Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Volcanology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

158 Full-Text Articles 302 Authors 23025 Downloads 35 Institutions

All Articles in Volcanology

Faceted Search

158 full-text articles. Page 1 of 5.

The Dynamic Relationship Between The Bear River, Quaternary Basaltic Center, Normal Faults, And The Resulting Rearrangement Of Rivers In The Northeast Edge Of The Great Basin, Southeast Idaho, Brady Utley 2017 Utah State University

The Dynamic Relationship Between The Bear River, Quaternary Basaltic Center, Normal Faults, And The Resulting Rearrangement Of Rivers In The Northeast Edge Of The Great Basin, Southeast Idaho, Brady Utley

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

The objective of this research project in Gem Valley graben, southeast Idaho is to identify the location, age and history of the Quaternary diversion of the Bear River into paleo-Lake Thatcher, and then into the Lake Bonneville basin from the Columbia River basin. Mapping, geochemical analysis, cross-cutting relationships, and five new age determinations, together with prior published research, shed new light on the complex history of interaction between the volcanic rocks, rivers, lakes, and faults in Gem Valley. Research goals were to test the hypothesis that local faulting and volcanism drove the diversion of the Bear River and controlled the ...


Classifying Microseismicty At Mount St. Helens Using A Large-N Array, Margaret E. Glasgow 2017 University of new mexico

Classifying Microseismicty At Mount St. Helens Using A Large-N Array, Margaret E. Glasgow

Earth and Planetary Sciences ETDs

A dense array of ~1,000 continuously recording, short-period geophones was deployed in the summer of 2014 within ~15 km of Mount St. Helens. Two earthquake catalogs created using reverse time imaging and template detection techniques, increase the detection rate and completeness of the earthquake catalog when compared to the permanent network, Pacific Northwest Seismic Network, catalog. An investigation into event type for ~200 of the earthquake detections leads to the discrimination of two major classification groups, volcano-tectonic and long period. Previous to this study, long period earthquakes had not been identified in the upper crust during a volcanically inactive ...


The Oligocene West Elk Breccia: Evidence For Massive Volcanic Debris Avalanches In The Eastern Gunnison River Valley, West-Central Colorado, U.S.A., Patrick J. Whalen 2017 University of Kentucky

The Oligocene West Elk Breccia: Evidence For Massive Volcanic Debris Avalanches In The Eastern Gunnison River Valley, West-Central Colorado, U.S.A., Patrick J. Whalen

Theses and Dissertations--Earth and Environmental Sciences

The West Elk Breccia has been studied since the late 1800’s with many interpretations regarding its origin. One unrecognized possibility is that parts of it are debris-avalanche deposits. This study has recognized evidence for this interpretation at three scales: volcano scale, outcrop scale, and intra-outcrop scale. At the volcano scale, a scarp in the old volcano reveals underlying Mesozoic bedrock, suggesting sector collapse. At the outcrop scale, megablocks of the original edifice, up to hundreds of meters in length, have atypical orientations and are surrounded by a gravel matrix. At the intra-outcrop scale, jigsaw-fit fracturing and rip-up clasts are ...


Volatiles In Subglacially Erupted Basaltic Glasses And Their Use In Reconstructing Paleo-Ice Thicknesses, Carver Lee 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Volatiles In Subglacially Erupted Basaltic Glasses And Their Use In Reconstructing Paleo-Ice Thicknesses, Carver Lee

Masters Theses

Volatile concentrations in basaltic tuyas, edifices that form during a subglacial eruption and remain once the ice sheet has retreated, have been used to calculate the thickness of the overlying ice sheet at the onset of the eruption (Tuffen, 2010). However, subglacial eruptions are complex events and this technique does not always provide a clear answer (Schopka et al., 2006; Edwards et al., 2009). The purpose of this research is to evaluate this technique and investigate constraints on the quality of data collected by attempting to calculate the minimum ice thickness under which Hlöðufell, a tuya in south-central Iceland, erupted ...


G:, Taylor Lafe Cantrall 2017 Bard College

G:, Taylor Lafe Cantrall

Senior Projects Spring 2017

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Languages and Literature of Bard College.


Change Detection Of Mount Nyiragongo Post Eruption, Molly E. Karnes 2016 Murray State University

Change Detection Of Mount Nyiragongo Post Eruption, Molly E. Karnes

Scholars Week

Because of the dangerous nature of volcanic eruptions, it makes them very difficult to study, however this makes them even more important for us to study because of how much destruction they can cause in such a short amount of time. We need to study all parts of an eruption to gain more insight into the specifics of how a volcano works. Having a better understanding of how large of an area is effected by an eruption will allow governments to decide on evacuation procedures. The goal of my project is to answer a very simple question, “How can we ...


