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Sequence Stratigraphy Of Campanian-Maastrichtian Strata In Eastern Alabama, David Simmons 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

Sequence Stratigraphy Of Campanian-Maastrichtian Strata In Eastern Alabama, David Simmons

Master's Theses

Eastern Alabama is an area of interest due to the transition from the Gulf Coastal Plain to the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Coastal Plain investigations have been sparse compared to research conducted in the oil rich areas down dip in the Gulf of Mexico. A sequence stratigraphic framework using the T-R cycle methodology of Embry (2002) has been established by integrating surface and subsurface lithologic data with biostratigraphic zonations into Petra ®. High sedimentation from the ancestral Chattahoochee River and lower relative sea-level formed an additional depositional sequence within the Santonian-Campanian aged Blufftown Formation in eastern Alabama. The sequence is approximately late ...


Global Stratigraphy And The Fossil Record Validate A Flood Origin For The Geologic Column, Timothy L. Clarey, Davis J. Werner 2018 Institute for Creation Research

Global Stratigraphy And The Fossil Record Validate A Flood Origin For The Geologic Column, Timothy L. Clarey, Davis J. Werner

The Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

The geologic column has been under the scrutiny of numerous creationists for many decades. Critics have claimed the column is intimately tied to the evolutionary worldview and deep time, and cannot be trusted or used by creation scientists. Other creation scientists have argued that the geologic column, although incomplete at most locations, can provide useful correlations of rocks and fossils across the globe. This paper examines the sedimentary rocks across three continents in an attempt to test the validity of the global geologic column. We attempted to assess the data primarily from a lithologic viewpoint, and as independent of the ...


Use Of Sedimentary Megasequences To Re-Create Pre-Flood Geography, Timothy L. Clarey, Davis J. Werner 2018 Institute for Creation Research

Use Of Sedimentary Megasequences To Re-Create Pre-Flood Geography, Timothy L. Clarey, Davis J. Werner

The Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

Knowledge of pre-Flood geography and the location of the Garden of Eden have eluded Bible-believing scientists and theologians. This study attempts to reconstruct the gross geography of the pre-Flood world by examining the detailed stratigraphy that was deposited during the Flood. Over 1500 stratigraphic columns were constructed across North and South America and Africa, recording the lithology and stratigraphy at each location. Sedimentary layers were examined using Sloss-type megasequences which allowed detailed analysis of the progression of the Flood in six discrete depositional segments. The three earliest megasequences, Sauk, Tippecanoe and Kaskaskia, were the most limited in areal coverage and ...


Global Deposits Of In Situ Upper Cambrian Microbialites—Implications For A Cohesive Model Of Origins, Ken P. Coulson 2018 San Diego Christian College

Global Deposits Of In Situ Upper Cambrian Microbialites—Implications For A Cohesive Model Of Origins, Ken P. Coulson

The Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

The existence of in situ microbialites of biological origin located in upper Cambrian rocks in western Utah presents some problems for creationists as they seek to define the boundary that separates pre-Flood deposits from those that were deposited during the Flood event itself. These microbialites are extensive in nature, covering an area of at least 2600 km2, and are stacked one atop the other in multiple beds that span a thickness of at least 300 m, but could be as thick as several km (intercalated between wackestone wedges). Other microbialites found throughout similar upper Cambrian rocks in Nevada and California ...


Analysis Of Coastal-Plain Fluvial Architecture And High-Frequency Stacking Patterns In The Upper Cretaceous Masuk Formation, Utah: Climate-Driven Cyclicity?, Aaron M. Hess 2018 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Analysis Of Coastal-Plain Fluvial Architecture And High-Frequency Stacking Patterns In The Upper Cretaceous Masuk Formation, Utah: Climate-Driven Cyclicity?, Aaron M. Hess

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Most sequence stratigraphic models are based on the premise that relative changes in sea level (RSL) control stacking patterns in continental-margin settings. An alternative hypothesis, however, is that upstream factors, notably variations in relative water discharge (RQW), or the ratio of water to sediment discharge, can influence or control stratal stacking patterns in fluvial systems. There are two key features observed in sequence boundaries of RQW-driven systems that differentiate them from RSL-driven systems: (1) the depth of incision increases updip, and (2) rates of erosion are spatially uniform, leading to the formation of widespread, planar sequence boundaries. This paper presents ...


