Extremely High Diversity Of Sulfate Minerals In Caves Of The Irazú Volcano (Costa Rica) Related To Crater Lake And Fumarolic Activity, Andrés Ulloa, Fernando Gázquez, Aurelio Sanz-Arranz, Jesús Medina, Fernando Rull, José María Calaforra, Guillermo E. Alvarado, María Martínez, Geoffroy Avard, J. Maarten De Moor, Jo De Waele
International Journal of Speleology
The caves of the Irazú volcano (Costa Rica), became accessible after the partial collapse of the NW sector of the Irazú volcano in 1994, offering the opportunity to investigate active minerogenetic processes in volcanic cave environments. We performed a detailed mineralogical and geochemical study of speleothems in the caves Cueva los Minerales and Cueva Los Mucolitos, both located in the northwest foothills of the main crater. Mineralogical analyses included X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy, while geochemical characterization used Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) coupled to Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). In addition, measurements of environmental parameters in the caves, cave ...
Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender
Student Theses 2015-Present
This paper aims to shed light on the dissonance caused by the superimposition of Dominant Human Systems on Natural Systems. I highlight the synthetic nature of Dominant Human Systems as egoic and linguistic phenomenon manufactured by a mere portion of the human population, which renders them inherently oppressive unto peoples and landscapes whose wisdom were barred from the design process. In pursuing a radical pragmatic approach to mending the simultaneous oppression and destruction of the human being and the earth, I highlight the necessity of minimizing entropic chaos caused by excess energy expenditure, an essential feature of systems that aim ...
Multivariate Spectral Analysis Of Crism Data To Characterize The Composition Of Mawrth Vallis, 2018 Wesleyan University
Multivariate Spectral Analysis Of Crism Data To Characterize The Composition Of Mawrth Vallis, Melissa Luna
No abstract provided.
Deformation Of Fine-Grained Quartz Aggregates By Mixed Diffusion And Dislocation Creep, 2017 University of Akron
Deformation Of Fine-Grained Quartz Aggregates By Mixed Diffusion And Dislocation Creep, Junichi Fukuda, Caleb Holyoke, Andreas Kronenberg
No abstract provided.
De Paepe, Duane - Collector (Mss 625), 2017 Western Kentucky University
De Paepe, Duane - Collector (Mss 625), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives
MSS Finding Aids
Finding aid only for Manuscripts Collection 625. The Duane De Paepe Kentucky Cave Saltpetre History Research Collection, a collection of historical research, field notes, cave surveys, photographs, maps, reports, and scholarly writing on saltpetre mining in Kentucky, especially at Mammoth Cave. The collection was created under a research program sponsored by the Cave Research Foundation and the National Geographic Society in Kentucky, 1976-1980, and directed by De Paepe.
Faust, Burton Sherwood, 1898-1967 (Mss 620), 2017 Western Kentucky University
Faust, Burton Sherwood, 1898-1967 (Mss 620), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives
MSS Finding Aids
Finding aid only for Manuscripts Collection 620. Correspondence, research notes, drafts, photographs, reference works and bibliographic material of Burton S. Faust relating to his studies of the chemical, historical and cultural aspects of saltpetre and of spelean saltpetre mining in the United States.
Further Study Of Garnet Xenocrysts In New York City Migmatites, 2017 York College CUNY
Further Study Of Garnet Xenocrysts In New York City Migmatites, Stanley Schleifer, Nazrul I. Khandaker
Publications and Research
The authors have previously published an article at the 2004 Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Petrogenetic Significance of Garnets in the Bedrock of New York City, in which they suggested that the garnet xenocrysts observed in the quartzofeldspathic zones of the migmatites, so frequently seen both at the surface, and below the surface pursuant to the construction of the Manhattan portion of New york City Water Tunnel #3, were a refractory residue of the anatectic melting of the immediately surrounding schistose bedrock. Although the relatively high melting point temperature of garnet compared to other minerals in the surrounding schists ...
