Estimation Of Porosity And Water Saturation In Dual-Porosity Pyroclastic Deposits From Joint Analysis Of Compression, Shear, And Electromagnetic Velocities, Andrew C. Gase, John H. Bradford, Brittany D. Brand
Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations
In situ measurements of porosity and water saturation of pyroclastic deposits have the potential to improve interpretations of geology and hydrology in volcanic regions, and to provide more accurate estimates of dense rock equivalent for volcanic eruptions. However, rock-property models must consider the dual-porosity structure of pyroclastic deposits (i.e., vesicles within pumices and intergranular pores). Vesicularity, intergranular porosity, and water saturation all affect the density, elasticity, and dielectric properties of pyroclastic materials, which control seismic and electromagnetic velocities. The data from active seismic and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) techniques may improve porosity and water saturation estimation if the responses of ...
Conflicting Theories: Impact And Volcanism, 2018 Germanna Community College
Conflicting Theories: Impact And Volcanism, Dimitrik Johnson
The K-Pg extinction (or K-T extinction), more commonly referred to as the extinction of the dinosaurs, is the most recent mass extinction event in Earth’s history. The causes of the event have been widely debated, with the two main theories being a large asteroid impact or volcanism. While some scientists disagree, the most popular and agreed upon theory is that a large asteroid impacted Earth 65 million years ago, creating a toxic dust cloud that filled the atmosphere, and resulted in the eventual extinction of most of the dinosaurs. This theory was first brought to life by Luis Alvarez ...
Improved Estimates Of Glacier Change Rates At Nevado Coropuna Ice Cap, Peru, 2018 Dickinson College
Improved Estimates Of Glacier Change Rates At Nevado Coropuna Ice Cap, Peru, William Hardy Kochtitzky, Benjamin R. Edwards, Ellyn M. Enderlin, Jersy Marino, Nelida Marinque
Faculty and Staff Publications By Year
Accurate quantification of rates of glacier mass loss is critical for managing water resources and for assessing hazards at ice-clad volcanoes, especially in arid regions like southern Peru. In these regions, glacier and snow melt are crucial dry season water resources. In order to verify previously reported rates of ice area decline at Nevado Coropuna in Peru, which are anomalously rapid for tropical glaciers, we measured changes in ice cap area using 259 Landsat images acquired from 1980 to 2014. We find that Coropuna Ice Cap is presently the most extensive ice mass in the tropics, with an area of ...
Structural Analysis Of The Northwest Wind Mountain Quadrangle, New Mexico: Proterozoic Shearing To Cenozoic Brittle Faulting In The Burro Mountains, 2017 Stephen F. Austin State University
Structural Analysis Of The Northwest Wind Mountain Quadrangle, New Mexico: Proterozoic Shearing To Cenozoic Brittle Faulting In The Burro Mountains, Jensen Kohl Angelloz
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Preliminary investigation of the Bullard Peak metamorphic series (BPMS) in the northwestern Wind Mountain quadrangle within the Burro Mountains of southwestern New Mexico suggests a possible previously unidentified shear zone, prompting detailed (1:12,000) geologic mapping and collection of structural data. The study area has a complex tectonic history, including 1) ~1.65 Ga metamorphism during accretion of the Mazatzal terrane to Laurentia’s southern margin; 2) ~1.4 Ga intrusion of Granite and Rhyolite Province granitoids; 3) significant uplift during the formation of the Ancestral Rockies (~300 Ma) and the Rocky Mountains (~70-50 Ma); and 4) inversion tectonics ...
Conduction Plus Convection Heat Flow Modeling For The Linga Complex, Peruvian Coastal Batholith, 2017 Loma Linda University
Conduction Plus Convection Heat Flow Modeling For The Linga Complex, Peruvian Coastal Batholith, Luciano Uriel González Olivares
Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects
Factors affecting the thermal evolution of the Linga magmatic intrusion in the Ica-Pisco area of the Peruvian Coastal Batholith were studied using field work, petrography, geochemistry data, and computer modeling. Field work and petrography involved collecting samples for geochemical analysis and documenting widespread propylitic and potassic hydrothermal alteration. Major element geochemistry was used to estimate rock density, viscosity, liquidus temperature, and water content. The δ18O values of seven fresh samples showed a slightly increasing west-east and old-young trend of approximately 7-8‰, indicating an increasing crustal component. The δ18O and δD values for eleven altered samples indicated that alteration came mostly ...
