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Analysis Of Cryptotephra At Whitney Mesa Nature Preserve, Henderson, Nevada, Alex Newsom 2020 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Analysis Of Cryptotephra At Whitney Mesa Nature Preserve, Henderson, Nevada, Alex Newsom

Calvert Undergraduate Research Awards

Advanced Undergraduate Winner

Cryptotephra (small volcanic shards ranging 20-80 microns in size) were discovered within Unit X of the Las Vegas Formation at Whitney Mesa Nature Preserve, Henderson, Nevada. Cryptotephra are deposited soon after a volcanic eruption and can be used as a dating tool to create narrow time constraints for surrounding sediments. Cryptotephra have many applications but are mainly useful as a dating tool. Their study has important implications for the understanding of the timing of palaeoclimatological and paleoenvironmental events as well as for archaeological studies to date important events in human history.

The Whitney Mesa cryptotephra were correlated ...


Characterization Of Magma Storage And Dynamics At Akutan, Semisopochnoi, And Okmok Volcanoes From Analytical And Numerical Models Of Geodetic, Seismic, And Petrologic Data, Kimberly DeGrandpre 2020 Southern Methodist University

Characterization Of Magma Storage And Dynamics At Akutan, Semisopochnoi, And Okmok Volcanoes From Analytical And Numerical Models Of Geodetic, Seismic, And Petrologic Data, Kimberly Degrandpre

Earth Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Volcanic eruptions can cause significant socioeconomic loss, but a better understanding of the processes and dynamics influencing the evolution of volcanic plumbing systems will advance the development of eruption forecasting models that will ultimately mitigate hazards and risks associated with eruptive events. Geologic and geophysical data must be integrated in 3D, finite- element, multiphysical, numerical models to define the coupled evolution of magmatic and crustal stress regimes in volcanic environments, but in data limited regions this is not always an option. The remote nature of the Aleutian Island Arc restricts ground-based monitoring and sampling efforts, and due to sparse temporal ...


Changes In Atmospheric, Meteorological, And Ocean Parameters Associated With The 12 January 2020 Taal Volcanic Eruption, Feng Jing, Akshansa Chauhan, Ramesh P. Singh, Prasanjit Dash 2020 China Earthquake Administration

Changes In Atmospheric, Meteorological, And Ocean Parameters Associated With The 12 January 2020 Taal Volcanic Eruption, Feng Jing, Akshansa Chauhan, Ramesh P. Singh, Prasanjit Dash

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

The Taal volcano erupted on 12 January 2020, the first time since 1977. About 35 mild earthquakes (magnitude greater than 4.0) were observed on 12 January 2020 induced from the eruption. In the present paper, we analyzed optical properties of volcanic aerosols, volcanic gas emission, ocean parameters using multi-satellite sensors, namely, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder), OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), TROPOMI (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument) and ground observations, namely, Argo, and AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) data. Our detailed analysis shows pronounced changes in all the parameters, which mainly occurred in the western and south-western regions because ...


Reconstruction Of The 2018 Anak Krakatau Collapse Using Planetscope Imaging And Numerical Modeling, Davide Saviano 2020 Michigan Technological University

Reconstruction Of The 2018 Anak Krakatau Collapse Using Planetscope Imaging And Numerical Modeling, Davide Saviano

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The study was focused on the Anak Krakatau sector collapse that occurred on 22 December 2018 in the Sunda Strait (Indonesia). The goal of the study was to monitor and analyze changes of the volcanic edifice and to try to understand causes that may have predisposed and triggered the sector collapse.

The use of different remote sensing techniques allowed the acquisition of thermal data, SO2 emission data, structural data and the identification and analysis of the eruptive events that occurred on Anak Krakatau in the period from 1° January 2016 to 28 February 2019. The acquisition of 1221 thermal ...


Quantification Of Surface Roughness Of Lava Flows On Mars, Carolina Rodriguez Sanchez-Vahamonde 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Quantification Of Surface Roughness Of Lava Flows On Mars, Carolina Rodriguez Sanchez-Vahamonde

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Volcanism has played a significant role throughout Mars’ geologic history. Extensive lava flows are widely spread across Mars’ equatorial region, shaping the surface in a very distinct way. In radar images (at the decimeter scale), these flows are bright, which is a typical characteristic of extremely rough, blocky lavas flows seen on Earth. Although the source of the extreme roughness of Martian lava flows is unknown, their surface roughness parameters can be constrained to 1) gain information about Mars’ interior processes, 2) find appropriate analogues on other planetary bodies, and 3) ideally infer the emplacement style of such lavas. Here ...


