critical minerals and China's primary competitors, US and the EU have developed comprehensive and systematic critical mineral strategies, which have significant impact on China's resource security. To assist in developing China's critical mineral strategy, by thoroughly examining the critical mineral strategies of US and EU, this study finds their strategic attempts to slow China's development, summarizes their characteristics in the preparation, implementation mechanism, and main strategic measures, and, based on this, proposes suggestions for raising the safety level of China's critical minerals.


China’S Rare Earth Supply And Demand Pattern And Balanced Utilization Strategy From Perspective Of Elements, Tao DAI, Tianming GAO, Bojie WEN 2022 Research Center for Strategy of Global Mineral Resources, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100037, China Institute of Mineral Resources, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100037, China

China’S Rare Earth Supply And Demand Pattern And Balanced Utilization Strategy From Perspective Of Elements, Tao Dai, Tianming Gao, Bojie Wen

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

Rare earth is one of the key minerals in the global competition. At present, the global rare earth resources and supply pattern are changing, and Western countries are actively building a supply chain to replace China. This paper describes the evolution of China's rare earth supply and demand pattern from the perspective of elements, analyzes the dislocation of supply and demand of China's rare earth elements and the challenges it faces under the great changes, and puts forward the balanced utilization strategy of rare earth elements, which provides an optimization plan for promoting the globalization of the industrial chain and …


A Pressure And Stress Study Of Reidite, Gillian G. Noonan 2022 Western University

A Pressure And Stress Study Of Reidite, Gillian G. Noonan

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Zircon is a mineral that can commonly be found in many rocks in the Earth’s crust and other planetary bodies. Meteorite impact sites have also been shown to contain zircon and its high-pressure polymorph, Reidite.


Deformation Of Antigorite + Olivine Aggregates: Implications For Mantle Wedge Dynamics, Roselyn K. Hurlow 2022 University of New Mexico

Deformation Of Antigorite + Olivine Aggregates: Implications For Mantle Wedge Dynamics, Roselyn K. Hurlow

Earth and Planetary Sciences ETDs

Aggregates with varying volume proportions of antigorite and olivine were deformed at mantle wedge conditions of high-pressure (P) (2.5-7.6 GPa), -temperature (T) (675 K), and strain rates from ~1.0*10-5 to ~1.0*10-4 s-1 using the deformation-DIA (D-DIA) to investigate deformation mechanisms and stress/strain partitioning. Macroscopic strain, lattice strain, and texture were measured in situ using synchrotron x-ray diffraction and radiography and were modeled for olivine using Elasto-Viscoplastic Self-Consistent (EVPSC) simulations. These modeled results are coupled with microstructure images and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements results to determine stress and deformation mechanisms. Previous to this study, investigations have been …


Heat Flow In Terrestrial-Type Bodies From High P,T Electrical Resistivity Measurements Of Au, Fe-Si And Fe-Ni-Si Solid And Liquid Alloys, Meryem Berrada 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Heat Flow In Terrestrial-Type Bodies From High P,T Electrical Resistivity Measurements Of Au, Fe-Si And Fe-Ni-Si Solid And Liquid Alloys, Meryem Berrada

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The source of the fluid stirring mechanism that powers the dynamo of terrestrial-type bodies during their active magnetic field era is debated. Prior to the formation of a solid inner core, thermal convection may cause enough mechanical stirring of the core fluid to generate a magnetic field through dynamo action. After inner core formation, compositional convection in the liquid outer core becomes the main source of fluid stirring mechanism to power a dynamo. Constraints on the likelihood and duration of these convection mechanisms may be obtained by the experimental determination of the thermal properties of core materials. These cores consist …


Using Geologic Principles And Data To Create A Symphony For Wind Ensemble, Thomas J. Davis 2022 Eastern Washington University

Using Geologic Principles And Data To Create A Symphony For Wind Ensemble, Thomas J. Davis

2022 Symposium

Geology and geologic processes have featured in many pieces of classical music such as Alan Hovhaness’ symphonic works after Mt. St. Helens and Glacier Peak but these pieces are impressionistic and only take general inspiration from the geology of their subjects. This paper describes the creation of Tectonics (2021) a piece which incorporates and describes many geologic principles and processes, such as mantle convection, through the musical form of cannon, the formation of fold and thrust belts whose cross sections are directly visually recreated in the score, and the physical dynamics of earthquake waves demonstrated through variations of pitch and …


Quantification Of Organic Carbon Sequestered By Biogenic Iron Sulfide Minerals In Long-Term Anoxic Laboratory Incubations, Nader Nabeh, Cheyenne Brokaw, Aude Picard 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Quantification Of Organic Carbon Sequestered By Biogenic Iron Sulfide Minerals In Long-Term Anoxic Laboratory Incubations, Nader Nabeh, Cheyenne Brokaw, Aude Picard