The Dynamic Relationship Between The Bear River, Quaternary Basaltic Center, Normal Faults, And The Resulting Rearrangement Of Rivers In The Northeast Edge Of The Great Basin, Southeast Idaho, 2017 Utah State University
The Dynamic Relationship Between The Bear River, Quaternary Basaltic Center, Normal Faults, And The Resulting Rearrangement Of Rivers In The Northeast Edge Of The Great Basin, Southeast Idaho, Brady Utley
All Graduate Plan B and other Reports
The objective of this research project in Gem Valley graben, southeast Idaho is to identify the location, age and history of the Quaternary diversion of the Bear River into paleo-Lake Thatcher, and then into the Lake Bonneville basin from the Columbia River basin. Mapping, geochemical analysis, cross-cutting relationships, and five new age determinations, together with prior published research, shed new light on the complex history of interaction between the volcanic rocks, rivers, lakes, and faults in Gem Valley. Research goals were to test the hypothesis that local faulting and volcanism drove the diversion of the Bear River and controlled the ...
Magmatic Hydrothermal Alteration And Secondary Post-Shock Features In Martian Olivine-Phyric Basalt Northwest Africa 10416; Petrology And Geochemistry Of Primitive Achondrite Northwest Africa 11042, 2017 University of New Mexico
Magmatic Hydrothermal Alteration And Secondary Post-Shock Features In Martian Olivine-Phyric Basalt Northwest Africa 10416; Petrology And Geochemistry Of Primitive Achondrite Northwest Africa 11042, Zoltan Vaci
Earth and Planetary Sciences ETDs
The Martian olivine-phyric basalt Northwest Africa (NWA) 10416 contains large olivine xenocrysts whose cores have been stained brown by hydrothermal alteration and whose rims are composed of pristine olivine overgrowths. Microanalysis of these olivine cores reveals various degrees of amorphization, some of which have been overprinted by terrestrial weathering, evident as part of a weathering rind along the exposed surface of the meteorite. Studies of a completely unweathered terrestrial analogue basalt from southern Colorado reveal similar features and indicate that both basalts were altered in a supersolidus magma chamber setting. The alteration features in NWA 10416 thus imply the presence ...
Geochronology Of Calc-Alkaline Ash Flow Tuff Units In The Ogollon Datil Volcanic Field, Southern New Mexico: U-Pb In Zircon, 2017 Missouri State University
Geochronology Of Calc-Alkaline Ash Flow Tuff Units In The Ogollon Datil Volcanic Field, Southern New Mexico: U-Pb In Zircon, Shannon Porter Rentz
MSU Graduate Theses
Caldera systems are capable of outputting voluminous quantities of volcaniclastic material with wide ranging negative environmental impacts. Determining the behaviors of previously erupted caldera systems may help inform predictive models used to evaluate hazards and assess risks for analogous currently active volcanic systems. The Mogollon-Datil volcanic field (MDVF) is a 40-24 Ma cluster of caldera activity in southern New Mexico tied to the subduction, and possible delamination, of the Farallon plate beneath the North American plate. A regional ignimbrite flare up from 36-24 Ma produced at least 28 caldera-forming eruptions. The calc-alkaline magmatism of three calderas in this field (the ...
Petrography And Geochemistry Of Oligocene Rhyolitic Volcanic Rocks, Western Mogollon-Datil Volcanic Field, New Mexico, 2017 Missouri State University
Petrography And Geochemistry Of Oligocene Rhyolitic Volcanic Rocks, Western Mogollon-Datil Volcanic Field, New Mexico, Emily Elizabeth Salings
MSU Graduate Theses
The Mogollon-Datil volcanic field (MDVF), located in southern New Mexico, is the remnant of extreme and punctuated volcanism over ~12 m.y. of activity. The Bursum caldera is the youngest of three nested calderas in the Mogollon Mountains in the western MDVF. Here I present data from a high-silica, large volume tuff associated with the Bursum caldera, the Bloodgood Canyon Tuff (BCT). Extensive mapping by previous workers have provided a limited whole rock geochemical dataset and descriptions of the unit, but a detailed study had not been conducted. I present new whole-rock major- and trace-element analyses, Sr, Nd, and Pb ...