Birth And Evolution Of The Rio Grande Fluvial System In The Last 8 Ma:Progressive Downward Integration And Interplay Between Tectonics, Volcanism, Climate, And River Evolution, Marisa N. Repasch 2016 University of New Mexico

Birth And Evolution Of The Rio Grande Fluvial System In The Last 8 Ma:Progressive Downward Integration And Interplay Between Tectonics, Volcanism, Climate, And River Evolution, Marisa N. Repasch

Earth and Planetary Sciences ETDs

The Rio Grande-Rio Chama (RG-RC) fluvial system has evolved dramatically over the last 8 Ma, undergoing channel migrations, drainage capture and integration events, volcanic damming, and carving and refilling of paleocanyons. Volcanism concurrent with the development of the river system provides a unique opportunity to apply multiple geochronometers to the study of its incision and drainage evolution. This paper reports 19 new 40Ar/39Ar basalt ages and 19 detrital mineral samples (zircon and sanidine) collected from RG-RC alluvium overlain by dated basalt flows in the context of a compilation of published 40Ar/39Ar basalt ages. The ...


Tube Coalescence In The Jingfudong Lava Tube And Implications For Lava Flow Hazard Of Tengchong Volcanism, Zhengquan Chen, Yongshun Liu, Haiquan Wei, Jiandong Xu, Wenfeng Guo 2016 Key Laboratory of Active Tectonics and Volcano, Institute of Geology

Tube Coalescence In The Jingfudong Lava Tube And Implications For Lava Flow Hazard Of Tengchong Volcanism, Zhengquan Chen, Yongshun Liu, Haiquan Wei, Jiandong Xu, Wenfeng Guo

International Journal of Speleology

Tube-fed structure occurs as a general phenomenon in Tengchong basic lavas, such as lava tubes, lava plugs and tube-related collapse depressions. We deduced the development of Laoguipo lava flows, which is the longest lava tube (Jingfudong lava tube) evolved in Tengchong volcanic area. Following the detailed documentation of the tube morphology of the Jingfudong lava tube, we propose that the Jingfudong lava tube was formed through vertical coalescence of at least three tubes. The coalescence and bifurcation process are re-constructed by interpretation of tube floor continuity, the distribution of remnant tubes and the scales of lava tube branches (shapes of ...


Living In Lahar Zones: Assessing Hazard Exposure, Risk Perception, And Preparedness Behaviors In Communities Within The Mount Baker And Glacier Peak Volcanic Hazard Zones, Kimberley Anne Corwin 2016 Boise State University

Living In Lahar Zones: Assessing Hazard Exposure, Risk Perception, And Preparedness Behaviors In Communities Within The Mount Baker And Glacier Peak Volcanic Hazard Zones, Kimberley Anne Corwin

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

As the number of people living at risk from volcanic hazards in the U.S. Pacific Northwest grows, more detailed studies of community hazard exposure, risk perception, and preparedness levels become critical to developing effective mitigation, response, and recovery plans. This thesis uses risk mapping and a knowledge, risk perception, and preparedness survey to examine the risk that lahars from Mount Baker and Glacier Peak volcanoes pose to nearby communities in the Skagit Valley (WA). The risk map component of this research identifies spatial variations in lahar risk and estimates potential losses associated with a maximum envisioned lahar. The survey ...


Iceland: Extreme Learning In The Land Of Fire And Ice, Jason Polk, Leslie North 2016 Western Kentucky University Hoffman Institute

Iceland: Extreme Learning In The Land Of Fire And Ice, Jason Polk, Leslie North

Leslie North

WKU Libraries kicked off the spring season of "Far Away Places" with Dr. Jason Polk and Dr. Leslie North, Asstant Professors from the Department of Geography and Geology at WKU, who talked about leading a study abroad group to Iceland in the summer of 2015. WKU Libraries kicks off the spring season of Far Away Places with Jason Polk and Leslie North, Asst. Professors from the Department of Geography and Geology at WKU, who will be talking about leading a study abroad group to Iceland in the summer of 2015. Dr. Polk and Dr. North co-taught this course with faculty ...


