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Assessing The Use Of Optical Satellite Images To Detect Volcanic Impacts On Glacier Surface Morphology, Michael Dieter Martin, Iestyn Barr, Benjamin R. Edwards, Matteo Spagnolo, Sanaz Vajedian, Elias Symeonakis 2021 Dickinson College

Assessing The Use Of Optical Satellite Images To Detect Volcanic Impacts On Glacier Surface Morphology, Michael Dieter Martin, Iestyn Barr, Benjamin R. Edwards, Matteo Spagnolo, Sanaz Vajedian, Elias Symeonakis

Faculty and Staff Publications By Year

Globally, about 250 Holocene volcanoes are either glacier-clad or have glaciers in close proximity. Interactions between volcanoes and glaciers are therefore common, and some of the most deadly (e.g., Nevado del Ruiz, 1985) and most costly (e.g., Eyjafjallajökull, 2010) eruptions of recent years were associated with glaciovolcanism. An improved understanding of volcano-glacier interactions is therefore of both global scientific and societal importance. This study investigates the potential of using optical satellite images to detect volcanic impacts on glaciers, with a view to utilise detected changes in glacier surface morphology to improve glacier-clad volcano monitoring and eruption forecasting. Roughly ...


The Physical Properties Of Volcanic And Impact Melt, Gavin Douglas Tolometti 2021 The University of Western Ontario

The Physical Properties Of Volcanic And Impact Melt, Gavin Douglas Tolometti

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The emplacement mechanisms of lunar impact melt flows, that form from hypervelocity impact events, have been a subject of debate in the lunar science community, because of their unique physical properties that separate them from other geologic features. Understanding how lunar impact melt flows were emplaced on the surface of the Moon will not only grant us new information about the flow dynamics of impact melt but provide insight into the production and distribution of impact melt and how it built and modified the surfaces of planetary surfaces.

Lunar impact melt flows exhibit surface roughness textures and morphologies that are ...


Experimental Alteration Of Venusian Surface Basalts In A Hybrid Co2-So2 Atmosphere, Robert B. Reid 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Experimental Alteration Of Venusian Surface Basalts In A Hybrid Co2-So2 Atmosphere, Robert B. Reid

Masters Theses

Venus’ surface and interior dynamics remain largely unconstrained, due in great part to the major obstacles imposed by its 470°C, 90 bars surface conditions and its thick, opaque atmosphere. Orbiter-based thermal emission data provide an opportunity to characterize the Venus surface. However, interpretations of such spectra critically depend on understanding interactions between the planet’s surface basaltic rocks and its caustic, SO2-bearing CO2 atmosphere. Several studies, using remote sensing, thermodynamic modeling, and laboratory experiments have placed constraints on alteration mineralogies and rates. Yet constraint with respect to SO2-mediated reactions with basalts of contrasting compositions ...


Using Gis To Create Hazard Maps And Assess Evacuation Routes Around “The Gate To Hell”; Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua, Rebecca Hedges, Stevie McDermaid, Jason Kaiser, David Maxwell, Kathy Matthews 2021 Southern Utah University

Using Gis To Create Hazard Maps And Assess Evacuation Routes Around “The Gate To Hell”; Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua, Rebecca Hedges, Stevie Mcdermaid, Jason Kaiser, David Maxwell, Kathy Matthews

The Compass: Earth Science Journal of Sigma Gamma Epsilon

Volcán Masaya in Nicaragua is made of a series of calderas and craters that lies 7 km from the city of Masaya with a population of over 100,000. Masaya is part of the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA) which contains hundreds of volcanoes. While many of the volcanoes of the arc produce small, quiescent eruptions, some are capable of large explosive events. The recent cycle of volcanism at Masaya began 7000 years ago. Initial eruptions were primarily lava, small ash flows, ashfalls, and degassing events which eventually gave way to climactic Vulcanian eruptions. The hazards presented from this system ...