A Geophysical Analysis Of The Great Falls Tectonic Zone And The Surrounding Area, Montana Usa, 2017 Missouri State University
A Geophysical Analysis Of The Great Falls Tectonic Zone And The Surrounding Area, Montana Usa, Travis Lane Fultz
MSU Graduate Theses
The Great Falls Tectonic Zone (GFTZ) is a northeast trending zone of high angle faults and lineaments extending from northeastern Idaho into Saskatchewan, Canada. The GFTZ is believed to have facilitated the collision between the Archean Wyoming and Hearne cratons. Previous geophysical studies have analyzed seismic refraction data across the boundary between the Paleoproterozoic GFTZ and Archean Wyoming Craton (WC), this indicated the lower crustal layer thickens as it dips beneath the boundary towards the WC. In this study, three 2 dimensional (2D) gravity models that crossed the central region of the GFTZ were produced using constraints from existing geologic ...
Experimental Studies Of Electrical Resistivity Behavior Of Cu, Zn And Co Along Their Melting Boundaries: Implications For Heat Flux At Earth’S Inner Core Boundary, 2017 The University of Western Ontario
Experimental Studies Of Electrical Resistivity Behavior Of Cu, Zn And Co Along Their Melting Boundaries: Implications For Heat Flux At Earth’S Inner Core Boundary, Innocent Chinweikpe Ezenwa
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
The electrical resistivity of high purity Cu, Zn and Co has been measured at pressures (P) up to 5GPa and at temperatures (T) in the liquid phase. The electrical resistivity of solid state Nb was also measured up to 5GPa and ~1900K. All measurements were made in a large volume cubic anvil press. Using two thermocouples placed at opposite ends of the sample wire, serving as temperature probes as well as resistance leads, a four-wire technique resistivity measurement was employed along with a polarity switch. Post-experiment compositional analyses were carried out on an electron microprobe.
The expected resistivity decrease ...
Bat Urea-Derived Minerals In Arid Environment. First Identification Of Allantoin, C4H6N4O3, In Kahf Kharrat Najem Cave, United Arab Emirates, 2017 University of Nice Sophia-Antipolis
Bat Urea-Derived Minerals In Arid Environment. First Identification Of Allantoin, C4H6N4O3, In Kahf Kharrat Najem Cave, United Arab Emirates, Philippe Audra, Pavel Bosák, Fernando Gázquez, Didier Cailhol, Roman Skála, Lenka Lisá, Šárka Jonášová, Amos Frumkin, Martin Knez, Tadej Slabe, Nadja Zupan Hajna, Asma Al-Farraj
International Journal of Speleology
Kahf Kharrat Najem Cave is a small cave in United Arab Emirates (UAE) that hosts a bat colony which is the source of guano deposits and peculiar centimeter-long yellowish stalactites. The mineralogy and geochemistry of these deposits were analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic microanalysis (EDX), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and stable isotope composition (δ13C and δ15N). Urea CO(NH2)2 was found to be the main compound of these stalactites, while allantoin C4H6N4O3 was found to be an accessory urea byproduct. This paper ...
Murray Energy Corporation V. Mccarthy, 2017 University of Montana School of Law
Murray Energy Corporation V. Mccarthy, Sarah M. Danno
Public Land & Resources Law Review
Holding that the widespread effects of environmental regulation on the coal industry constituted sufficient importance, the Northern District of West Virginia ordered the Environmental Protection Agency to conduct analysis on employment loss and plant reduction resulting from regulatory effects. In admonishing the EPA’s inaction, the court ruled that the Agency had a non-discretionary duty to evaluate employment and plant reduction. Furthermore, the court held that the EPA’s attempt to put forth general reports in place of required evaluations was an invalid attempt to circumvent its statutory duty.
