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Determining The Viability Of Recent Storms As Modern Analogues For North-Central Gulf Of Mexico Paleotempestology Through Sedimentary Analysis And Storm Surge Reconstruction, Joshua Caleb Bregy 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Determining The Viability Of Recent Storms As Modern Analogues For North-Central Gulf Of Mexico Paleotempestology Through Sedimentary Analysis And Storm Surge Reconstruction, Joshua Caleb Bregy

Master's Theses

The northern Gulf of Mexico has been devastated by recent intense storms. Camille (1969) and Katrina (2005) are two notable hurricanes that made landfall in virtually the same location in Mississippi. However, fully understanding the risks and processes associated with hurricane impacts is impeded by a short and fragmented instrumental record. Paleotempestology could potentially use modern analogues from intense storms in this region to extend the hurricane record back to pre-observational time. Existing empirically based models can back-calculate surge heights over coastal systems as a function of transport distance, particle settling velocity, and gravitational acceleration. We collected cores in a ...


Cone In Cone Concretions Of The Stanley Group In Southeastern Oklahoma, Kyle B. Ayres 2016 Stephen F Austin State University

Cone In Cone Concretions Of The Stanley Group In Southeastern Oklahoma, Kyle B. Ayres

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cone in cone concretions found in the Stanley Group of Southeastern Oklahoma have a variety of external and internal attributes which allow diagenetic and theoretical models of formation to be hypothesized. Stanley Group carbonate cone in cone concretions are initially formed in sulfur reducing horizons at shallow burial depths in a poorly circulated possibly deep trough containing siliceous sediments and organic matter. Collected concretions near the town of Smithville, Oklahoma displayed four different external morphologies and four variations of mineral constituents. All concretions contained microscopic cones which initiated diffusion and/or fluid patterns and is an early cementation process that ...


Characterization Of Lower Permian Carbonate Subaqueous Gravity Flows In Crockett County, Texas, Wesley L. Turner 2016 Stephen F Austin State University

Characterization Of Lower Permian Carbonate Subaqueous Gravity Flows In Crockett County, Texas, Wesley L. Turner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Transitional sediments on carbonate ramp slopes act as a link to relatively well-studied platform and basin depositional environments. In the southern Midland Basin, the key to understanding the relationship between these environments lies in the allochthonous gravity flow sediments found on the slope. Here, a succession of various gravity flow deposits is used to interpret how base level fluctuations affect the type of deposits found on the slope and their effect on the deep basinal environment. This study utilizes core samples from the Wolfcamp Formation adjacent to the Central Basin Platform in five wells in Northwest Crockett County, Texas. The ...


The Stratigraphic Position Of Fossil Vertebrates From The Pojoaque Member Of The Tesuque Formation (Middle Miocene, Late Barstovian) Near Española, New Mexico, Garrett R. Williamson 2016 Stephen F. Austin State University

The Stratigraphic Position Of Fossil Vertebrates From The Pojoaque Member Of The Tesuque Formation (Middle Miocene, Late Barstovian) Near Española, New Mexico, Garrett R. Williamson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The stratigraphy of the Pojoaque Member of the Tesuque Formation near Española, NM is not well understood. This region, during the Middle Miocene, represented a dynamic alluvial fan-fluvial-lacustrine environment within the Española Basin while the Rio Grande Rift was active. Cavazza (1986) identified two paleodrainage systems (lithosome A, basin-margin facies and B, basin-floor facies) by means of sandstone and conglomerate petrology, paleocurrent, and sedimentary facies analyses. After x-ray diffraction analyses of claystones within lithosome B, mordenite was discovered, which is a zeolite mineral commonly found within volcanic rocks. This is significant because the presence of mordenite confirms Cavazza’s (1986 ...


Dating Late Quaternary Alluvial Fills In The Platte River Valley Using Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dating, Jacob C. Bruihler 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Dating Late Quaternary Alluvial Fills In The Platte River Valley Using Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dating, Jacob C. Bruihler

Theses and Dissertations in Geography

Alluvial fills underlying the Platte River Valley in Nebraska record the geologic history of the Platte River in the late Quaternary. This study investigated the alluvium underlying the valley near the cities of North Platte and Kearney, Nebraska. Data obtained from sediment cores drilled in the alluvial deposits was used to investigate the changes in Platte River dynamics on a glacial – interglacial timescale. Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating was used to determine burial ages of recovered sediments and to quantify the thicknesses of the late Pleistocene and Holocene alluvial fills at each study area. Our geochronology depicts considerable differences in ...