Serial Interaction Of Primitive Magmas With Felsic And Mafic Crust Recorded By Gabbroic Dikes From The Antarctic Extension Of The Karoo Large Igneous Province, Jussi S. Heinonen, Arto V. Luttinen, Frank J. Spera, Saku K. Vuori, Wendy A. Bohrson 2021 University of Helsinki

Serial Interaction Of Primitive Magmas With Felsic And Mafic Crust Recorded By Gabbroic Dikes From The Antarctic Extension Of The Karoo Large Igneous Province, Jussi S. Heinonen, Arto V. Luttinen, Frank J. Spera, Saku K. Vuori, Wendy A. Bohrson

Geological Sciences Faculty Scholarship

Two subvertical gabbroic dikes with widths of ~ 350 m (East-Muren) and ≥ 500 m (West-Muren) crosscut continental flood basalts in the Antarctic extension of the ~ 180 Ma Karoo large igneous province (LIP) in Vestfjella, western Dronning Maud Land. The dikes exhibit unusual geochemical profiles; most significantly, initial (at 180 Ma) εNd values increase from the dike interiors towards the hornfelsed wallrock basalts (from − 15.3 to − 7.8 in East-Muren and more gradually from − 9.0 to − 5.5 in West-Muren). In this study, we utilize models of partial melting and energy-constrained assimilation‒fractional crystallization in deciphering the magmatic evolution ...


Quantifying Shape Of Star-Like Objects Using Shape Curves And A New Compactness Measure, Gopal K. Mulukutla, Emese Hadnagy, Matthew Fearon, Edward Garboczi 2021 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Quantifying Shape Of Star-Like Objects Using Shape Curves And A New Compactness Measure, Gopal K. Mulukutla, Emese Hadnagy, Matthew Fearon, Edward Garboczi

Earth Systems Research Center

Shape is an important indicator of the physical and chemical behavior of natural and engineered particulate materials (e.g., sediment, sand, rock, volcanic ash). It directly or indirectly affects numerous microscopic and macroscopic geologic, environmental and engineering processes. Due to the complex, highly irregular shapes found in particulate materials, there is a perennial need for quantitative shape descriptions. We developed a new characterization method (shape curve analysis) and a new quantitative measure (compactness, not the topological mathematical definition) by applying a fundamental principle that the geometric anisotropy of an object is a unique signature of its internal spatial distribution ...


Extreme Heterogeneity In Mid-Ocean Ridge Mantle Revealed In Lavas From The 8°20′N Near-Axis Seamount Chain, Molly Anderson, V. Dorsey Wanless, Michael Perfit, Ethan Conrad, Patricia Gregg, Daniel Fornari, W. Ian Ridley 2021 Boise State University

Extreme Heterogeneity In Mid-Ocean Ridge Mantle Revealed In Lavas From The 8°20′N Near-Axis Seamount Chain, Molly Anderson, V. Dorsey Wanless, Michael Perfit, Ethan Conrad, Patricia Gregg, Daniel Fornari, W. Ian Ridley

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Lavas that have erupted at near‐axis seamounts provide windows into mid‐ocean ridge mantle heterogeneity and melting systematics which are not easily observed on‐axis at fast‐spreading centers. Beneath ridges, most heterogeneity is obscured as magmas aggregate toward the ridge, where they efficiently mix and homogenize during transit and within shallow magma chambers prior to eruption. To understand the deeper magmatic processes contributing to oceanic crustal formation, we examine the compositions of lavas erupted along a chain of near‐axis seamounts and volcanic ridges perpendicular to the East Pacific Rise. We assess the chemistry of near‐ridge mantle ...


Seismotectonic Interpretation Of An Expansive Set Of Earthquake Focal Mechanisms From First Motions And Amplitude Ratios On The Yellowstone Plateau, Cristhian Salas Pazmiño 2021 Michigan Technological University

Seismotectonic Interpretation Of An Expansive Set Of Earthquake Focal Mechanisms From First Motions And Amplitude Ratios On The Yellowstone Plateau, Cristhian Salas Pazmiño

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

We present high-quality focal mechanisms and stress inversions based on a refined earthquake location catalog for the Yellowstone Plateau. The relocation process is based on non-linear search techniques that use three-dimensional velocity models. The original catalog contained 18,940 events between January 2010 and March 2021 and was obtained from the University of Utah Seismograph Stations. We successfully relocate 7735 earthquakes and use this information to calculate the focal mechanisms by using two approaches. First, we only consider the P-wave first motion polarities and use the HASH program. For the second approach, we include the S-wave/P-wave amplitude ratios and ...


