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Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction Of Quaternary Saltville, Virginia, Using Ostracode Autecology, Austin Gause 2020 East Tennessee State University

Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction Of Quaternary Saltville, Virginia, Using Ostracode Autecology, Austin Gause

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Saltville valley in southwestern Virginia is home to Quaternary localities containing paleontological and archaeological remains. Historically the valley has been mined for salt and the small lakes, ponds and springs along the valley floor have a brackish signature. A preliminary report on the site’s ostracode fauna suggested that the site’s water was not always saline. This study analyzed modern and Quaternary ostracodes to understand the valley’s hydrologic and chemical evolution. Sediments contained primarily freshwater species, including the environmentally sensitive Candona crogmaniana. The presence of Pelocypris tuberculatum and a new Fabaeformiscandona species throughout a vertical section spanning ...


Analysis Of Cryptotephra At Whitney Mesa Nature Preserve, Henderson, Nevada, Alex Newsom 2020 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Analysis Of Cryptotephra At Whitney Mesa Nature Preserve, Henderson, Nevada, Alex Newsom

Calvert Undergraduate Research Awards

Advanced Undergraduate Winner

Cryptotephra (small volcanic shards ranging 20-80 microns in size) were discovered within Unit X of the Las Vegas Formation at Whitney Mesa Nature Preserve, Henderson, Nevada. Cryptotephra are deposited soon after a volcanic eruption and can be used as a dating tool to create narrow time constraints for surrounding sediments. Cryptotephra have many applications but are mainly useful as a dating tool. Their study has important implications for the understanding of the timing of palaeoclimatological and paleoenvironmental events as well as for archaeological studies to date important events in human history.

The Whitney Mesa cryptotephra were correlated ...


Rockhounding, Seafaring, And Other Material Tales For The End Of The World, Noemie Fortin 2020 Concordia University, Montreal

Rockhounding, Seafaring, And Other Material Tales For The End Of The World, Noemie Fortin

The Goose

In the face of accelerated environmental degradation and climate instability, the future of the Earth and of all life on earth is difficult to visualize. Therefore, the different mediums through which we consider environmental issues are just as important as the actions we take to address them. Focusing on three projects combining art, science, and activism, this article suggests a compilation of material tales. They tell stories of plastic rocks and aluminum nuggets where the protagonists are partly finely crafted objects, partly waste materials, and sometimes both at once. Artists Kelly Jazvac, Yesenia Thibeault-Picazo, and the collective Studio Swine collaborate ...


Cenozoic Vertebrate Biostratigraphy Of South Carolina, Usa, And Additions To The Fauna, Barry Albright Dr., Albert Sanders Dr., Robert Weems, David Cicimurri, James Knight 2020 University of North Florida

Cenozoic Vertebrate Biostratigraphy Of South Carolina, Usa, And Additions To The Fauna, Barry Albright Dr., Albert Sanders Dr., Robert Weems, David Cicimurri, James Knight

Showcase of Faculty Scholarly & Creative Activity

Although South Carolina has not typically been considered a state yielding a wealth of vertebrate paleontological resources, study of its fossils, particularly those from the famous “Ashley River phosphate beds” near Charleston, played a significant role in the early history of vertebrate paleontology as a scientific discipline in North America. Long overshadowed by the exceptionally rich Cenozoic record from Florida, renewed efforts in South Carolina over the last three decades have resulted in a wealth of new data from sites that rival, and in some cases surpass, any others along the US Atlantic Coastal Plain. With increasing study of these ...


Interpretive Geologic Maps And Cross Sections For Phelps, Kearney, And Adams Counties In Nebraska, Dana Divine, Leslie M. Howard 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Interpretive Geologic Maps And Cross Sections For Phelps, Kearney, And Adams Counties In Nebraska, Dana Divine, Leslie M. Howard

Conservation and Survey Division

Data from thousands of test-hole and well logs were interpreted to improve understanding and management of the High Plains aquifer in a three-county study area adjacent to the Big Bend reach of the Platte River. Five principal conclusions resulted from these interpretations: (1) the extent of Neogene Ogallala deposits beneath the study area is different than previously mapped; (2) a large paleovalley incised into Cretaceous bedrock probably cuts across Kearney and Adams counties and may be the course of the ancestral Platte River prior to formation of the Big Bend; (3) a groundwater mound created by irrigation canals artificially raises ...