Field Geology And Petrologic Investigation Of The Strawberry Volcanics, Northeast Oregon, Arron Richard Steiner 2016 Portland State University

Field Geology And Petrologic Investigation Of The Strawberry Volcanics, Northeast Oregon, Arron Richard Steiner

Dissertations and Theses

The Strawberry Volcanics of Northeast Oregon are a group of geochemically related lavas with a diverse chemical range (basalt to rhyolite) that erupted between 16.2 and 12.5 Ma and co-erupted with the large, (~200,000 km3) Middle Miocene tholeiitic lavas of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG), which erupted near and geographically surround the Strawberry Volcanics. The rhyolitic lavas of the Strawberry Volcanics produced the oldest 40Ar/39Ar ages measured in this study with ages ranging from 16.2 Ma to 14.6 Ma, and have an estimated total erupted volume of 100 km3. The mafic and intermediate ...


Geochemical And Petrological Characterization Of The Back Forty Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Deposit, Anthony Robert Boxleiter 2015 Western Michigan University

Geochemical And Petrological Characterization Of The Back Forty Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Deposit, Anthony Robert Boxleiter

Master's Theses

The Back Forty Zn-Au deposit is the eastern-most Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide (VMS) deposit in the Penokean Volcanic Belt (PVB). It is the only VMS deposit found in Michigan, and is located along the east side of the Menominee River in Menominee County (45°26'57.5"N, 87°49'43.2"W). The Back Forty is the most zinc-enriched, copper depleted deposit among the major VMS deposits within the PVB that include Flambeau, Crandon, Bend, and Lynne. This work constitutes the first sulfur isotope study on the Back Forty VMS deposit.

The Back Forty is characterized by massive, semi-massive, disseminated ...


Tracking And Characterization Of Moving Acoustic Sources Using An Infrasound Array At Volcán Santiaguito, Guatemala, Brian R. Terbush 2015 Boise State University

Tracking And Characterization Of Moving Acoustic Sources Using An Infrasound Array At Volcán Santiaguito, Guatemala, Brian R. Terbush

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Active volcanic processes produce large amounts of acoustic energy within the infrasound band (0-20 Hz). Infrasound-sensitive microphones are often installed in addition to other forms of volcano monitoring equipment to increase the ability to remotely detect volcanic activity. In this study, an array of microphones was deployed without any additional sensor types for 36 hours at Santiaguito, Guatemala, to test the detection capabilities of a standalone microphone array. Array processing was applied to the recorded data, through frequency-domain beamforming and calculating a Fisher statistic (F). A changing F-threshold value was applied to differentiate between desired detections, or signal, and ...


Interpretation Of Late Cretaceous Volcanic Mounds And Surrounding Gulfian Series Formations Using 3d Seismic Data In Zavala County, Texas, Laura Claire Bennett 2015 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Interpretation Of Late Cretaceous Volcanic Mounds And Surrounding Gulfian Series Formations Using 3d Seismic Data In Zavala County, Texas, Laura Claire Bennett

Theses and Dissertations

The Late Cretaceous Gulfian series is a prominent and important series across the State of Texas that has been extensively studied since the nineteenth century. It is composed of series of southeast-dipping shelf carbonates and clastics deposited on the northwest margin of the Gulf of Mexico Basin. In south Texas, the Gulfian series was deposited in the Rio Grande Embayment and Maverick Basin and is comprised of the Eagle Ford Group, Austin Group, Anacacho Limestone, San Miguel Formation, Olmos Formation, and Escondido Formation that crop out and continue basinward in the subsurface. Late Cretaceous volcanism formed volcanic mounds composed of ...


Bubble Mobility In Mud And Magmatic Volcanoes, Aaron Tran, Maxwell L. Rudolph, Michael Manga 2015 University of California - Berkeley

Bubble Mobility In Mud And Magmatic Volcanoes, Aaron Tran, Maxwell L. Rudolph, Michael Manga

Maxwell L. Rudolph

The rheology of particle-laden fluids with a yield stress, such as mud or crystal-rich magmas, controls the mobility of bubbles, both the size needed to overcome the yield stress and their rise speed. We experimentally measured the velocities of bubbles and rigid spheres in mud sampled from the Davis-Schrimpf mud volcanoes adjacent to the Salton Sea, Southern California. Combined with previous measurements in the polymer gel Carbopol, we obtained an empirical model for the drag coefficient and bounded the conditions under which bubbles overcome the yield stress. Yield stresses typical of mud and basaltic magmas with sub-mm particles can immobilize ...