Volcan De Fuego: A Machine Learning Approach In Understanding The Eruptive Cycles Using Precursory Tilt Signals, Kay Sivaraj 2021 Michigan Technological University

Volcan De Fuego: A Machine Learning Approach In Understanding The Eruptive Cycles Using Precursory Tilt Signals, Kay Sivaraj

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Volcan de Fuego is an active stratovolcano located in the Central Guatemalan segment of the 1100 m long Central America Volcanic Arc System (CAVAS). Fuego-Acatenango massif consists of at least four major vents of which the Fuego summit vent is the most active and the youngest member. The volcano exhibits primarily Strombolian and Vulcanian behavior along with occasional paroxysms and pyroclastic flows. Historically, Fuego has produced basaltic-andesitic rocks with more recent eruptions progressively trending towards maficity. Several studies have used short-term deployments of broadband seismometers, infrasound, and long-term remote sensing techniques to characterize the mechanism of Fuego. In our study ...


Evolution Of The Magma System Of Pantelleria (Italy) From 190 Ka To Present., Nina J. Jordan, John C. White, Ray Macdonald, Silvio G. Rotolo 2021 University of Leicester

Evolution Of The Magma System Of Pantelleria (Italy) From 190 Ka To Present., Nina J. Jordan, John C. White, Ray Macdonald, Silvio G. Rotolo

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

The eruptive history of Pantelleria has been marked by the eruption of nine peralkaline ignimbrites, with inter-ignimbrite episodes from small, local volcanic centres. New whole-rock geochemical data are presented for seven ignimbrites and used with published data for younger units to track compositional changes with time. From ∼190 ka, silicic magmatism was dominated by comenditic trachyte to comendite compositions, evolving along generally similar liquid lines of descent (LLOD). The final ignimbrite, the Green Tuff (∼46 ka), was tapped from a compositionally zoned pantelleritic upper reservoir to a trachytic mush zone. Younger (20–7 ka) silicic magmatism has been relatively small ...


Volcanological Evolution Of Pantelleria Island (Strait Of Sicily) Peralkaline Volcano: A Review, Silvio G. Rotolo, Stéphane Scaillet, Fabio Speranza, John C. White, Rebecca Williams, Nina J. Jordan 2021 Universita degli Studi di Palermo

Volcanological Evolution Of Pantelleria Island (Strait Of Sicily) Peralkaline Volcano: A Review, Silvio G. Rotolo, Stéphane Scaillet, Fabio Speranza, John C. White, Rebecca Williams, Nina J. Jordan

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

Pantelleria volcano has a particularly intriguing evolutionary history intimately related to the peralkaline composition of its explosively erupted magmas. Due to the stratigraphic complexity, studies over the last two decades have explored either only the pre-Green Tuff ignimbrite volcanism or the post-Green Tuff activity. We here focus on the whole evolutionary history, detailing the achievements since the first pioneering studies, in order to illustrate how the adoption and integration of progressively more accurate methods (40Ar/39Ar, paleomagnetism, petrography, and detailed field study) have provided many important independent answers to unresolved questions. We also discuss rheomorphism, a distinct feature at Pantelleria ...


Independent, Semi-Automated Classification Of Petrographic Features In Volcanic Rocks Using Fiji And Weka, Holly Danielle Pettus 2021 West Virginia University

Independent, Semi-Automated Classification Of Petrographic Features In Volcanic Rocks Using Fiji And Weka, Holly Danielle Pettus

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Traditional methods of collecting quantitative petrographic data from thin sections (modal mineralogy, size distribution, shapes, etc.) are time- and labor-intensive, and rarely have sample sizes adequate to statistically describe complex rocks (i.e. volcanic rocks). Although manual counting and measurements are now routinely supplemented by digital image analysis, the majority of quantitative petrographic studies still go through a manual digitization stage where object classes are traced before further analyses. This is a major rate-limiting step that reproduces the same problems of small n-values resulting from significant effort. We have valuated the potential and limitations of using the Trainable Weka Segmentation ...


