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Interpreting The Origin And Evolution Of ‘Karst’ Features From A Siliceous Hydrothermal Terrane: A Case Study From The Upper Geyser Basin In Yellowstone National Park, Usa, Kevin W. Blackwood, Lainee A. Sanders, Stacy I. Gantt-Blackwood 2018 East Central University

Interpreting The Origin And Evolution Of ‘Karst’ Features From A Siliceous Hydrothermal Terrane: A Case Study From The Upper Geyser Basin In Yellowstone National Park, Usa, Kevin W. Blackwood, Lainee A. Sanders, Stacy I. Gantt-Blackwood

International Journal of Speleology

The Upper Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park occurs over a siliceous hydrothermal terrane containing numerous hot springs and geysers. The pool and vent-conduit geometries of these hydrothermal features share a resemblance to conventional karst features known from other rock types, suggesting karst processes could be responsible for their origin and/or evolution. Hypogene speleogenesis is a cave-forming process in which the formation of caves is decoupled from and occurs independently of surface recharge. The geologic setting for hypogene speleogenesis typically occurs at the distal end of regional groundwater systems wherein the hydrogeology is manifested by ascending fluids and/or ...


Extremely High Diversity Of Sulfate Minerals In Caves Of The Irazú Volcano (Costa Rica) Related To Crater Lake And Fumarolic Activity, Andrés Ulloa, Fernando Gázquez, Aurelio Sanz-Arranz, Jesús Medina, Fernando Rull, José María Calaforra, Guillermo E. Alvarado, María Martínez, Geoffroy Avard, J. Maarten De Moor, Jo De Waele 2018 Universidad de Costa Rica

Extremely High Diversity Of Sulfate Minerals In Caves Of The Irazú Volcano (Costa Rica) Related To Crater Lake And Fumarolic Activity, Andrés Ulloa, Fernando Gázquez, Aurelio Sanz-Arranz, Jesús Medina, Fernando Rull, José María Calaforra, Guillermo E. Alvarado, María Martínez, Geoffroy Avard, J. Maarten De Moor, Jo De Waele

International Journal of Speleology

The caves of the Irazú volcano (Costa Rica), became accessible after the partial collapse of the NW sector of the Irazú volcano in 1994, offering the opportunity to investigate active minerogenetic processes in volcanic cave environments. We performed a detailed mineralogical and geochemical study of speleothems in the caves Cueva los Minerales and Cueva Los Mucolitos, both located in the northwest foothills of the main crater. Mineralogical analyses included X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy, while geochemical characterization used Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) coupled to Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). In addition, measurements of environmental parameters in the caves, cave ...


Infrasound Tornillos Produced By Volcán Cotopaxi’S Deep Crater, J. B. Johnson, M. C. Ruiz, H. D. Ortiz, L. M. Watson, G. Viracucha, P. Ramon, M. Almeida 2018 Boise State University

Infrasound Tornillos Produced By Volcán Cotopaxi’S Deep Crater, J. B. Johnson, M. C. Ruiz, H. D. Ortiz, L. M. Watson, G. Viracucha, P. Ramon, M. Almeida

CGISS Publications and Presentations

We characterize and interpret a new type of infrasound signal originating from the summit of Volcán Cotopaxi (Ecuador) that was primarily observed between September 2015 and March 2016, following the 2015 eruptive period. This infrasound waveform is a slowly decaying sinusoid with exceptional low-frequency (fp = 0.2 Hz) and high quality factor (Q = ~10) and resembles the shape of tornillo seismic waveforms. The repeating events, occurring about once per day in early 2016, are stable in frequency content, and we attribute them to excitation of a vertical-walled crater, with radius of about 125mand length of 300 m. Spectral properties ...


Lava, Ash Flows, Mudslides And Nasty Gases: Good Reasons To Respect Volcanoes, Brittany Brand 2018 Boise State University

Lava, Ash Flows, Mudslides And Nasty Gases: Good Reasons To Respect Volcanoes, Brittany Brand

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Volcanoes are beautiful and awe-inspiring, but the ongoing eruption of Kilauea on Hawaii’s Big Island is showing how dangerous these events can be. So far this event has destroyed dozens of homes and displaced hundreds of people, but no deaths or serious injuries have been reported. Other volcanic eruptions have had deadlier impacts.