Priming For Supereruption: The Hot Pre-Peach Spring Tuff Lavas And Peach Spring Tuff Magmatic Enclaves, Black Mountains, Arizona, Megan E. Flansburg 2015 College of William and Mary

Priming For Supereruption: The Hot Pre-Peach Spring Tuff Lavas And Peach Spring Tuff Magmatic Enclaves, Black Mountains, Arizona, Megan E. Flansburg

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Supereruptions are some of the most cataclysmic events on Earth, ejecting greater than 450 km3 of material during eruption. The 18.8 Ma Peach Spring Tuff (PST) erupted in what is now the southern Black Mountains, Arizona, with outflow covering an area greater than 35,000 km2. The volcanic deposits erupted prior to PST supereruption provide important insights on pre-supereruption magmatic conditions in the region. The pre-PST volcanic sequence consists of a ~1 km thick suite of trachyte lavas and a relatively thin sequence of more mafic lavas. We sampled pre-PST mafic lavas, one trachyte lava, and magmatic ...


Does Students’ Source Of Knowledge Affect Their Understanding Of Volcanic Systems?, Thomas Lyle Parham, Cinzia Cervato, William A. Gallus Jr., Michael Larsen, Jonathan M. Hobbs, Thomas J. Greenbowe 2015 Iowa State University

Does Students’ Source Of Knowledge Affect Their Understanding Of Volcanic Systems?, Thomas Lyle Parham, Cinzia Cervato, William A. Gallus Jr., Michael Larsen, Jonathan M. Hobbs, Thomas J. Greenbowe

Cinzia Cervato

A recent survey of undergraduates at five schools across the United States indicates that many undergraduates feel that they have learned more about volcanic systems from Hollywood films and the popular media than they learned in the course of their precollegiate formal education. Scores on the Volcanic Concept Survey, an instrument designed to measure conceptual understanding of volcanic processes and hazards, shows that students who learned about volcanoes from nontraditional sources, such as films and popular media, scored significantly lower than their peers who learned from more traditional sources, such as in formal classroom settings or via personal experience. This ...


Bubble Mobility In Mud And Magmatic Volcanoes, Aaron Tran, Maxwell L. Rudolph, Michael Manga 2015 University of California - Berkeley

Bubble Mobility In Mud And Magmatic Volcanoes, Aaron Tran, Maxwell L. Rudolph, Michael Manga

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

The rheology of particle-laden fluids with a yield stress, such as mud or crystal-rich magmas, controls the mobility of bubbles, both the size needed to overcome the yield stress and their rise speed. We experimentally measured the velocities of bubbles and rigid spheres in mud sampled from the Davis-Schrimpf mud volcanoes adjacent to the Salton Sea, Southern California. Combined with previous measurements in the polymer gel Carbopol, we obtained an empirical model for the drag coefficient and bounded the conditions under which bubbles overcome the yield stress. Yield stresses typical of mud and basaltic magmas with sub-mm particles can immobilize ...


Igneous Dikes At Long Valley, Ca: Emplacement Mechanisms And Associated Geologic Structures, David D. Pollard, Jonathan H. Fink, Paul T. Delaney 2015 Stanford University

Igneous Dikes At Long Valley, Ca: Emplacement Mechanisms And Associated Geologic Structures, David D. Pollard, Jonathan H. Fink, Paul T. Delaney

Jonathan H. Fink

Two hypotheses for dike emplacement are: (1) magma flows into and dilates pre-existing fractures; or (2) magma flows into and dilates self-generated fractures. In the first case dikes should be parallel to an element of the rock fabric; in the second, they should be perpendicular to the least compressive stress. The two hypotheses suggest different dike intrusion and fissure eruption mechanisms and therefore different strategies for monitoring igneous events at Long Valley. We derive a method to distinguish the two mechanisms, a priori, from in-situ stress measurements and estimates of magma pressure. Estimates of relative dilation and slip across a ...


Rheological Properties Of Mudflows Associated With The May 1980 Eruptions Of Mount St. Helens Volcano, Washington, Jonathan H. Fink, Michael C. Malin, Richard E. D'Alli, Ronald Greeley 2015 Portland State University

Rheological Properties Of Mudflows Associated With The May 1980 Eruptions Of Mount St. Helens Volcano, Washington, Jonathan H. Fink, Michael C. Malin, Richard E. D'Alli, Ronald Greeley

Jonathan H. Fink

Rheological properties of three recent mudflows at Mount St. Helens were estimated using techniques developed for determining the properties of debris flows based on the geometry of their deposits. Calculated yield strengths of 1100, 1000, and 400 Pa, maximum flow velocities of 10 to 31 m/s, volumetric flow rates of 300 to 3400 m3/s, and plastic viscosities of 20 to 320 Pa-s all compare favorably with measured and estimated values cited in the literature. A method for determining likely sites of future mudflow initiation based on these data is outlined.


Digital Commons powered by bepress