Process Based Analysis Of Fluvial Stratigraphic Record: Middle Pennsylvanian Allegheny Formation, North-Central Wv, Oluwasegun O. Abatan 2020 West Virginia University

Process Based Analysis Of Fluvial Stratigraphic Record: Middle Pennsylvanian Allegheny Formation, North-Central Wv, Oluwasegun O. Abatan

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Fluvial deposits represent some of the best hydrocarbon reservoirs, but the quality of fluvial reservoirs varies depending on the reservoir architecture, which is controlled by allogenic and autogenic processes. Allogenic controls, including paleoclimate, tectonics, and glacio-eustasy, have long been debated as dominant controls in the deposition of fluvial strata. However, recent research has questioned the validity of this cyclicity and may indicate major influence from autogenic controls. To further investigate allogenic controls on stratal order, I analyzed the facies architecture, geomorphology, paleohydrology, and the stratigraphic framework of the Middle Pennsylvanian Allegheny Formation (MPAF), a fluvial depositional system in the Appalachian ...


Fluvial Sedimentology And Architecture Of Two Latest Devonian Lower Huntley Mountain Formation Outcrops, North-Central Pennsylvania, Usa, Evan W. Filion 2020 Bucknell University

Fluvial Sedimentology And Architecture Of Two Latest Devonian Lower Huntley Mountain Formation Outcrops, North-Central Pennsylvania, Usa, Evan W. Filion

Honors Theses

Thick successions of river deposits accumulated in the north-central Pennsylvania region of the Appalachian foreland basin during Late Devonian time (~380-360 Ma). The properties and morphologies of these paleorivers are not well characterized. Latest Devonian tectonic, climatic, and eustatic controls on river dynamics and basin infilling also remain unclear. This study assesses the sedimentology, facies architecture, paleochannel depths, and grain size of a 133 m thick section of fluvial strata exposed across two outcrops, Blossburg South (older) and Blossburg West (younger), mapped as lower Huntley Mountain Formation near Blossburg, Pennsylvania. Field-based lithofacies observations, high-resolution panoramic photography, terrestrial lidar scanning, and ...


Sedimentological, Architectural, And Paleoenvironmental Analysis Of The Fluvial Upper Devonian Catskill Formation, North-Central Pennsylvania, Usa, Matylda Zaklicki 2020 Bucknell University

Sedimentological, Architectural, And Paleoenvironmental Analysis Of The Fluvial Upper Devonian Catskill Formation, North-Central Pennsylvania, Usa, Matylda Zaklicki

Honors Theses

During the Late Devonian time period, sediments eroded from the Acadian mountains were transported westward and deposited in fluvial environments, but the morphology of the rivers, avulsion style, and controls on basin infilling remain unclear. This study assesses the sedimentology, channel geometry, stratigraphic architecture, and avulsion style of the paleochannels and floodplains of the uppermost 80 meters of the Catskill Formation near Blossburg, Pennsylvania, using field-based lithofacies observations, high-resolution panoramic photographs, and terrestrial lidar scanning.

Upper Catskill Formation strata at Blossburg Middle consist of sandy channel and muddy floodplain deposits. Floodplain deposits were categorized into either proximal floodplain deposits or ...


Major Lower Paleozoic Horizons Of The Southern Illinois Basin, John B. Hickman 2019 University of Kentucky

Major Lower Paleozoic Horizons Of The Southern Illinois Basin, John B. Hickman

Kentucky Geological Survey Report of Investigations

The geology exposed at the surface in the southern Illinois Basin has been mapped in great detail by countless workers over the past century. With the exception of limited and scattered exposures in incised river valleys, the oldest rocks exposed outside of the Jessamine, Nashville, and Ozark Domes surrounding the Illinois Basin are Mississippian in age. Extensive deposits of Cambrian–Devonian sediments occur in the subsurface above crystalline basement in this region, however. All available data for the region were analyzed to produce a single, comprehensive set of interpretations. The data used in this study include 1:24,000-scale geologic ...


Improving Aquifer Characterization Through Integration Of Airborne Electromagnetics (Aem) And Well Hydrographs, Jacqueline Polashek 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Improving Aquifer Characterization Through Integration Of Airborne Electromagnetics (Aem) And Well Hydrographs, Jacqueline Polashek

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

The objective of this study is to evaluate methods of hydrostratigraphic modeling using geophysics and well hydrographs at the eastern edge of the High Plains aquifer (HPA) in Platte and Colfax counties within Nebraska, USA. The HPA is very heterogeneous in the study area, being hosted by architecturally complex glacial sediments and having many irregular hydraulic boundaries. Further, the HPA exhibits local variations between unconfined and confined conditions. Pumping in such bounded aquifers can be unsustainable because of cost increases and lost agricultural productivity. Moreover, the large drawdowns typical of confined aquifers can contribute to well interference during heavy pumping ...