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

Organic carbon sequestration in sedimentary environments controls oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere. While minerals play an important role in the preservation of organic carbon, there is a lack of understanding about the formation and stability of organo-mineral interactions in anoxic environments, especially those involving authigenic iron sulfide minerals. In this study, we quantified organic carbon and nitrogen sequestered in biogenic iron sulfide minerals co-precipitated with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in freshwater and marine conditions in long-term laboratory experiments. The amounts of C and N associated with biogenic iron sulfide minerals increased with increasing cell biomass concentrations available in …


Electron-Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy Of Mgo And Aluminum-Doped Mgo, Elise Liebow 2022 Union College - Schenectady, NY

Electron-Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy Of Mgo And Aluminum-Doped Mgo, Elise Liebow

Honors Theses

Radiation is a form of energy that can damage materials at an atomic level. This has implications for the mobility of radioactive waste through containment materials. We are characterizing atomic defects in materials by using Electron-Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (EPALS). When an electron and positron come into contact with each other, they annihilate and release two antiparallel 511-keV gamma rays. In a pristine crystalline sample, positrons can easily annihilate with electrons, but in a sample with vacancies/defects in the crystal structure, positrons take longer to annihilate. Therefore, the more vacancies in a sample, the longer the average lifetime of a …


Pascoite Minerals And Potential Application Of Nmr Spectroscopy, Craig C. McLauchlan, Beth Trent-Ringer, Debbie C. Crans 2022 Illinois State University

Pascoite Minerals And Potential Application Of Nmr Spectroscopy, Craig C. Mclauchlan, Beth Trent-Ringer, Debbie C. Crans

Faculty Publications – Chemistry

The 20 minerals encompassing the pascoite family of decavanadate isopolyanion-containing [V10O28]6− minerals include a few minerals, such as rakovanite, that have been described as containing a protonated decavanadate anion. Rakovanite was originally assigned the formula Na3[H3V10O28]•15H2O and now is redefined with an ideal formula (NH4)3Na3[V10O28]•12H2O. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and particularly 51V NMR spectroscopy is an informative method used to describe the protonation state and speciation in both solid and solution states …


Viscous Anisotropy Of Wet Olivine Aggregates, Megan Ryan 2022 The University of Akron

Viscous Anisotropy Of Wet Olivine Aggregates, Megan Ryan

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

I will deform natural olivine aggregates (Anita Bay dunite) cores in various orientations relative to a natural mineral alignment in the rock under both dry and wet conditions. Different orientations in regards to this mineral alignment will produce deformation on different slip systems. Stress measurements will be taken during the deformation of the samples in order to characterize any changes in viscous anisotropy observed due to the changes in slip system. Anita Bay dunite is a proxy for the main mineral found in the mantle wedge of subduction zones. Therefore, understanding the transformation of viscosity and slip systems in this …


Numerical Modeling Of Mineralizing Processes During The Formation Of The Yangzhuang Kiruna-Type Iron Deposit, Middle And Lower Yangtze River Metallogenic Belt, China: Implications For The Genesis And Longevity Of Kiruna-Type Iron Oxide-Apatite Systems, Xunyu Hu, Simon Jowitt, Feng Yuan, Guangxian Liu, Jinhui Luo, Yuhua Chen, Hui Yang, Keyue Ren, Yongguo Yang 2021 China University of Mining and Technology

Numerical Modeling Of Mineralizing Processes During The Formation Of The Yangzhuang Kiruna-Type Iron Deposit, Middle And Lower Yangtze River Metallogenic Belt, China: Implications For The Genesis And Longevity Of Kiruna-Type Iron Oxide-Apatite Systems, Xunyu Hu, Simon Jowitt, Feng Yuan, Guangxian Liu, Jinhui Luo, Yuhua Chen, Hui Yang, Keyue Ren, Yongguo Yang

Geoscience Faculty Publications

The Yangzhuang iron deposit is a Kiruna-type iron oxide-apatite (IOA) deposit within the Ningwu mining district of the Middle and Lower Yangtze River Metallogenic Belt (MLYRMB), China. This study applies a numerical modeling approach to identify the key processes associated with the formation of the deposit that cannot be easily identified using traditional analytical approaches, including the duration of the mineralizing process and the genesis of iron orebodies within intrusions associated with the deposit. This approach highlights the practical value of numerical modeling in quantitatively analyzing mineralizing processes during the formation of mineral deposits and assesses how these methods can …


Heat Flow In The Core Of Ganymede: High Pressure-Temperature Electrical Resistivity Measurements Of Solid And Liquid Ag And Fe-S Alloys, Joshua A.H. Littleton 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Heat Flow In The Core Of Ganymede: High Pressure-Temperature Electrical Resistivity Measurements Of Solid And Liquid Ag And Fe-S Alloys, Joshua A.H. Littleton

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Experimental investigations of materials at high pressures (P) and temperatures (T) provide insight into the properties and behaviours expected within the inaccessible interiors of planetary bodies. Using a four-wire electrical resistance technique, the electrical resistivity (ρ) of 4d transition metal (Ag) and 3d transition metal alloys (Fe-S) were measured in the solid and molten states at high P. The thermal conductivity (κ) of these materials is inversely proportional to ρ, as described by the Wiedemann-Franz Law. When applied to planetary cores, κ is an important parameter that regulates heat transport mechanisms and magnetic field production.