Effects Of Changes In Moisture Source And The Upstream Rainout On Stable Isotopes In Precipitation – A Case Study In Nanjing, Eastern China, Y. Tang, H. Pang, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Shuang-Ye Wu, S. Hou 2016 Nanjing University

Effects Of Changes In Moisture Source And The Upstream Rainout On Stable Isotopes In Precipitation – A Case Study In Nanjing, Eastern China, Y. Tang, H. Pang, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Shuang-Ye Wu, S. Hou

Shuang-ye Wu

In the Asian monsoon region, variations in the stable isotopic composition of speleothems have often been attributed to the "amount effect". However, an increasing number of studies suggest that the "amount effect" in local precipitation is insignificant or even non-existent. To explore this issue further, we examined the variability of daily stable isotopic composition (δ18O) in precipitation from September 2011 to November 2014 in Nanjing, eastern China. We found that intra-seasonal variations of δ18O during summer were not significantly correlated with local rainfall amount but could be linked to changes in the moisture source location and rainout processes in the ...


Reconstruction Of The Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) Palaeotopography In The Upper Yangtze Region, Linna Zhang, Junxuan Fan, Qing Chen, Shuang-Ye Wu 2016 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences

Reconstruction Of The Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) Palaeotopography In The Upper Yangtze Region, Linna Zhang, Junxuan Fan, Qing Chen, Shuang-Ye Wu

Shuang-ye Wu

Reconstruction of the Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) palaeotopography in South China is important for understanding the distribution pattern of the Hirnantian marine depositional environment. In this study, we reconstructed the Hirnantian palaeotopography in the Upper Yangtze region based on the rankings of the palaeo-water depths, which were inferred according to the lithofacies and biofacies characteristics of the sections. Data from 374 Hirnantian sections were collected and standardized through the online Geobiodiversity Database. The Ordinary Kriging interpolation method in the ArcGIS software was applied to create the continuous surface of the palaeo-water depths, i.e. the Hirnantian palaeotopography. Meanwhile, the line transect ...


Preliminary Correlation And Isopach Map Of Pennsylvanian And Permian Sandstones Of The Western United States, John H. Whitmore 2016 Cedarville University

Preliminary Correlation And Isopach Map Of Pennsylvanian And Permian Sandstones Of The Western United States, John H. Whitmore

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Using the COSUNA data compiled by the AAPG in the 1980’s, Permian and Pennsylvanian sandstones were correlated across western North America. Stratigraphic sections and thickness information were obtained from charts and spreadsheets available from that data set. An isopach map was constructed from the thickness data of sandstones usually found below a Guadalupian Limestone. In particular, this project was concerned with sandstones that could be lithostratigraphically correlated with the Leonardian Coconino Sandstone of the Grand Canyon region of northern Arizona. These sandstones are mostly Lower Permian (Leonardian and Wolfcampian) but some are Upper Pennsylvanian, especially in the northern part ...


Correlation Of Basal Cambrian Sandstones Across North America, Joshua W. Perez 2016 Cedarville University

Correlation Of Basal Cambrian Sandstones Across North America, Joshua W. Perez

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

A thin, widespread sequence of siliciclastic strata ranging from lower to upper Cambrian age overlies Precambrian crystalline and metamorphic basement rock bounded by the Great Unconformity. This sequence is mainly comprised of basal Cambrian sandstones which can be subdivided into three distinct suites of lithofacies transitioning in age across most of North America. From the west, which is most notable for the Tapeats sandstone of Arizona and Nevada, lies gravelly to boulder sized conglomerates directly overlying basement rock. Eastward, the lower to middle Cambrian consists of a variety of ledge-forming sandstones which contain various areas rich in cross bedded, as ...


Preliminary Correlation And Isopach Map Of Navajo-Aztec-Nugget Sandstones, Western United States, Emily Jackson 2016 Cedarville University

Preliminary Correlation And Isopach Map Of Navajo-Aztec-Nugget Sandstones, Western United States, Emily Jackson

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Lower and middle Jurassic sandstones across western North America were correlated using stratigraphic thickness and lithofacies data obtained from the AAPG-produced Correlation of Stratigraphic Units of North America (COSUNA) data charts and spreadsheets. An isopach map and a series of stratigraphic cross-sections were created to display the lateral and horizontal extent of the correlated formations. The goal was to determine lateral equivalents of the primarily lower Jurassic Navajo Sandstone from Utah, Arizona, and Colorado. The Nugget Sandstone of Wyoming, Utah, and southern Idaho, and the Aztec Sandstone of southeastern California and southern Nevada were determined to be laterally equivalent to ...