Early Miocene Antarctic Glacial History: New Insights From Heavy Mineral Analysis From Andrill And–2a Drill Core Sediments, Francesco Iacoviello, Giovanna Giorgetti, Isabella Turbanti Memmi, Sandra Passchier 2018 University College London

Early Miocene Antarctic Glacial History: New Insights From Heavy Mineral Analysis From Andrill And–2a Drill Core Sediments, Francesco Iacoviello, Giovanna Giorgetti, Isabella Turbanti Memmi, Sandra Passchier

Sandra Passchier

The present study deals with heavy mineral analysis of late Early Miocene marine sediments recovered in the McMurdo Sound region (Ross Sea, Antarctica) during the ANDRILL— SMS Project in 2007. The main objective is to investigate how heavy mineral assemblages reflect different source rocks and hence different provenance areas. These data contribute to a better understanding of East Antarctica ice dynamics in the Ross Sea sector during the Early Miocene (17.6–20.2 Ma), a time of long-term global warming and sea level rise. The AND-2A drill core recovered several stratigraphic intervals that span from Early Miocene to Pleistocene ...


Results Of Test-Hole Drilling For Observation Well Planning In The Lower Loup Natural Resources District, Spring 2017, Douglas R. Hallum P.G., Sue Olafsen Lackey, Steven S. Sibray 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Results Of Test-Hole Drilling For Observation Well Planning In The Lower Loup Natural Resources District, Spring 2017, Douglas R. Hallum P.G., Sue Olafsen Lackey, Steven S. Sibray

Conservation and Survey Division

The High Plains Aquifer underlies much of Nebraska. It is the primary source of groundwater within the Lower Loup Natural Resources District (LLNRD) of central Nebraska. Water derived from the aquifer is an important natural resource for the area and supplies water for recreation, wildlife and agriculture, as well as domestic, municipal, and industrial uses. Falling spring water levels measured in existing observation and irrigation wells have raised concerns about possible changes in water availability, groundwater-surface water relationships and water quality in the area, prompting the LLNRD to propose test holes and the collection of additional groundwater data in the ...


Utilizing Ground-Penetrating Radar In The Delineation And Cultural Resource Management Of Eroding Maine Coastal Shell Middens, Jacquelynn F. Miller 2018 University of Maine

Utilizing Ground-Penetrating Radar In The Delineation And Cultural Resource Management Of Eroding Maine Coastal Shell Middens, Jacquelynn F. Miller

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Shell middens along the Maine coast archive up to 5000 years of cultural and climatic change, but the record is continually and rapidly lost to the sea through climate-driven coastal erosion and sea-level rise. These sites were constructed by the ancestors of Maine Tribes, and are composed of centimeters to meters of clam (Mya arenaria) and/or oyster (Crassostrea virginica) shells, other faunal remains, and cultural materials. Shell middens record human interaction with the environment and early coastal occupation and adaptation. The faunal remains reflect paleoenvironmental conditions and the distribution of extinct and extant forage-species along the western Gulf of ...


Petrographic And Stratigraphic Analysis Along The Lower Cretaceous Strata, In Kimble County Texas, Austin C. Wilkerson 2018 Stephen F. Austin State University

Petrographic And Stratigraphic Analysis Along The Lower Cretaceous Strata, In Kimble County Texas, Austin C. Wilkerson

Student Publications

The upper Trinity Group is predominantly a carbonate system with minor clastic couplets that were deposited during the Middle Cretaceous in the south Llano Uplift region. The upper Trinity Group was deposited on a southward dipping platform in the Kimble County area. Stratigraphic units of the upper Trinity Group are the Hensel Formation, determined to be supratidal claystones, the Glen Rose Formation, which are mudstones that were deposited in a carbonate lagoon, and the Walnut and Fort Terrett formations, which are wackestones to packstones interpreted to have been deposited on a shallow carbonate shelf.

Nine stratigraphic sections were measured along ...


Predicting Stratigraphic Outcrops Using A Lidar Digital Elevation Model In A Karst Landscape, Fort Hood Military Installation, Texas, Keely Armstrong 2018 Stephen F Austin State University

Predicting Stratigraphic Outcrops Using A Lidar Digital Elevation Model In A Karst Landscape, Fort Hood Military Installation, Texas, Keely Armstrong

Undergraduate Research Conference

The Fort Hood Military Installation is a karst landscape characterized by Cretaceous-age limestone plateaus and canyons in Bell and Coryell counties, Texas. The area is located in the Lampasas Cut Plain region of the Edwards Plateau and is stratigraphically defined by exposures of the Fredericksburg Group, namely the Comanche Peak and Edwards carbonates. The topography is dominated by plateaued draining divides capped by the resistant Edwards limestone and bordered by steep scarps exposing alternating layers of the Comanche Peak and Edwards units. This interfingering relationship has created a variable slope along the edges of the plateaus, defined by lithology.

The ...