Secondary Minerals From Salt Caves In The Atacama Desert (Chile): A Hyperarid And Hypersaline Environment With Potential Analogies To The Martian Subsurface, Jo De Waele, Cristina Carbone, Laura Sanna, Marco Vattano, Ermanno Galli, Francesco Sauro, Paolo Forti
International Journal of Speleology
Over the past 15 years several expeditions by French, American and especially Italian cavers have unveiled over 50 caves in the Cordillera de la Sal (Atacama Desert, Northern Chile). Many of these caves contain a variety of speleothems and minerals, some of which have rarely been observed within karst systems. Most of the secondary deposits in these caves are composed of halite, but also other halide, carbonate, sulphate, nitrate, phosphate, and silicate minerals have been found. Among the sixteen cave mineral species recognized, atacamite, darapskite, blödite, leonite, anhydrite, and especially antarcticite are worth mentioning. In one of the samples an ...
Geochemical And Mineralogical Analyses Of Cold Spring Deposits From Borup Fiord Pass, A Sulfur-Dominated Arctic Analog For Planetary Environments On Mars And Europa, 2017 University of Colorado at Boulder
Geochemical And Mineralogical Analyses Of Cold Spring Deposits From Borup Fiord Pass, A Sulfur-Dominated Arctic Analog For Planetary Environments On Mars And Europa, Graham Elliot Lau
Geological Sciences Graduate Theses & Dissertations
Sulfur is one of the most ubiquitous elements in the universe and one of those that is crucial for life, as we know it. This graduate dissertation presents the culmination of work conducted to better understand biological and geochemical processes related to sulfur cycling at a sulfur-dominated field site in the Canadian High Arctic. This site, situated in a valley called Borup Fiord Pass, provides a unique environment where sulfide-rich fluids emerge from a glacier and form large deposits of ice that become covered in elemental sulfur. The role of biology is compelling and yet challenging to define in each ...
Quartz Crystal Preferred Orientation And Recrystallization Patterns From Naturally Deformed Rocks Under Constriction, 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Quartz Crystal Preferred Orientation And Recrystallization Patterns From Naturally Deformed Rocks Under Constriction, Riley Quine
This study analyzes crystal preferred orientation (CPO) patterns within constrictional quartz-rich gneisses. Quartz deformation and CPO patterns are an area of interest because quartz is one of the most prevalent minerals in earth's crust. Understanding the typical way that quartz crystals reorient under different states of strain can provide geologists with an additional tool for understanding paleo-strain. Temperature and strain geometry are two dominant factors that control the orientation of quartz crystals within a rock. Temperature determines which slip planes are active and slip planes typically reorient so that they are perpendicular to maximum stress. Previous workers have suggested ...
Investigating Mineral Stability Under Venus Conditions: A Focus On The Venus Radar Anomalies, 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Investigating Mineral Stability Under Venus Conditions: A Focus On The Venus Radar Anomalies, Erika Kohler
Theses and Dissertations
Radar studies of the surface of Venus have identified regions with high radar reflectivity concentrated in the Venusian highlands: between 2.5 and 4.75 km above a planetary radius of 6051 km, though it varies with latitude. Previous research has proposed several theories on the source of these anomalies, including increased surface roughness, metallic materials with higher dielectric constants, or ferroelectric materials. Prior work suggests several processes that could be the origin of these anomalies, such as surface-atmospheric interactions or low lying clouds or fog. Alternatively, these anomalies could result from a semi-metallic compound trapped at the cooler conditions ...
Growth Of Synthetic Silver Wires From Natural Acanthite, 2016 Cedarville University
Growth Of Synthetic Silver Wires From Natural Acanthite, Calvin J. Anderson
The Research and Scholarship Symposium
Wire silver is an unusual crystal habit of native silver which is intimately associated with acanthite (Ag2S). These delicate wires have been collected for several centuries, but much remains unknown regarding their growth mechanism and crystal structure. This study has successfully produced synthetic silver wires from natural acanthite in order to investigate the nature of their crystallinity.
Chunks of crude acanthite crystals from the Hongda mine, Shanxi Province, China, were trimmed into roughly 1 cm chunks for growth experiments. Preexisting silver wires, which appeared to be natural, were avoided.
Several techniques were explored with varying degrees of success. Attempts using ...