Estimation Of Porosity And Water Saturation In Dual-Porosity Pyroclastic Deposits From Joint Analysis Of Compression, Shear, And Electromagnetic Velocities, Andrew C. Gase, John H. Bradford, Brittany D. Brand 2018 University of Texas at Austin

Estimation Of Porosity And Water Saturation In Dual-Porosity Pyroclastic Deposits From Joint Analysis Of Compression, Shear, And Electromagnetic Velocities, Andrew C. Gase, John H. Bradford, Brittany D. Brand

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

In situ measurements of porosity and water saturation of pyroclastic deposits have the potential to improve interpretations of geology and hydrology in volcanic regions, and to provide more accurate estimates of dense rock equivalent for volcanic eruptions. However, rock-property models must consider the dual-porosity structure of pyroclastic deposits (i.e., vesicles within pumices and intergranular pores). Vesicularity, intergranular porosity, and water saturation all affect the density, elasticity, and dielectric properties of pyroclastic materials, which control seismic and electromagnetic velocities. The data from active seismic and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) techniques may improve porosity and water saturation estimation if the responses of ...


Diverse Eruptive Activity Revealed By Acoustic And Electromagnetic Observations Of The 14 July 2013 Intense Vulcanian Eruption Of Tungurahua Volcano, Ecuador, J. F. Anderson, J. B. Johnson, A. L. Steele, M. C. Ruiz, B. D. Brand 2018 Boise State University

Diverse Eruptive Activity Revealed By Acoustic And Electromagnetic Observations Of The 14 July 2013 Intense Vulcanian Eruption Of Tungurahua Volcano, Ecuador, J. F. Anderson, J. B. Johnson, A. L. Steele, M. C. Ruiz, B. D. Brand

CGISS Publications and Presentations

During the powerful July 2013 eruption of Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador, we recorded exceptionally high amplitude, long‐period infrasound (1,600‐Pa peak‐to‐peak amplitude, 5.5‐s period) on sensors within 2km of the vent alongside electromagnetic signals from volcanic lightning serendipitously captured as interference. This explosion was one of Tungurahua's most powerful vulcanian eruptions since recent activity began in 1999, and its acoustic wave is among the most powerful volcanic infrasound ever recorded anywhere. We use these data to quantify erupted volume from the main explosion and to classify postexplosive degassing into distinct emission styles. Additionally, we ...


Conflicting Theories: Impact And Volcanism, Dimitrik Johnson 2018 Germanna Community College

Conflicting Theories: Impact And Volcanism, Dimitrik Johnson

Student Writing

The K-Pg extinction (or K-T extinction), more commonly referred to as the extinction of the dinosaurs, is the most recent mass extinction event in Earth’s history. The causes of the event have been widely debated, with the two main theories being a large asteroid impact or volcanism. While some scientists disagree, the most popular and agreed upon theory is that a large asteroid impacted Earth 65 million years ago, creating a toxic dust cloud that filled the atmosphere, and resulted in the eventual extinction of most of the dinosaurs. This theory was first brought to life by Luis Alvarez ...


Identifying The Origins Of Volcanic Ash Deposits Using Their Chemical And Physical Compositions, Emmanuel Soto 2018 Florida International University

Identifying The Origins Of Volcanic Ash Deposits Using Their Chemical And Physical Compositions, Emmanuel Soto

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Recent ocean sediments collected offshore Chile by Ocean Drilling Program Leg 202 contained layers of volcanic ash of unknown origin. These deposits may have originated from sources in the Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ) within the Andean Volcanic Belt to the east, or from explosive volcanoes in the southwestern Pacific transported by westerly prevailing winds. In this study, mineral and glass textures and compositions of Leg 202 ashes were evaluated to try to determine the sources of the ash layers. Ash fragments were imaged and analyzed for major elements using an SEM with X-Ray detector and for trace elements using LA-ICPMS ...