The Shelf To Basin Transition And Tectonostratigraphy Of The Atoka Formation (Lower Pennsylvanian) In The Arkoma Basin, Northwest Arkansas, Travis Gibson White 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Shelf To Basin Transition And Tectonostratigraphy Of The Atoka Formation (Lower Pennsylvanian) In The Arkoma Basin, Northwest Arkansas, Travis Gibson White

Theses and Dissertations

The east-to-west oriented Arkoma Basin is a peripheral foreland basin or depositional trough that developed during the Carboniferous Period. This formation covers an aerial extent of approximately 33,800 square miles and spans from west-central Arkansas into southeastern Oklahoma (McGilvery, Manger, and Zachry, 2016; Perry, 1995). The Atoka Formation, deposited during the early Pennsylvanian, is the largest Paleozoic formation by aerial extent in the state of Arkansas and is located within and comprises the bulk of Arkoma Basin sediments (McFarland, 2004; Nance, 2018). This formation has been informally divided into three divisions, the lower, middle, and upper, based on their ...


Chemostratigraphic Correlations Across The First Major Trilobite Extinction And Faunal Turnovers Between Laurentia And South China, Jih-Pai Lin, Frederick A. Sunberg, Ganqing Jiang, Isabel P. Montanez, Thomas Wotte 2019 National Taiwan University

Chemostratigraphic Correlations Across The First Major Trilobite Extinction And Faunal Turnovers Between Laurentia And South China, Jih-Pai Lin, Frederick A. Sunberg, Ganqing Jiang, Isabel P. Montanez, Thomas Wotte

Geoscience Faculty Publications

During Cambrian Stage 4 (~514 Ma) the oceans were widely populated with endemic trilobites and three major faunas can be distinguished: olenellids, redlichiids, and paradoxidids. The lower–middle Cambrian boundary in Laurentia was based on the first major trilobite extinction event that is known as the Olenellid Biomere boundary. However, international correlation across this boundary (the Cambrian Series 2–Series 3 boundary) has been a challenge since the formal proposal of a four-series subdivision of the Cambrian System in 2005. Recently, the base of the international Cambrian Series 3 and of Stage 5 has been named as the base of ...


Streambed Flux Measurement Informed By Distributed Temperature Sensing Leads To A Significantly Different Characterization Of Groundwater Discharge, Troy E. Gilmore, Mason Johnson, Jesse T. Korus Dr., Aaron R. Mittelstet, Marty A. Briggs, Vitaly A. Zlotnik, Sydney Corcoran 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Streambed Flux Measurement Informed By Distributed Temperature Sensing Leads To A Significantly Different Characterization Of Groundwater Discharge, Troy E. Gilmore, Mason Johnson, Jesse T. Korus Dr., Aaron R. Mittelstet, Marty A. Briggs, Vitaly A. Zlotnik, Sydney Corcoran

Conservation and Survey Division

Groundwater discharge though streambeds is often focused toward discrete zones, indicating that preliminary reconnaissance may be useful for capturing the full spectrum of groundwater discharge rates using point-scale quantitative methods. However, many direct-contact reconnaissance techniques can be time-consuming, and remote sensing (e.g., thermal infrared) typically does not penetrate the water column to locate submerged seepages. In this study, we tested whether dozens of groundwater discharge measurements made at “uninformed” (i.e., selected without knowledge on high-resolution temperature variations at the streambed) point locations along a reach would yield significantly dierent Darcy-based groundwater discharge rates when compared with “informed” measurements ...


Orientation Of Paleostress Of Raplee Ridge Anticline, Loren Randall Holyoak, John S. MacLean 2019 Southern Utah University

Orientation Of Paleostress Of Raplee Ridge Anticline, Loren Randall Holyoak, John S. Maclean

The Compass: Earth Science Journal of Sigma Gamma Epsilon

During the Laramide Orogeny several major folds were formed in Southern Utah, one of those being the Raplee Ridge anticline. Raplee Ridge is approximately eight miles from Mexican Hat, Utah. The San Juan River cuts through the anticline, exposing the Honaker Trail Formation’s beds of shale and limestone with chert nodules. Accompanying the mountain-scale ductile deformation of the Raplee Ridge anticline are decimeter-scale brittle conjugate fractures in the limestone’s chert nodules. The objective of this study is to compare the orientation of paleostress that formed the Raplee Ridge anticline with the conjugate fractures within the chert nodules to ...