The Importance Of Geologic Study For The Application Of Carbon Capture And Storage (Ccs) In Otsego County, Michigan, 2016 Western Michigan University
The Importance Of Geologic Study For The Application Of Carbon Capture And Storage (Ccs) In Otsego County, Michigan, Matthew Rine
Research and Creative Activities Poster Day
The most recent Paris climate talks emphasized the importance of reducing carbon dioxide pollution associated with burning fossil fuels. In an attempt to mitigate CO2 emissions, carbon capture and storage (CCS), which is a process by which CO2 is pulled from a smokestack before it is released into our atmosphere and buried deep underground, is currently underway in Otsego County, Michigan. In order to safely and effectively store CO2 into deep geologic formations, it is critical to gain a better understanding for the geologic “storage tank” in which these fluids will be stored. As part of this ...
Evaluating Mineralogy At Terrestrial Analogs For Early Mars: Detection And Characterization Of Clays With Xrd And Investigation Of Iron Substitution In Natroalunite, 2016 University of Colorado at Boulder
Evaluating Mineralogy At Terrestrial Analogs For Early Mars: Detection And Characterization Of Clays With Xrd And Investigation Of Iron Substitution In Natroalunite, Laura Grace Beckerman
Geological Sciences Graduate Theses & Dissertations
The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover is equipped with CheMin, the first x-ray diffraction (XRD) instrument on Mars, for in situ mineralogy as part of its mission to seek evidence of past habitability at Gale Crater. Detection and characterization of hydrated minerals like clays and sulfates provides crucial insight into Mars’ early geochemistry. For example, clays are often interpreted as having formed in lacustrine environments at neutral pHs, while sulfates such as jarosite are evidence of acid sulfate alteration.
However, CheMin’s inability to remove non-clay minerals and to preferentially orient samples may pose significant challenges to clay detection ...
Precipitation And Growth Of Barite Within Hydrothermal Vent Deposits From The Endeavour Segment, Juan De Fuca Ridge, 2016 GEOMAR – Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel
Precipitation And Growth Of Barite Within Hydrothermal Vent Deposits From The Endeavour Segment, Juan De Fuca Ridge, John William Jamieson, Mark D. Hannington, Margaret K. Tivey, Thor Hansteen, Nicole M.-B. Williamson, Margaret Stewart, Jan Fietzke, David Butterfield, Matthias Frische, Leigh Allen, Brian Cousens, Julia Langer
Publications, Agencies and Staff of the U.S. Department of Commerce
Hydrothermal vent deposits form on the seafloor as a result of cooling and mixing of hot hydrothermal fluids with cold seawater. Amongst the major sulfide and sulfate minerals that are preserved at vent sites, barite (BaSO4) is unique because it requires the direct mixing of Ba-rich hydrothermal fluid with sulfate-rich seawater in order for precipitation to occur. Because of its extremely low solubility, barite crystals preserve geochemical fingerprints associated with conditions of formation. Here, we present data from petrographic and geochemical analyses of hydrothermal barite from the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, northeast Pacific Ocean, in ...
The Role Of The State, Multinational Oil Companies, International Law & The International Community: Intersection Of Human Rights & Environmental Degradation Climate Change In The 21st Century Caused By Traditional Extractive Practices, The Amazon Rainforest, Indigenous People And Universal Jurisdiction To Resolve The Accountability Issue, 2015 University of San Francisco
The Role Of The State, Multinational Oil Companies, International Law & The International Community: Intersection Of Human Rights & Environmental Degradation Climate Change In The 21st Century Caused By Traditional Extractive Practices, The Amazon Rainforest, Indigenous People And Universal Jurisdiction To Resolve The Accountability Issue, Marcela Cabrera Luna
Local, national and international conventions that protect indigenous sovereignty and their territories, where many of the resources are extracted from by multinational corporations (MNCs) particularly oil, the number one commodity of the world and cause of climate change, continue to be jeopardized because of the lack of a clear international legal framework that can protect them and potentially hold multinationals accountable for their actions. These practices are causing not only environmental issues to the indigenous and surrounding communities, but climate change is in fact, the real human rights issue of the 21st century and it affects everyone. By using ...