Estimation Of Porosity And Water Saturation In Dual-Porosity Pyroclastic Deposits From Joint Analysis Of Compression, Shear, And Electromagnetic Velocities, Andrew C. Gase, John H. Bradford, Brittany D. Brand 2018 University of Texas at Austin

Estimation Of Porosity And Water Saturation In Dual-Porosity Pyroclastic Deposits From Joint Analysis Of Compression, Shear, And Electromagnetic Velocities, Andrew C. Gase, John H. Bradford, Brittany D. Brand

Brittany D. Brand

In situ measurements of porosity and water saturation of pyroclastic deposits have the potential to improve interpretations of geology and hydrology in volcanic regions, and to provide more accurate estimates of dense rock equivalent for volcanic eruptions. However, rock-property models must consider the dual-porosity structure of pyroclastic deposits (i.e., vesicles within pumices and intergranular pores). Vesicularity, intergranular porosity, and water saturation all affect the density, elasticity, and dielectric properties of pyroclastic materials, which control seismic and electromagnetic velocities. The data from active seismic and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) techniques may improve porosity and water saturation estimation if the responses of ...


Forecasting The Eruption Of An Open‐Vent Volcano Using Resonant Infrasound Tones, Jeffrey B. Johnson, Leighton M. Watson, Jose L. Palma, Eric M. Dunham, Jacob F. Anderson 2018 Boise State University

Forecasting The Eruption Of An Open‐Vent Volcano Using Resonant Infrasound Tones, Jeffrey B. Johnson, Leighton M. Watson, Jose L. Palma, Eric M. Dunham, Jacob F. Anderson

CGISS Publications and Presentations

Open‐vent volcanic systems with active degassing are particularly effective at producing infrasound that exhibits resonant tones controlled by the geometry of the volcano's crater. Changes in the infrasound character can thus provide constraints on a crater's lava level, which may vary dynamically in the lead‐up to an eruption. Here we show that the increasing frequency content and damping characteristics of the resonant infrasound at Volcán Villarrica (Chile) relate to lava lake position in its crater/conduit preceding its 2015 eruption. We model the acoustic response of Villarrica's crater to determine that the lake began to ...


Improved Estimates Of Glacier Change Rates At Nevado Coropuna Ice Cap, Peru, William Hardy Kochtitzky, Benjamin R. Edwards, Ellyn M. Enderlin, Jersy Marino, Nelida Marinque 2018 Dickinson College

Improved Estimates Of Glacier Change Rates At Nevado Coropuna Ice Cap, Peru, William Hardy Kochtitzky, Benjamin R. Edwards, Ellyn M. Enderlin, Jersy Marino, Nelida Marinque

Faculty and Staff Publications By Year

Accurate quantification of rates of glacier mass loss is critical for managing water resources and for assessing hazards at ice-clad volcanoes, especially in arid regions like southern Peru. In these regions, glacier and snow melt are crucial dry season water resources. In order to verify previously reported rates of ice area decline at Nevado Coropuna in Peru, which are anomalously rapid for tropical glaciers, we measured changes in ice cap area using 259 Landsat images acquired from 1980 to 2014. We find that Coropuna Ice Cap is presently the most extensive ice mass in the tropics, with an area of ...


Trace Element And Isotopic Fingerprinting Of Olivine Phenocrysts As Recorders Of Magmatic Processes In The Golden Trout Volcanic Field, Kern Plateau, Ca, Mark E. Szymanski 2018 Humboldt State University

Trace Element And Isotopic Fingerprinting Of Olivine Phenocrysts As Recorders Of Magmatic Processes In The Golden Trout Volcanic Field, Kern Plateau, Ca, Mark E. Szymanski

Theses and projects

Quaternary mafic volcanism in the western Basin and Range and in the southeastern Sierra Nevada is largely controlled by extensional stresses that promote magma generation through decompression melting of the lithospheric and asthenospheric mantle. Where volcanism occurs in the Sierra Nevada, like at the Golden Trout Volcanic Field GTVF), the eruption rate, number of vents, and eruption volume is an order of magnitude less than at neighboring Basin and Range volcanic fields such as the Big Pine Volcanic Field (BPVF). To determine the factors that cause these differences in adjacent and contemporaneous volcanic fields, I sampled rocks from both fields ...