Petrogenesis Of Basaltic Lavas In Iceland And The Springerville Volcanic Field, U.S.A.: The Influence Of Tectonic Setting, Depth Of Melting And Volatiles, Marissa Mnich 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Petrogenesis Of Basaltic Lavas In Iceland And The Springerville Volcanic Field, U.S.A.: The Influence Of Tectonic Setting, Depth Of Melting And Volatiles, Marissa Mnich

Doctoral Dissertations

Icelandic basalts were long thought to be low in water (e.g. Gunnarsson et al., 1998), but more recent studies suggest that hotspots, like the Iceland mantle plume, may be a source of hydrous basaltic melts (Nichols et al., 2002). To explore a possible link between location, volatile concentration and resulting petrogenetic implications, samples were collected from eleven volcanic centers throughout Iceland. Water concentrations were measured in melt inclusions and phenocrysts using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Results for a subset of samples indicate variable water in melt inclusions ranging from approximately 50 ppm to over 3000 ppm. Samples from ...


Remote Characterization Of Dominant Wavelengths From Surface Folding On Lava Flows Using Lidar And Discrete Fourier Transform Analyses, Nicholas Deardorff, Adam M. Booth, Katharine Cashman 2019 Indiana University of Pennsylvania

Remote Characterization Of Dominant Wavelengths From Surface Folding On Lava Flows Using Lidar And Discrete Fourier Transform Analyses, Nicholas Deardorff, Adam M. Booth, Katharine Cashman

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Surface folding is common in lava flows of all compositions and is believed to be due to changes in viscosity and flow velocity between the cooling crust and the more fluid flow interior. However, our understanding of the relationship between surface folding and flow rheology is incomplete. In this study we analyze digital terrain models of eight lava flows ranging in composition from basaltic andesite to rhyolite using a discrete Fourier transform analysis to quantitatively determine dominant surface fold wavelengths. Our discrete Fourier transform analyses show that each lava flow has multiple fold generations and that dominant wavelengths are more ...


Synthesizing Field And Experimental Techniques To Investigate The Enigmatic Processes Occurring At The Base Of Pyroclastic Currents, Nicholas M. Pollock 2019 Boise State University

Synthesizing Field And Experimental Techniques To Investigate The Enigmatic Processes Occurring At The Base Of Pyroclastic Currents, Nicholas M. Pollock

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Pyroclastic currents are the deadliest hazard associated with explosive volcanic eruptions. These gravity-driven currents consist of volcanic gases and solid particles that range in size from fine ash to boulders. The dangers associated with pyroclastic currents stem from their unpredictability and ability to travel extremely long distances, sometimes in excess of 100 km. To mitigate the risk to populations and infrastructure, we must understand the processes that control the runout distance of pyroclastic currents. The runout distance depends on the complex interplay of processes related to sediment transport, erosion, and deposition. Historically, studies focused on understanding sediment transport and deposition ...


Geochemical Analysis Of The Chinchín Formation In Southern Ecuador, Katherine Ludwig 2019 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Geochemical Analysis Of The Chinchín Formation In Southern Ecuador, Katherine Ludwig

Celebration of Learning

The subduction of the Nazca Plate under the South American Plate has led to the uplift of the majority of the Andes Mountains, but in Ecuador, the Nazca Plate subducts underneath the North Andes Plate, which then collides with the South American Plate. This tectonic setting has formed two parallel mountain chains as well as a complex series of basins between them. However, the formations that make up these basins are poorly understood. This study focuses on the Chinchín Formation, an ~3.5 km thick, volcanic formation that serves as the bedrock of the Quingeo Basin in southern Ecuador. This ...


Petrology And Geochemistry Of The Bearwallow Mountain Andesite, Mogollon-Datil Volcanic Field, New Mexico, Conor Lee O'Dowd 2019 Missouri State University

Petrology And Geochemistry Of The Bearwallow Mountain Andesite, Mogollon-Datil Volcanic Field, New Mexico, Conor Lee O'Dowd

MSU Graduate Theses

The Mogollon-Datil volcanic field (MDVF), located in southern New Mexico, is the result of episodic volcanism and the transition between arc and rift magmatism. The MDVF has been the focus of several mapping, stratigraphic, petrologic, geochronological, and geochemical studies to understand the complete volcanic and tectonic history. However, the majority of previous studies lack geochemical analyses on intermediate composition volcanic rocks, giving more attention to the large-volume ignimbrites and rhyolite flows as well as the minor basalt flows that occurred between 36 and 20 Ma. I present new whole-rock major- and trace-element analyses and petrographic textures on one of the ...