The Fold Illusion: The Origins And Implications Of Ogives On Silicic Lavas, Graham DM Andrews, Stuart Kenderes, Alan Whittington, Shelby L. Isom, Sarah Brown, Holly Danielle Pettus, Brenna Cole, Kailee Gokey 2020 West Virginia University

The Fold Illusion: The Origins And Implications Of Ogives On Silicic Lavas, Graham Dm Andrews, Stuart Kenderes, Alan Whittington, Shelby L. Isom, Sarah Brown, Holly Danielle Pettus, Brenna Cole, Kailee Gokey

Faculty & Staff Scholarship

Folds on the surfaces of mafic lavas are among the most readily recognized geological structures and are used as first-order criteria for identifying ancient lavas on Earth and other planetary bodies. However, the presence of surface-folds on the surface of silicic lavas is contested in this study and we challenge the widely accepted interpretation that silicic lava surfaces contain folds using examples from the western United States and Sardinia, Italy. We interpret the ridges and troughs on their upper surfaces, typically referred to as ‘ogives’ or ‘pressure ridges’, as fracture-bound structures rather than folds. We report on the absence of ...


Changes In Crater Geometry Revealed By Inversion Of Harmonic Infrasound Observations: 24 December 2018 Eruption Of Mount Etna, Italy, Leighton M. Watson, Jeffrey B. Johnson, Mariangela Sciotto, Andrea Cannata 2020 Stanford University

Changes In Crater Geometry Revealed By Inversion Of Harmonic Infrasound Observations: 24 December 2018 Eruption Of Mount Etna, Italy, Leighton M. Watson, Jeffrey B. Johnson, Mariangela Sciotto, Andrea Cannata

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

In December 2018, Mount Etna (Italy) experienced a period of increased eruptive activity that culminated in a fissure eruption on the southeast flank. After the onset of the flank eruption, the peak frequency of the summit infrasound signals decreased while resonance increased. We invert infrasound observations for crater geometry and show that crater depth and radius increased during the eruption, which suggests that the flank eruption drained magma from the summit and that eruptive activity led to erosion of the crater wall. By inverting the entire infrasound amplitude spectra rather than just the peak frequency, we are able to place ...


Experimental And Thermodynamic Constraints On Mineral Equilibrium In Pantelleritic Magmas., Pierangelo Romano, Bruno Scaillet, John C. White, Joan Andujar, Ida Di Carlo, Silvio G. Rotolo 2020 Universita degli Studi di Palermo

Experimental And Thermodynamic Constraints On Mineral Equilibrium In Pantelleritic Magmas., Pierangelo Romano, Bruno Scaillet, John C. White, Joan Andujar, Ida Di Carlo, Silvio G. Rotolo

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

Crystallization experiments on two pantellerites from Pantelleria, Italy, provide new evidence for the relation-ships between mineral phases in pantelleritic rocks as well as the influence of temperature and redox conditionson mineral assemblages. Experiments were performed at 1 kbar with temperature ranging between 750–900°C,andfluid saturation conditions with XH2O (=H2O/H2O+CO2) between 0 and 1. Redox conditions werefixed at,or slightly below, the FMQ buffer. Results show that at temperature of 900 °C pantelleritic magmas are well abovethe liquidus regardless their water content; we also observed a decrease in liquidus temperature (800°C) withincreasingly reducing conditions. Mineral assemblages ...


Top–Down Control On Eruptive Style At Masaya Volcano Inferred From Melt Composition, Lisa Hlinka 2020 CUNY Queens College

Top–Down Control On Eruptive Style At Masaya Volcano Inferred From Melt Composition, Lisa Hlinka

Student Theses

Highly explosive, Plinian-type eruptions of basaltic magma are enigmatic because basaltic melts have lower viscosities than more silicic melts which have traditionally been considered essential for such explosive eruption style. Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, is one of the few basaltic volcanoes to have generated a wide range of eruptive styles, from effusive lava lake activity to voluminous Plinian fall deposits. This volcano thus offers a unique case study to better constrain ideas on basaltic eruption style controls.

We analyze olivine-, plagioclase- and clinopyroxene-hosted melt inclusions as well as matrix glasses from lava lake (LL) ejecta and two Plinian tephra deposits—the ...