Tuhualite In A Peralkaline Rhyolitic Ignimbrite From Pantelleria, Italy., Boguslaw Baginski, Ray Macdonald, John C. White, Lidia Jezak 2018 University of Warsaw

Tuhualite In A Peralkaline Rhyolitic Ignimbrite From Pantelleria, Italy., Boguslaw Baginski, Ray Macdonald, John C. White, Lidia Jezak

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

An occurrence of the rare mineral tuhualite (NaFe3+Fe2+Si6O15) is reported in a peralkaline rhyolitic ignimbrite from the 11 island of Pantelleria, Italy. The mineral formed during devitrification of glassy fiamme and varies in form from anhedral plates to 12 perfect euhedral in open vesicles. There is significant replacement of Fe2+ by Mn (FMQ in the presence of a 14 hydrous fluid.


Structural Analysis Of The Northwest Wind Mountain Quadrangle, New Mexico: Proterozoic Shearing To Cenozoic Brittle Faulting In The Burro Mountains, Jensen Kohl Angelloz 2017 Stephen F. Austin State University

Structural Analysis Of The Northwest Wind Mountain Quadrangle, New Mexico: Proterozoic Shearing To Cenozoic Brittle Faulting In The Burro Mountains, Jensen Kohl Angelloz

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Preliminary investigation of the Bullard Peak metamorphic series (BPMS) in the northwestern Wind Mountain quadrangle within the Burro Mountains of southwestern New Mexico suggests a possible previously unidentified shear zone, prompting detailed (1:12,000) geologic mapping and collection of structural data. The study area has a complex tectonic history, including 1) ~1.65 Ga metamorphism during accretion of the Mazatzal terrane to Laurentia’s southern margin; 2) ~1.4 Ga intrusion of Granite and Rhyolite Province granitoids; 3) significant uplift during the formation of the Ancestral Rockies (~300 Ma) and the Rocky Mountains (~70-50 Ma); and 4) inversion tectonics ...


Conduction Plus Convection Heat Flow Modeling For The Linga Complex, Peruvian Coastal Batholith, Luciano Uriel González Olivares 2017 Loma Linda University

Conduction Plus Convection Heat Flow Modeling For The Linga Complex, Peruvian Coastal Batholith, Luciano Uriel González Olivares

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

Factors affecting the thermal evolution of the Linga magmatic intrusion in the Ica-Pisco area of the Peruvian Coastal Batholith were studied using field work, petrography, geochemistry data, and computer modeling. Field work and petrography involved collecting samples for geochemical analysis and documenting widespread propylitic and potassic hydrothermal alteration. Major element geochemistry was used to estimate rock density, viscosity, liquidus temperature, and water content. The δ18O values of seven fresh samples showed a slightly increasing west-east and old-young trend of approximately 7-8‰, indicating an increasing crustal component. The δ18O and δD values for eleven altered samples indicated that alteration came mostly ...


The Dynamic Relationship Between The Bear River, Quaternary Basaltic Center, Normal Faults, And The Resulting Rearrangement Of Rivers In The Northeast Edge Of The Great Basin, Southeast Idaho, Brady Utley 2017 Utah State University

The Dynamic Relationship Between The Bear River, Quaternary Basaltic Center, Normal Faults, And The Resulting Rearrangement Of Rivers In The Northeast Edge Of The Great Basin, Southeast Idaho, Brady Utley

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

The objective of this research project in Gem Valley graben, southeast Idaho is to identify the location, age and history of the Quaternary diversion of the Bear River into paleo-Lake Thatcher, and then into the Lake Bonneville basin from the Columbia River basin. Mapping, geochemical analysis, cross-cutting relationships, and five new age determinations, together with prior published research, shed new light on the complex history of interaction between the volcanic rocks, rivers, lakes, and faults in Gem Valley. Research goals were to test the hypothesis that local faulting and volcanism drove the diversion of the Bear River and controlled the ...