Reconstructing Late Holocene Paleofloods Along The Middle Tennessee River And Exploring Links With Climate And Land Use, Lance Stewart 2018 Murray State University

Reconstructing Late Holocene Paleofloods Along The Middle Tennessee River And Exploring Links With Climate And Land Use, Lance Stewart

Scholars Week

Sediment stored in floodplains and low alluvial terraces along the middle Tennessee River reflects flood frequency and magnitude during the past ca. 2800 years. This study uses the stratigraphy, sedimentology, and geochronology of three alluvial terraces to infer past flooding and explore links with climate change and anthropogenic land-use practices. Four sites located on different geomorphic landforms adjacent to the Tennessee River preserve records of at least 11 major flood events from 2780 ± 185 BP to 100 ± 10 BP. Buried soils at three sites are older than ca. 1380 BP and suggest a relatively recent period of landscape stability compared ...


Stratigraphy Of The Upper Silurian To Middle Devonian, Southwestern Ontario, Shuo Sun 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Stratigraphy Of The Upper Silurian To Middle Devonian, Southwestern Ontario, Shuo Sun

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The upper Silurian–Middle Devonian succession was dominated by carbonate and evaporite deposits, with minor siliciclastic sedimentation, and a significant hiatus across the Siluro-Devonian (S-D) boundary in southwestern Ontario. The stratigraphic units include, in ascending order: Late Silurian Bass Islands/Bertie formations and Salina G Unit, the Devonian Oriskany Formation, Bois Blanc Formation (including Springvale Member), Detroit River Group (including the Lucas, Amherstburg and Sylvania formations), Onondaga Formation, and Dundee Formation.

Below the S-D unconformity, the upper Silurian Bass Islands/Bertie formations are predominantly dolostone of peritidal-sabkha origin and episodic subaerial exposure. Revised stratigraphic correlation shows that the Bertie Formation ...


Facies Architecture And Controls On Reservoir Behavior In The Turonian Wall Creek Member Of The Frontier Formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, Nathan M. La Fontaine 2018 University of Montana, Missoula

Facies Architecture And Controls On Reservoir Behavior In The Turonian Wall Creek Member Of The Frontier Formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, Nathan M. La Fontaine

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Inter-well heterogeneities influencing fluid migration in deltaic reservoirs are controlled by lateral lithofacies changes and vertical complexities such as low permeability thin-beds. Subsurface tools often cannot predict the spatial and stratigraphic organization of these architectural elements, nor their influence on effective reservoir properties and connectivity. This study integrates sedimentological, stratigraphic, and fluid simulation data to 1) document the facies architecture and depositional evolution of the Turonian Wall Creek Member (WCM) of the Frontier Formation, and 2) quantify the role of multi-scale stratigraphic heterogeneity on reservoir behavior. Upscaled permeability properties derived from fluid simulation of nested, small-scale facies models condition the ...


Review Of The Ends Of The World: Volcanic Apocalypses, Lethal Oceans, And Our Quest To Understand Earth's Past Mass Extinctions By Peter Brannen, Robert F. Diffendal, Jr. 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Review Of The Ends Of The World: Volcanic Apocalypses, Lethal Oceans, And Our Quest To Understand Earth's Past Mass Extinctions By Peter Brannen, Robert F. Diffendal, Jr.

Robert F. Diffendal, Jr., Publications

In his new best-selling book, Peter Brannen, award-winning science writer, takes you on a fascinating trip through the run-up to the endCretaceous extinction event and the K-Pg (Cretaceous/ Paleogene) boundary, formerly called the K -T (Cretaceous/Tertiary) boundary. ... Brannen interviewed many scientists who studied these events and went on field trips with them to major Cretaceous sites and to those where earlier and later extinction events happened. He presents clear explanations of what is known and not known about all of these events in a largely error-free book. Brannen details the other four big extinction events in geologic history: the ...


Regional Stratigraphy And Distribution Of The Coastal Group, St. Elizabeth Parish, Southwestern Jamaica, Brett M. Kenning 2018 Missouri State University

Regional Stratigraphy And Distribution Of The Coastal Group, St. Elizabeth Parish, Southwestern Jamaica, Brett M. Kenning

MSU Graduate Theses

This contribution examines the characteristics and ages of sedimentary units in the Coastal Group located along the southwestern Jamaica coast between Great Pedro Bluff and Fort Charles Bay in southwestern St. Elizabeth Parish. The coastline is characterized by laterally discontinuous low cliff exposures, separated by modern beach deposits and tectonically raised shore platforms composed of the White Limestone Group (mid-Eocene to mid-Miocene) and coral rudstone to floatstone and calcareous sandstone of the Coastal Group (late Pleistocene). Electron-Spin Resonance spectroscopy conducted on corals collected from a coral rudstone to floatstone facies yielded an estimated age of 120 ka. The coral facies ...