Volcano Video Data Characterized And Classified Using Computer Vision And Machine Learning Algorithms, Alex J.C. Witsil, Jeffrey B. Johnson 2020 Boise State University

Volcano Video Data Characterized And Classified Using Computer Vision And Machine Learning Algorithms, Alex J.C. Witsil, Jeffrey B. Johnson

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Video cameras are common at volcano observatories, but their utility is often limited during periods of crisis due to the large data volume from continuous acquisition and time requirements for manual analysis. For cameras to serve as effective monitoring tools, video frames must be synthesized into relevant time series signals and further analyzed to classify and characterize observable activity. In this study, we use computer vision and machine learning algorithms to identify periods of volcanic activity and quantify plume rise velocities from video observations. Data were collected at Villarrica Volcano, Chile from two visible band cameras located ~17 km from ...


Sulfur And Trace Metal Cycling At Convergent Margins, Jesse B. Walters 2020 The University of Maine

Sulfur And Trace Metal Cycling At Convergent Margins, Jesse B. Walters

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Subduction zones are the site of long-term chemical exchange between Earth’s surface and interior geochemical reservoirs. Subducting slabs are progressively depleted in volatiles and other mobile elements through dehydration and melting reactions. These elements are then introduced to the mantle wedge and volcanic arc. One consequence of this cycle is that volcanic arcs produce the most oxidized magmas on Earth. Sulfur, which exhibits a range in valence states from S2- to S6+, is one of the few elements in the subducting slab capable of oxidizing the arc and mantle wedge. Sulfides in the slab may also act ...


Volcanic Record Of The Arc-To-Rift Transition Onshore Of The Guaymas Basin In The Santa Rosalía Area, Gulf Of California, Baja California, Graham DM Andrews 2020 West Virginia University

Volcanic Record Of The Arc-To-Rift Transition Onshore Of The Guaymas Basin In The Santa Rosalía Area, Gulf Of California, Baja California, Graham Dm Andrews

Faculty & Staff Scholarship

The Gulf of California is an archetype of continental rupture through transtensional rifting, and exploitation of a thermally weakened arc to produce a rift. Volcanic rocks of central Baja California record the transition from calcalkaline arc magmatism, due to subduction of the Farallon plate (ca. 24–12 Ma), to rift magmatism, related to the opening of the Gulf of California (<12 Ma). In addition, a suite of postsubduction rocks (<12 Ma), referred to as “bajaites,” are enriched in light rare-earth and other incompatible elements (e.g., Ba and Sr). These are further subdivided into high-magnesian andesite (with 50%–58% SiO2 and MgO >4%) and adakite (>56% SiO2 and MgO <3%). The bajaites correlate spatially with a fossil slab imaged under central Baja and are inferred to record postsubduction melting of the slab and subduction-modified mantle by asthenospheric upwelling associated with rifting or slab breakoff. We report on volcanic rocks of all three suites, which surround and underlie the Santa Rosalía sedimentary rift basin. This area represents the western margin of the Guaymas basin, the most magmatically robust segment of the Gulf of California rift, where seafloor spreading occurred in isolation for 3–4 m.y. (starting at 6 Ma) before transtensional pull-apart basins to the north and south ruptured the continental crust. Outcrops of the Santa Rosalía area thus offer the opportunity to understand the magmatic evolution of the Guaymas rift, which has been the focus of numerous oceanographic expeditions.

We describe 21 distinct volcanic and hypabyssal map units in the Santa Rosalía area, using field characteristics, petrographic data, and major- and trace-element geochemical data, as well as zircon isotopic data and ten ...


Uas-Based Tracking Of The Santiaguito Lava Dome, Guatemala, Edgar U. Zorn, Thomas R. Walter, Jeffrey B. Johnson, René Mania 2020 German Research Centre for Geosciences GFZ

Uas-Based Tracking Of The Santiaguito Lava Dome, Guatemala, Edgar U. Zorn, Thomas R. Walter, Jeffrey B. Johnson, René Mania

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Imaging growing lava domes has remained a great challenge in volcanology due to their inaccessibility and the severe hazard of collapse or explosion. Changes in surface movement, temperature, or lava viscosity are considered crucial data for hazard assessments at active lava domes and thus valuable study targets. Here, we present results from a series of repeated survey flights with both optical and thermal cameras at the Caliente lava dome, part of the Santiaguito complex at Santa Maria volcano, Guatemala, using an Unoccupied Aircraft System (UAS) to create topography data and orthophotos of the lava dome. This enabled us to track ...


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