Magmatic Hydrothermal Alteration And Secondary Post-Shock Features In Martian Olivine-Phyric Basalt Northwest Africa 10416; Petrology And Geochemistry Of Primitive Achondrite Northwest Africa 11042, Zoltan Vaci 2017 University of New Mexico

Magmatic Hydrothermal Alteration And Secondary Post-Shock Features In Martian Olivine-Phyric Basalt Northwest Africa 10416; Petrology And Geochemistry Of Primitive Achondrite Northwest Africa 11042, Zoltan Vaci

Earth and Planetary Sciences ETDs

The Martian olivine-phyric basalt Northwest Africa (NWA) 10416 contains large olivine xenocrysts whose cores have been stained brown by hydrothermal alteration and whose rims are composed of pristine olivine overgrowths. Microanalysis of these olivine cores reveals various degrees of amorphization, some of which have been overprinted by terrestrial weathering, evident as part of a weathering rind along the exposed surface of the meteorite. Studies of a completely unweathered terrestrial analogue basalt from southern Colorado reveal similar features and indicate that both basalts were altered in a supersolidus magma chamber setting. The alteration features in NWA 10416 thus imply the presence ...


Petrography And Geochemistry Of Oligocene Rhyolitic Volcanic Rocks, Western Mogollon-Datil Volcanic Field, New Mexico, Emily Elizabeth Salings 2017 Missouri State University

Petrography And Geochemistry Of Oligocene Rhyolitic Volcanic Rocks, Western Mogollon-Datil Volcanic Field, New Mexico, Emily Elizabeth Salings

MSU Graduate Theses

The Mogollon-Datil volcanic field (MDVF), located in southern New Mexico, is the remnant of extreme and punctuated volcanism over ~12 m.y. of activity. The Bursum caldera is the youngest of three nested calderas in the Mogollon Mountains in the western MDVF. Here I present data from a high-silica, large volume tuff associated with the Bursum caldera, the Bloodgood Canyon Tuff (BCT). Extensive mapping by previous workers have provided a limited whole rock geochemical dataset and descriptions of the unit, but a detailed study had not been conducted. I present new whole-rock major- and trace-element analyses, Sr, Nd, and Pb ...


Geochronology Of Calc-Alkaline Ash Flow Tuff Units In The Ogollon Datil Volcanic Field, Southern New Mexico: U-Pb In Zircon, Shannon Porter Rentz 2017 Missouri State University

Geochronology Of Calc-Alkaline Ash Flow Tuff Units In The Ogollon Datil Volcanic Field, Southern New Mexico: U-Pb In Zircon, Shannon Porter Rentz

MSU Graduate Theses

Caldera systems are capable of outputting voluminous quantities of volcaniclastic material with wide ranging negative environmental impacts. Determining the behaviors of previously erupted caldera systems may help inform predictive models used to evaluate hazards and assess risks for analogous currently active volcanic systems. The Mogollon-Datil volcanic field (MDVF) is a 40-24 Ma cluster of caldera activity in southern New Mexico tied to the subduction, and possible delamination, of the Farallon plate beneath the North American plate. A regional ignimbrite flare up from 36-24 Ma produced at least 28 caldera-forming eruptions. The calc-alkaline magmatism of three calderas in this field (the ...


Classifying Microseismicty At Mount St. Helens Using A Large-N Array, Margaret E. Glasgow 2017 University of new mexico

Classifying Microseismicty At Mount St. Helens Using A Large-N Array, Margaret E. Glasgow

Earth and Planetary Sciences ETDs

A dense array of ~1,000 continuously recording, short-period geophones was deployed in the summer of 2014 within ~15 km of Mount St. Helens. Two earthquake catalogs created using reverse time imaging and template detection techniques, increase the detection rate and completeness of the earthquake catalog when compared to the permanent network, Pacific Northwest Seismic Network, catalog. An investigation into event type for ~200 of the earthquake detections leads to the discrimination of two major classification groups, volcano-tectonic and long period. Previous to this study, long period earthquakes had not been identified in the upper crust during a volcanically inactive ...


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