Transition From Contraction To Extension In The Northeastern Basin And Range: New Evidence From The Copper Mountains, Nevada, Jeffrey M. Rahl, Allen J. McGrew, Kenneth A. Foland 2016 Yale University

Transition From Contraction To Extension In The Northeastern Basin And Range: New Evidence From The Copper Mountains, Nevada, Jeffrey M. Rahl, Allen J. Mcgrew, Kenneth A. Foland

Allen J. McGrew

New mapping, structural analysis, and 40Ar/39Ar dating reveal an unusually well‐constrained history of Late Eocene extension in the Copper Mountains of the northern Basin and Range province. In this area, the northeast‐trending Copper Creek normal fault juxtaposes a distinctive sequence of metacarbonate and granitoid rocks against a footwall of Upper Precambrian to Lower Cambrian quartzite and phyllite. Correlation of the hanging wall with footwall rocks to the northwest provides an approximate piercing point that requires 8–12 km displacement in an ESE direction. This displaced fault slice is itself bounded above by another normal fault (the Meadow ...


Prevailing Weather Conditions During Summer Seasons Around Gangotri Glacier, Pratap Singh, Umesh K. Haritashya, K. S. Ramasastri, Naresh Kumar 2016 Hydro Tasmania Consulting

Prevailing Weather Conditions During Summer Seasons Around Gangotri Glacier, Pratap Singh, Umesh K. Haritashya, K. S. Ramasastri, Naresh Kumar

Umesh K. Haritashya

Meteorological data collected near the snout of the Gangotri Glacier suggest that the study area receives less rainfall. The average seasonal rainfall is observed to be about 260 mm. The rainfall distribution does not show any monsoon impact. Amount of seasonal rainfall is highly variable (131.4-368.8 mm) from year to year, but, in general, August had the maximum rainfall. A verage daily maximum and minimum temperatures were 14.7 and 4.1°C respectively, whereas average mean temperature was 9.4°C. July was recorded as the warmest month. During daytime, wind speed was four times higher than ...


Multispectral Image Analysis Of Glaciers And Glacier Lakes In The Chugach Mountains, Alaska, Jeffrey Kargel, Matthew Beedle, Andrew Bush, Francisco Carreño, Elena Castellanos, Umesh Haritashya, Gregory Leonard, Javier Lillo, Ivan Lopez, Mark Pleasants, Edward Pollock, David Wolfe 2016 University of Colorado

Multispectral Image Analysis Of Glaciers And Glacier Lakes In The Chugach Mountains, Alaska, Jeffrey Kargel, Matthew Beedle, Andrew Bush, Francisco Carreño, Elena Castellanos, Umesh Haritashya, Gregory Leonard, Javier Lillo, Ivan Lopez, Mark Pleasants, Edward Pollock, David Wolfe

Umesh Haritashya

The Chugach Mountains contain the largest nonpolar alpine glaciers in the world and include a wide variety of glacier types: some are land terminating; some calve variously into tidewater, lakes, and rivers; some are heavily debris covered; some are surge-type, whereas others are neither debris covered nor surge type. Nearly all are retreating, thinning, or both, though some rare ones are advancing, and some are thickening at high elevations. To assist the further documentation of changes, we establish an inventory of glaciers in the eastern Chugach Mountains. Several case studies of diverse glacier types showcase remotesensing applications and are used ...


Porosity Controls On Secondary Recovery At The Loudon Field, South-Central Illinois, John S. Wagle, David H. Malone, Eric Wade Peterson 2016 Illinois State University

Porosity Controls On Secondary Recovery At The Loudon Field, South-Central Illinois, John S. Wagle, David H. Malone, Eric Wade Peterson

Eric Wade Peterson

Waterflooding has been used as an effective means to enhance oil recovery in mature oil fields for decades.
The success of waterflooding is a function of geology, facies changes, and fluid dynamics, specifically, formation
porosity and permeability. Within the Loudon oil field (Illinois), waterflooding has been used to increase pro-
duction, but the degree of success has been variable. We have used 3D facies modeling was evaluate the var-
iables controlling the success or failure of waterflooding. Three leases within the Loudon field exhibiting varying
degrees of waterflood success were investigated. The K. Stubblefield lease, with the highest mean porosity ...


The Longest Cave In The World: Kentucky's Mammoth Cave Systems, Chris Groves 2016 Selected Works

The Longest Cave In The World: Kentucky's Mammoth Cave Systems, Chris Groves

Chris Groves

No abstract provided.