Petrogenesis Of Off-Axis Lavas Erupted Along The 8˚20’ N Seamount Chain, East Pacific Rise, Molly Kassandra Anderson 2019 Boise State University

Petrogenesis Of Off-Axis Lavas Erupted Along The 8˚20’ N Seamount Chain, East Pacific Rise, Molly Kassandra Anderson

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Lavas erupted at off-axis seamounts provide a window into mantle heterogeneity and melting systematics that are not easily observed on-axis at fast spreading mid-ocean ridges (MORs). This is because axial melts are efficiently mixed and homogenized within shallow axial magma chambers prior to eruption. To understand the deeper magmatic processes contributing to oceanic crustal formation, we examine the compositions of lavas erupted along a chain of off-axis seamounts, adjacent to the East Pacific Rise (EPR). Essential questions include: (1) What is the range of compositional variability erupted off-axis and how does that compare to lavas erupted on-axis? (2) Is there ...


Tropospheric And Ionospheric Anomalies Induced By Volcanic And Saharan Dust Events As Part Of Geosphere Interaction Phenomena, Valerio Tramutoli, Francesco Marchese, Alfredo Falconieri, Carolina Filizzola, Nicola Genzano, Katsumi Hattori, Mariano Lisi, Jann-Yenq Liu, Dimitar Ouzounov, Michel Parrot, Nicola Pergola, Sergey Pulinets 2019 University of Basilicata

Tropospheric And Ionospheric Anomalies Induced By Volcanic And Saharan Dust Events As Part Of Geosphere Interaction Phenomena, Valerio Tramutoli, Francesco Marchese, Alfredo Falconieri, Carolina Filizzola, Nicola Genzano, Katsumi Hattori, Mariano Lisi, Jann-Yenq Liu, Dimitar Ouzounov, Michel Parrot, Nicola Pergola, Sergey Pulinets

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

In this work, we assessed the possible relation of ionospheric perturbations observed by Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions (DEMETER), Global Positioning System total electron content (GPS TEC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-derived outgoing longwave-Earth radiation (OLR), and atmospheric chemical potential (ACP) measurements, with volcanic and Saharan dust events identified by ground and satellite-based medium infrared/thermal infrared (MIR/TIR) observations. The results indicated that the Mt. Etna (Italy) volcanic activity of 2006 was probably responsible for the ionospheric perturbations revealed by DEMETER on 4 November and 6 December and by GPS TEC observations on 4 ...


There She Blows: Public Perceptions Of Mt. Merapi And Mt. Agung, Trey Atticus Spadone 2019 SIT Study Abroad

There She Blows: Public Perceptions Of Mt. Merapi And Mt. Agung, Trey Atticus Spadone

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Since Indonesia sits on the Pacific Ring of Fire, the archipelago is repeatedly affected by tsunamis, landslides, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions. Indonesia has the most active volcanoes of any country in the world due to subduction zones between the Eurasian and Indo-Australian plates. The last major eruptions were in 2017 (Mt. Agung in Bali) and 2010 (Mt. Merapi in Central Java) which both required thousands of people to be evacuated from their homes. Since volcanoes have such a geological presence in the country, I was interested in investigating how aware the public is of volcanoes and their associated risks. Where ...


Engaging The Greater Lafayette Community In A Journey Through The Earth Sciences: Purdue’S Eaps Earth Science Passport Day Event, Dara Laczniak, Bradley Garczynski 2019 Purdue University

Engaging The Greater Lafayette Community In A Journey Through The Earth Sciences: Purdue’S Eaps Earth Science Passport Day Event, Dara Laczniak, Bradley Garczynski

Engagement & Service-Learning Summit

No abstract provided.


Seismic Signals And Sources At Fuego Volcano, Guatemala During January 2012, Kyle Brill 2019 Michigan Technological University

Seismic Signals And Sources At Fuego Volcano, Guatemala During January 2012, Kyle Brill

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Forecasting volcanic activity is challenging. The task is uniquely difficult at open vent volcanoes which present persistent low-level eruptions over long periods of time. Volcán de Fuego in Guatemala began its current eruptive episode in 1999. Fuego exhibited “background” levels of activity during January of 2012 when we installed a temporary monitoring network to produce a detailed baseline description of the volcano’s behavior. We accomplish this using data from two low-frequency microphone arrays, nine broadband (50 Hz to 30 second flat response) seismic stations, and visual time-lapse imagery collected over a period of ten days. We begin with a ...