Classifying Microseismicty At Mount St. Helens Using A Large-N Array, 2017 University of new mexico
Classifying Microseismicty At Mount St. Helens Using A Large-N Array, Margaret E. Glasgow
Earth and Planetary Sciences ETDs
A dense array of ~1,000 continuously recording, short-period geophones was deployed in the summer of 2014 within ~15 km of Mount St. Helens. Two earthquake catalogs created using reverse time imaging and template detection techniques, increase the detection rate and completeness of the earthquake catalog when compared to the permanent network, Pacific Northwest Seismic Network, catalog. An investigation into event type for ~200 of the earthquake detections leads to the discrimination of two major classification groups, volcano-tectonic and long period. Previous to this study, long period earthquakes had not been identified in the upper crust during a volcanically inactive ...
Timing Of Speleogenesis Of Las Karmidas Cave (Mexico): First Description Of Pseudokarst Developed In Ignimbrite, 2017 Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Timing Of Speleogenesis Of Las Karmidas Cave (Mexico): First Description Of Pseudokarst Developed In Ignimbrite, María Del Pilar Aliaga-Campuzano, Rafael López-Martínez, Pablo Dávila-Harris, Ramón Espinasa-Pereña, Adriana Espino Del Castillo, J.P. Bernal
International Journal of Speleology
Las Karmidas Cave (Puebla State, Mexico) is an unusual type of pseudokarstic cavity generated by piping and erosive processes within the contact of a diamicton and an overlying Quaternary ignimbrite. Morphological evidence suggests that the cave was developed in two stages: a phreatic stage and a vadose stage. The latter was characterized by the formation of carbonate speleothems. The absolute upper-age limit for the cave (168 +7.1/-7.5 ka) was established by U-Th dating of zircons grains extracted from the overlying ignimbrite, whilst a minimum age for the transition from a phreatic to vadose regime (95.6 ± 2 ...
The Oligocene West Elk Breccia: Evidence For Massive Volcanic Debris Avalanches In The Eastern Gunnison River Valley, West-Central Colorado, U.S.A., Patrick J. Whalen
Theses and Dissertations--Earth and Environmental Sciences
The West Elk Breccia has been studied since the late 1800’s with many interpretations regarding its origin. One unrecognized possibility is that parts of it are debris-avalanche deposits. This study has recognized evidence for this interpretation at three scales: volcano scale, outcrop scale, and intra-outcrop scale. At the volcano scale, a scarp in the old volcano reveals underlying Mesozoic bedrock, suggesting sector collapse. At the outcrop scale, megablocks of the original edifice, up to hundreds of meters in length, have atypical orientations and are surrounded by a gravel matrix. At the intra-outcrop scale, jigsaw-fit fracturing and rip-up clasts are ...
G:, 2017 Bard College
G:, Taylor Lafe Cantrall
Senior Projects Spring 2017
Senior Project submitted to The Division of Languages and Literature of Bard College.
Volatiles In Subglacially Erupted Basaltic Glasses And Their Use In Reconstructing Paleo-Ice Thicknesses, 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst
Volatiles In Subglacially Erupted Basaltic Glasses And Their Use In Reconstructing Paleo-Ice Thicknesses, Carver Lee
Volatile concentrations in basaltic tuyas, edifices that form during a subglacial eruption and remain once the ice sheet has retreated, have been used to calculate the thickness of the overlying ice sheet at the onset of the eruption (Tuffen, 2010). However, subglacial eruptions are complex events and this technique does not always provide a clear answer (Schopka et al., 2006; Edwards et al., 2009). The purpose of this research is to evaluate this technique and investigate constraints on the quality of data collected by attempting to calculate the minimum ice thickness under which Hlöðufell, a tuya in south-central Iceland, erupted ...
Investigation Of Jet Dynamics In Cross-Flow: Quantifying Volcanic Plume Behavior, 2016 Portland State University
Investigation Of Jet Dynamics In Cross-Flow: Quantifying Volcanic Plume Behavior, Graham Freedland
Dissertations and Theses
Volcanic eruption columns inject high concentrations of ash into the atmosphere. Some of this ash is carried downwind forming ash clouds in the atmosphere that are hazardous for private and commercial aviation. Current models rely on inputs such as plume height, duration, eruption rate, and meteorological wind fields. Eruption rate is estimated from plume height using relations that depend on the rate of air entrainment into the plume, which is not well quantified. A wind tunnel experiment has been designed to investigate these models by injecting a vertical air jet into a cross-flow. The ratio of the cross-flow and jet ...