Testing Of The Late-Ordovician Pre-Gice Warm Water Carbonate Hypothesis In Alabama, Brandon Euker, Stacey Law 2016 James Madison University

Testing Of The Late-Ordovician Pre-Gice Warm Water Carbonate Hypothesis In Alabama, Brandon Euker, Stacey Law

Senior Honors Projects

The Guttenberg Carbon Isotope Excursion (GICE) (uppermost Sandbian-lower Katian, Late Ordovician) has been suggested to represent the transition from a Cambrian-Ordovician greenhouse world to Late Ordovician icehouse world. This transition is thought to coincide with a proposed shift from deposition of warm water carbonate rocks to cool water carbonate rocks in the North American midcontinent. We used oxygen isotopes (d18O) of conodonts to test the idea that the rocks below the GICE interval represent a consistently warm environment. Conodonts were isolated from samples of the Chickamauga Group collected at the Tidwell Hollow section in Blount County, AL, from ...


Late Pleistocene Glaciations And Catastrophic Glacial Floods Of Central Colorado, Cole C. Pazar 2016 University of Colorado Boulder, Department of Geological Sciences

Late Pleistocene Glaciations And Catastrophic Glacial Floods Of Central Colorado, Cole C. Pazar

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Late Pleistocene glaciations of the Sawatch and Elk Mountain Ranges of Central Colorado at ~130 and ~20 ka left behind glacial features in the topography, ideal for constraining the local climactic variability. In the northern end of the Sawatch Range, distinct lateral and terminal moraines reveal strong geologic evidence that multiple large glaciers drained eastward. Two of these appear to have dammed the Arkansas River. Very fine-grained lacustrine sediments, ‘ice-rafted’ boulders, and catastrophic glacial flood boulders down-valley, show at least two glacial-ice dammed lakes that catastrophically drained. We report flood discharge calculations consistent with previous estimates, on the order of ...


Lateral Variations In Sediment Provenance And Grain Size Along The Baffin Island Slope, Anna Klein 2016 University of Colorado, Boulder

Lateral Variations In Sediment Provenance And Grain Size Along The Baffin Island Slope, Anna Klein

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Baffin Bay is a 689,000 km­­2 basin linking the Arctic and the North Atlantic oceans. Nearby ice sheets and their ice streams are responsible for eroding, transporting, and depositing sediment of various size fractions on the sea floor. For over thirty years, geologists have known of the presence of detrital carbonate-rich (DC-) facies in the Baffin Bay Quaternary sediment sequence. It has been demonstrated that the distribution of marine carbonate facies, carbonate sources on land, and carbonate on the floors of the large Canadian Arctic Channels can reveal a relationship between land and sea records. This thesis aims ...


Stratigraphy And Extent Of The Pearl-Ashmore Aquifer, Mchenry County, Il, Usa, Drew C. Carlock, David H. Malone, Jason F. Thomason, Eric Wade Peterson 2015 Illinois State University

Stratigraphy And Extent Of The Pearl-Ashmore Aquifer, Mchenry County, Il, Usa, Drew C. Carlock, David H. Malone, Jason F. Thomason, Eric Wade Peterson

Eric Wade Peterson

Quaternary glacial till, outwash, lake sediments, and loess compose the surficial deposits of McHenry County, Illinois. Much of the landscape of McHenry County were formed by at least three separate advances of the Harvard Sublobe of the Wisconsin Episode Lake Michigan Lobe, which was part of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. This project focuses on the delineation of the stratigraphy and extent of the Pearl-Ashmore Aquifer. The Pearl-Ashmore Aquifer is the combination of the proglacial outwash of the Wisconsin Episode Ashmore Tongue of the Henry Formation and the youngest outwash associated with the Illinois Episode, which is the Pearl Formation. A ...


Sequence Stratigraphic Framework Of Carbonate Diagenesis Within Neogene Glaciomarine Sandstones Of The Victoria Land Basin, Antarctica: Insights Into Reservoir Quality In Polar Settings, Daniel P. Dunham 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Sequence Stratigraphic Framework Of Carbonate Diagenesis Within Neogene Glaciomarine Sandstones Of The Victoria Land Basin, Antarctica: Insights Into Reservoir Quality In Polar Settings, Daniel P. Dunham

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

The controls on reservoir quality of most clastic sedimentary deposits are well-documented and understood. However, comparatively little is known about the reservoir potential of glaciogenic and glaciomarine deposits. This study investigates the Neogene strata of the AND-2A core recovered by the ANDRILL-Southern McMurdo Sound Project in the Victoria Land Basin, Antarctica, as an analog for assessing controls on reservoir quality in glaciomarine deposits. A petrographic analysis was conducted on 60 sandstone samples from various depths throughout the core, and carbonate diagenetic phases and morphologies were documented. Four sequences were examined in detail. Point counting on all samples was done to ...


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