Stratigraphy And Organic Geochemistry Reveal Patterns Of Late Quaternary Paleo-Productivity At Mono Lake, California, Bailee Nicole Hodelka 2018 University of Kentucky

Stratigraphy And Organic Geochemistry Reveal Patterns Of Late Quaternary Paleo-Productivity At Mono Lake, California, Bailee Nicole Hodelka

Theses and Dissertations--Earth and Environmental Sciences

Mono Lake (CA) is a hydrologically closed lacustrine basin well-known for its paleo-shorelines, which record fluctuations in water level for the last deglacial and late Holocene. Mono Lake is a sentinel of California’s water supply, situated in the rain shadow of the Sierra Nevada, a mountain range whose snowpack is a vital source of freshwater for urban and agricultural districts to the west and south. Recent droughts, floods, and wildfires show that California is threatened by climate change, but how these changes impact and get recorded by Mono Lake sediments remains poorly known. Here, we use a new radiocarbon-dated ...


Assessing The Use Of Tsunami Simulations As A Tool To Predict Source Magnitudes And Locations Of Paleoearthquakes In Chile, Rebeca Isabel Becerra 2018 Central Washington University

Assessing The Use Of Tsunami Simulations As A Tool To Predict Source Magnitudes And Locations Of Paleoearthquakes In Chile, Rebeca Isabel Becerra

All Master's Theses

A long-term goal of paleotsunami studies is the ability to predict paleoearthquake parameters based on tsunami deposits found on land. Chile provides an exemplary location for testing methods of making these predictions because the historical record includes 41 major earthquakes as far back as 1562 AD, and there are many known paleotsunami deposits throughout the region. Using these records as a comparison tool, I evaluated simulated tsunami wave heights and inundation extent with the tsunami model GeoClaw for nine hypothetical tsunamigenic large earthquakes (Mw 8.6, 8.8, and 9.0) in south-central Chile with epicenters at -35.1º ...


Paleozoic Sandstones In The Tri-State Region, Southern Ozarks: Tectono-Stratigraphic Sequence Development And Compositional Evolution, The Source And Delivery Conundrum, And The Regional Tectonic History, Elvis Chekwube Bello 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Paleozoic Sandstones In The Tri-State Region, Southern Ozarks: Tectono-Stratigraphic Sequence Development And Compositional Evolution, The Source And Delivery Conundrum, And The Regional Tectonic History, Elvis Chekwube Bello

Theses and Dissertations

The Paleozoic stratigraphic record of the Ozark Region, southern midcontinent has been divided into at least 33 formations, with the most significant thickness of 9692 feet preserved in northwest Arkansas. The potential thickness would have been much greater, but epeirogenic movements and sea-level rise and fall produced regional surfaces of erosion reducing the record. That interplay between tectonics (epeirogenic movements) and eustatic change (transgressive-regressive cycles) preserved in the Ozark sedimentary history provides the basis for recognition of five distinct, but related, tectonostratigraphic units designated TS 1 through TS 5: Late Precambrian-Middle Cambrian (TS 1), Late Cambrian-Earliest Ordovician (TS 2), Early ...


Aquifers Of Nebraska Ii: The Niobrara Aquifer, Dana Divine, Robert Matthew Joeckel, Sue Olafsen Lackey 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Aquifers Of Nebraska Ii: The Niobrara Aquifer, Dana Divine, Robert Matthew Joeckel, Sue Olafsen Lackey

Conservation and Survey Division

The marine shale, chalk, marl, and chalky limestone of the Niobrara Formation directly underlie Quaternary sediments in 23 counties from south-central to northeastern Nebraska. Nevertheless, the formation serves as an aquifer only in and around Cedar, Madison, and Nuckolls counties. Niobrara aquifer wells mostly supply irrigation, domestic, and livestock needs. Two hundred of the approximately 230 active registered wells in Nebraska that are screened entirely in the Niobrara aquifer are in Cedar County and environs. About another 200 wells in this area are screened in both the Niobrara aquifer and overlying Quaternary sediments. Wells screened entirely in the Niobrara aquifer ...


Understanding Cigarette Butt Littering Behavior On A Public Beach: A Case Study Of Jekyll Island, Maranda R. Miller, Mark E. Burbach 2017 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Understanding Cigarette Butt Littering Behavior On A Public Beach: A Case Study Of Jekyll Island, Maranda R. Miller, Mark E. Burbach

Conservation and Survey Division

Conservation of natural resources and promotion of family-friendly tourism activities are vital to Jekyll Island. As it is stated in the Jekyll Island Authority (JIA) Master Plan “Jekyll Island is a unique, state-owned barrier island that balances conserving and preserving natural, historic, and cultural resources with providing accessible, affordable recreation, vacation, and education opportunities for the people of Georgia and beyond” (Jekyll Island Authority, 2014b, p. 4). The JIA has reported approximately 1 million people visit the island annually (Jekyll Island Authority, 2015). As such, tourism is instrumental to Jekyll Island’s economy, and that tourism contributes to the overall ...


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