Change Detection Of Mount Nyiragongo Post Eruption, 2016 Murray State University
Change Detection Of Mount Nyiragongo Post Eruption, Molly E. Karnes
Because of the dangerous nature of volcanic eruptions, it makes them very difficult to study, however this makes them even more important for us to study because of how much destruction they can cause in such a short amount of time. We need to study all parts of an eruption to gain more insight into the specifics of how a volcano works. Having a better understanding of how large of an area is effected by an eruption will allow governments to decide on evacuation procedures. The goal of my project is to answer a very simple question, “How can we ...
Birth And Evolution Of The Rio Grande Fluvial System In The Last 8 Ma:Progressive Downward Integration And Interplay Between Tectonics, Volcanism, Climate, And River Evolution, 2016 University of New Mexico
Birth And Evolution Of The Rio Grande Fluvial System In The Last 8 Ma:Progressive Downward Integration And Interplay Between Tectonics, Volcanism, Climate, And River Evolution, Marisa N. Repasch
Earth and Planetary Sciences ETDs
The Rio Grande-Rio Chama (RG-RC) fluvial system has evolved dramatically over the last 8 Ma, undergoing channel migrations, drainage capture and integration events, volcanic damming, and carving and refilling of paleocanyons. Volcanism concurrent with the development of the river system provides a unique opportunity to apply multiple geochronometers to the study of its incision and drainage evolution. This paper reports 19 new 40Ar/39Ar basalt ages and 19 detrital mineral samples (zircon and sanidine) collected from RG-RC alluvium overlain by dated basalt flows in the context of a compilation of published 40Ar/39Ar basalt ages. The ...
Silicic Volcanism At The Northern And Western Extent Of The Columbia River Basalt Rhyolite Flare-Up: Rhyolites Of Buchanan Volcanic Complex And Dooley Mountain Volcanic Complex, Oregon, 2016 Portland State University
Silicic Volcanism At The Northern And Western Extent Of The Columbia River Basalt Rhyolite Flare-Up: Rhyolites Of Buchanan Volcanic Complex And Dooley Mountain Volcanic Complex, Oregon, Adam M. Large
Dissertations and Theses
Two mid-Miocene (16.5-15 Ma) rhyolite volcanic centers in eastern Oregon, the Buchanan rhyolite complex and Dooley Mountain rhyolite complex, were investigated to characterize eruptive units through field and laboratory analysis. Results of petrographic and geochemical analysis add to field observations to differentiate and discriminate the eruptive units. Additionally, new geochemical data are used to correlate stratigraphically younger and older basalt and ash-flow tuff units with regional eruptive units to constrain the eruptive periods with modern Ar-Ar age dates.
Previous work at the Buchanan rhyolite complex was limited to regional mapping (Piper et al., 1939; Greene et al., 1972) and ...
Tube Coalescence In The Jingfudong Lava Tube And Implications For Lava Flow Hazard Of Tengchong Volcanism, 2016 Key Laboratory of Active Tectonics and Volcano, Institute of Geology
Tube Coalescence In The Jingfudong Lava Tube And Implications For Lava Flow Hazard Of Tengchong Volcanism, Zhengquan Chen, Yongshun Liu, Haiquan Wei, Jiandong Xu, Wenfeng Guo
International Journal of Speleology
Tube-fed structure occurs as a general phenomenon in Tengchong basic lavas, such as lava tubes, lava plugs and tube-related collapse depressions. We deduced the development of Laoguipo lava flows, which is the longest lava tube (Jingfudong lava tube) evolved in Tengchong volcanic area. Following the detailed documentation of the tube morphology of the Jingfudong lava tube, we propose that the Jingfudong lava tube was formed through vertical coalescence of at least three tubes. The coalescence and bifurcation process are re-constructed by interpretation of tube floor continuity, the distribution of remnant tubes and the scales of lava tube branches (shapes of ...
Living In Lahar Zones: Assessing Hazard Exposure, Risk Perception, And Preparedness Behaviors In Communities Within The Mount Baker And Glacier Peak Volcanic Hazard Zones, Kimberley Anne Corwin
Boise State University Theses and Dissertations
As the number of people living at risk from volcanic hazards in the U.S. Pacific Northwest grows, more detailed studies of community hazard exposure, risk perception, and preparedness levels become critical to developing effective mitigation, response, and recovery plans. This thesis uses risk mapping and a knowledge, risk perception, and preparedness survey to examine the risk that lahars from Mount Baker and Glacier Peak volcanoes pose to nearby communities in the Skagit Valley (WA). The risk map component of this research identifies spatial variations in lahar risk and estimates potential losses associated with a maximum envisioned lahar. The survey ...