The Spatial And Temporal Evolution Of The Portland And Tualatin Basins, Oregon, Usa, Darby Patrick Scanlon 2019 Portland State University

The Spatial And Temporal Evolution Of The Portland And Tualatin Basins, Oregon, Usa, Darby Patrick Scanlon

Dissertations and Theses

The Portland and Tualatin basins are part of the Puget-Willamette Lowland in the Cascadia forearc of Oregon and Washington. The Coast Range to the west has undergone Paleogene transtension and Neogene transpression, which is reflected in basin stratigraphy. To better understand the tectonic evolution of the region, I modeled three key stratigraphic horizons and their associated depocenters (areas of maximum sediment accumulation) through space and time using well log, seismic, outcrop, aeromagnetic, and gravity data. Three isochore maps were created to constrain the location of Portland and Tualatin basin depocenters during 1) Pleistocene to mid-Miocene (0-15 Ma), 2) eruption of ...


Gage County Preliminary Ground Water Study (Gm-20): Reed, E.C. Conservation And Survey Division , Size 8.5" X 11"., E.C. Reed 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Gage County Preliminary Ground Water Study (Gm-20): Reed, E.C. Conservation And Survey Division , Size 8.5" X 11"., E.C. Reed

Conservation and Survey Division

No abstract provided.


Geochemical Analysis Of The Chinchín Formation In Southern Ecuador, Katherine Ludwig 2019 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Geochemical Analysis Of The Chinchín Formation In Southern Ecuador, Katherine Ludwig

Celebration of Learning

The subduction of the Nazca Plate under the South American Plate has led to the uplift of the majority of the Andes Mountains, but in Ecuador, the Nazca Plate subducts underneath the North Andes Plate, which then collides with the South American Plate. This tectonic setting has formed two parallel mountain chains as well as a complex series of basins between them. However, the formations that make up these basins are poorly understood. This study focuses on the Chinchín Formation, an ~3.5 km thick, volcanic formation that serves as the bedrock of the Quingeo Basin in southern Ecuador. This ...


Lithostratigraphic Correlation Of Upper Paleozoic Sandstone Bodies In The Western United States With Special Emphasis On The Coconino Sandstone, John H. Whitmore 2019 Cedarville University

Lithostratigraphic Correlation Of Upper Paleozoic Sandstone Bodies In The Western United States With Special Emphasis On The Coconino Sandstone, John H. Whitmore

John H. Whitmore, Ph.D.

The purpose of this project was to correlate Upper Paleozoic sandstone bodies of Pennsylvanian and Permian age across the western United States. The lateral extent of the Coconino Sandstone (Leonardian) was of particular interest; it is found in northern Arizona in places like Grand Canyon. Data was obtained from multiple sources including the AAPG’s COSUNA charts and data, the RMAG’s Geological Atlas of the Rocky Mountain Region and published papers from a variety of books and journals. About 60 generalized stratigraphic columns were collected, drawn and then correlated across the western United States. Some of the more well-known ...


Facies And Diagenesis Analyses Of The Fort Terrett Formation Of The Lower Cretaceous Edwards Group, Near Junction, Texas, Richard Alden Urwin Jr. 2019 Stephen F. Austin State University

Facies And Diagenesis Analyses Of The Fort Terrett Formation Of The Lower Cretaceous Edwards Group, Near Junction, Texas, Richard Alden Urwin Jr.

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Fort Terrett Formation was deposited on the western edge of the Comanche Shelf in central Texas. The predominate lithology of the Fort Terrett Formation is limestone which caps the hills that surround Junction, Texas. Deposition of the Fort Terrett Formation occurred within shallow, quiet waters during the Lower Cretaceous. Rose (1974) developed a general stratigraphic correlation and lithostratigraphic framework for the Cretaceous Shelf and established a regional correlation. Four stratigraphic divisions have been recognized in the Fort Terrett Formation. These are: a basal nodular unit, a burrowed unit, a dolomitic unit, and the Kirschberg evaporites. Wilkerson (2018) provided the ...


Stratigraphy And Depositional Characterization Of The Moorefield Shale (Middle-Late Mississippian) In Its Type Area, Northeastern Arkansas (Eastern Arkoma Basin), Griffin Warner 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Stratigraphy And Depositional Characterization Of The Moorefield Shale (Middle-Late Mississippian) In Its Type Area, Northeastern Arkansas (Eastern Arkoma Basin), Griffin Warner

Theses and Dissertations

The Moorefield Shale represents the Meramecian Series in the Eastern Arkoma Basin in northern Arkansas. Lying on the margin of the Mississippi Embayment and Reelfoot Rift, sequence stratigraphic interpretations have labelled the Moorefield Shale a lowstand wedge succeeding the Early Mississippian (Osagean) Boone Limestone conformably and overlain conformably by the Hindsville Limestone/Batesville Sandstone. The unit contains a basal brown-black limestone and succeeding brown-black phosphatic shale. The Moorefield Shale was deposited along the broad, stable cratonic platform on the southern flank of Laurasia, before it’s collision with Gondwanaland to form the supercontinent Pangea at the end of the Paleozoic ...


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