Testing The Use Of Vegetation Indices As Indicators Of Pre-Eruptive Volcanic Unrest At Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, Quelyn Bekkering 2019 Michigan Technological University

Testing The Use Of Vegetation Indices As Indicators Of Pre-Eruptive Volcanic Unrest At Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, Quelyn Bekkering

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Satellite remote sensing has become an integral part of pre-eruptive and long-term volcano monitoring due to its low cost, spatial and temporal coverage, and time-series analysis capabilities. Pre-eruptive unrest at volcanoes can include increased fluxes of heat and volcanic gases, which can be manifested either directly (e.g., the appearance of thermal anomalies or fumaroles) or indirectly (e.g., through impacts on vegetation health and extent). We are evaluating the use of novel, high spatial and temporal resolution data from the Planet Labs cubesat constellation to monitor changes in vegetation related to volcanic unrest. We present results from a study ...


Volatiles And Trace Element Contents In Melt Inclusions From The Zoned Green Tuff Ignimbrite (Pantelleria, Sicily): Petrological Inferences., Pierangelo Romano, John C. White, Alessandro Ciulla, Ida Di Carlo, Claudia D'Oriano, Patrizia Landi, Silvio G. Rotolo 2019 University of Palermo

Volatiles And Trace Element Contents In Melt Inclusions From The Zoned Green Tuff Ignimbrite (Pantelleria, Sicily): Petrological Inferences., Pierangelo Romano, John C. White, Alessandro Ciulla, Ida Di Carlo, Claudia D'Oriano, Patrizia Landi, Silvio G. Rotolo

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

The island of Pantelleria is one of the best known localities of bimodal mafic-felsic magmatism (alkali basalt and trachyte-pantellerite). Among the felsic rocks, the coexistence in a single eruption of products of both trachyte and pantellerite compositions is limited to few occurrences, the Green Tuff (GT) ignimbrite being one of these. The GT is compositionally zoned from pantellerite (70.1 wt% SiO2, mol Na+K/Al = 1.86, 1871 ppm Zr) at the base to crystal-rich (>30 vol%) comenditic trachyte (63.4 wt% SiO2, mol Na+K/Al = 1.10, 265 ppm Zr) at the top, although the pantellertic compositions ...


Carbonatites As A Record Of The Carbon Isotope Composition Of Large Igneous Province Outgassing, Ellen Gales 2019 CUNY City College

Carbonatites As A Record Of The Carbon Isotope Composition Of Large Igneous Province Outgassing, Ellen Gales

Dissertations and Theses

Large igneous province (LIP) eruptions have been linked in some cases to major perturbations of Earth’s carbon cycle. However, few observations directly constrain the isotopic composition of carbon released by LIP magmas because carbon isotopes fractionate during degassing, which hampers understanding of the relative roles of mantle versus crustal carbon reservoirs. Carbonatite magmatism associated with LIPs provides a unique window into the isotopic systematics of LIP carbon because the majority of carbon in carbonatites crystalizes rather than degassing. Here, we present new δ13C data for the Guli carbonatites in the Siberian Traps. In addition, we compile ~260 ...


Volcanic Glass As A Proxy For Cenozoic Elevation And Climate In The Cascade Mountains, Oregon, Usa, John Bershaw, Elizabeth J. Cassell, Tessa Boe Carlson, Ashley R. Streig, Martin J. Streck 2019 Portland State University

Volcanic Glass As A Proxy For Cenozoic Elevation And Climate In The Cascade Mountains, Oregon, Usa, John Bershaw, Elizabeth J. Cassell, Tessa Boe Carlson, Ashley R. Streig, Martin J. Streck

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

After deposition, volcanic glass hydrates with ambient water, recording the average hydrogen isotope ratio (δD or δ2H) of local meteoric water during the hydration period. Previous researchers have used ancient glass δD values to reconstruct paleotopography and paleoclimate, while others have questioned the long-term reliability of the proxy as a recorder of ancient meteoric water. In this study, we sampled volcanic glasses ranging in age ~33 Ma to(east) side of the Oregon Cascade Mountains. Our results strongly suggest that volcanic glass acquires and preserves δD values that are proportional to the stable isotopic composition of environmental water at the ...


Linking Historical, Field, And Satellite Data To Determine The Relationship Between Gas Emissions And Vegetation Change In The Puhimau Geothermal Area East Rift Zone Kilauea, Hawaii, Christie Torres Rosa 2019 Michigan Technological University

Linking Historical, Field, And Satellite Data To Determine The Relationship Between Gas Emissions And Vegetation Change In The Puhimau Geothermal Area East Rift Zone Kilauea, Hawaii, Christie Torres Rosa

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The Puhimau geothermal area, located near the summit of the Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, has been suggested to represent a ‘window’ into the East Rift Zone. The quantification of CO2 and H2S soil gas emissions improves our understanding of its gas emission mode- including total emission and spatial distribution and contribute to a more accurate estimation of total CO2 and H2S in the thermal area – and how these gas emissions relate to observed vegetation health from satellite data. The total emission of CO2 and H2S was interpolated by the sequential Gaussian simulation ...


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