A hypothesis of ‘resistivity invariance’ …


Investigation Of The Energy Source For An Early Dynamo In Vesta From Experiments On Electrical Resistivity Of Liquid Fe-10wt%Ni At High Pressures, Eric M. Lenhart 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Investigation Of The Energy Source For An Early Dynamo In Vesta From Experiments On Electrical Resistivity Of Liquid Fe-10wt%Ni At High Pressures, Eric M. Lenhart

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Investigation of energy sources in an early dynamo in Vesta has been carried out using high pressure-temperature experimental studies. Electrical resistivity of Fe‐10wt%Ni was measured at 2-5 GPa up to 2082 K in the liquid state and compared to previous results of pure Fe and pure Ni. Thermal conductivity was calculated from electrical resistivity to determine adiabatic core heat flux. The results are applied to determine whether thermal convection could be responsible for the putative dynamo in early Vesta’s core. An adiabatic core heat flux of ~300 MW at the top of Vesta’s core is estimated from this study and …


The Physical Properties Of Volcanic And Impact Melt, Gavin Douglas Tolometti 2021 The University of Western Ontario

The Physical Properties Of Volcanic And Impact Melt, Gavin Douglas Tolometti

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The emplacement mechanisms of lunar impact melt flows, that form from hypervelocity impact events, have been a subject of debate in the lunar science community, because of their unique physical properties that separate them from other geologic features. Understanding how lunar impact melt flows were emplaced on the surface of the Moon will not only grant us new information about the flow dynamics of impact melt but provide insight into the production and distribution of impact melt and how it built and modified the surfaces of planetary surfaces.

Lunar impact melt flows exhibit surface roughness textures and morphologies that are …


Ultralow Velocities Of Caco3 And The Origin Of Seismic Anomalies In The Earth's Upper Mantle, Mingqiang Hou, Ming Hao, Jin Liu, Xiaowan Su, Wen-Yi Zhou, Rostislav Hrubiak, Jin S. Zhang 2021 University of New Mexico

Ultralow Velocities Of Caco3 And The Origin Of Seismic Anomalies In The Earth's Upper Mantle, Mingqiang Hou, Ming Hao, Jin Liu, Xiaowan Su, Wen-Yi Zhou, Rostislav Hrubiak, Jin S. Zhang

Earth and Planetary Sciences Faculty and Staff Publications

Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is a major host for CO2 in the deep Earth. The physical and chemical properties of CaCO3 at extreme pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions are indispensable to decipher the circulation of carbon between the Earth's interior and surface via volcanism and subduction. Using the pulse-echo-overlap method combined with Paris-Edinburgh press, we measured velocities of CaCO3 and observed an anomalous drop associated with the amorphization of aragonite under upper mantle conditions. The compressional (VP) and shear (VS) wave velocities of the partially amorphized CaCO3 are reduced …


Equation Of State For Natural Almandine, Spessartine, Pyrope Garnet: Implications For Quartz-In-Garnet Elastic Geobarometry, Suzanne R. Mulligan, Elissaios Stavrou, Stella Chariton, Oliver Tschauner, Ashkan Salamat, Michael Wells, Alexander G. Smith, Thomas D. Hoisch, Vitali Prakapenka 2021 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Equation Of State For Natural Almandine, Spessartine, Pyrope Garnet: Implications For Quartz-In-Garnet Elastic Geobarometry, Suzanne R. Mulligan, Elissaios Stavrou, Stella Chariton, Oliver Tschauner, Ashkan Salamat, Michael Wells, Alexander G. Smith, Thomas D. Hoisch, Vitali Prakapenka

Geoscience Faculty Publications

The equation of state (EoS) of a natural almandine74spessartine13pyrope10grossular3 garnet of a typical composition found in metamorphic rocks in Earth’s crust was obtained using single crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction under isothermal room temperature compression. A third-order Birch-Murnaghan EoS was fitted to P-V data and the results are compared with published EoS for iron, manganese, magnesium, and calcium garnet compositional end-members. This comparison reveals that ideal solid solution mixing can reproduce the EoS for this intermediate composition of garnet. Additionally, this new EoS was used to calculate geobarometry on a garnet sample from the same rock, which was collected from the …


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