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Comments On ‘Area Changes Of Glaciers On Active Volcanoes In Latin America’ By Reinthaler And Others (2019), William Hardy Kochtitzky, Benjamin R. Edwards 2020 Dickinson College

Comments On ‘Area Changes Of Glaciers On Active Volcanoes In Latin America’ By Reinthaler And Others (2019), William Hardy Kochtitzky, Benjamin R. Edwards

Faculty and Staff Publications By Year

Reinthaler and others (2019), hereafter Reinthaler 2019, characterize ice extent on 59 volcanoes in Latin America from 1986 to 2015 using Landsat and Sentinel-2 imagery to quantify the impact of climate and eruptions on glacier evolution. Here we compare the work of Reinthaler 2019 with Kochtitzky and others (2018), hereafter Kochtitzky 2018, on Nevado Coropuna Ice Cap, and present some new analysis to highlight the challenges of seasonal snow coverage in the delineation of glaciers (Pfeffer and others, 2014; Paul and others, 2017). Nevado Coropuna Ice Cap has received significant attention (e.g. Racoviteanu and others, 2007; Silverio and Jaquet ...


Uas-Based Tracking Of The Santiaguito Lava Dome, Guatemala, Edgar U. Zorn, Thomas R. Walter, Jeffrey B. Johnson, René Mania 2020 German Research Centre for Geosciences GFZ

Uas-Based Tracking Of The Santiaguito Lava Dome, Guatemala, Edgar U. Zorn, Thomas R. Walter, Jeffrey B. Johnson, René Mania

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Imaging growing lava domes has remained a great challenge in volcanology due to their inaccessibility and the severe hazard of collapse or explosion. Changes in surface movement, temperature, or lava viscosity are considered crucial data for hazard assessments at active lava domes and thus valuable study targets. Here, we present results from a series of repeated survey flights with both optical and thermal cameras at the Caliente lava dome, part of the Santiaguito complex at Santa Maria volcano, Guatemala, using an Unoccupied Aircraft System (UAS) to create topography data and orthophotos of the lava dome. This enabled us to track ...


Analysis Of Cryptotephra At Whitney Mesa Nature Preserve, Henderson, Nevada, Alex Newsom 2020 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Analysis Of Cryptotephra At Whitney Mesa Nature Preserve, Henderson, Nevada, Alex Newsom

Calvert Undergraduate Research Awards

Advanced Undergraduate Winner

Cryptotephra (small volcanic shards ranging 20-80 microns in size) were discovered within Unit X of the Las Vegas Formation at Whitney Mesa Nature Preserve, Henderson, Nevada. Cryptotephra are deposited soon after a volcanic eruption and can be used as a dating tool to create narrow time constraints for surrounding sediments. Cryptotephra have many applications but are mainly useful as a dating tool. Their study has important implications for the understanding of the timing of palaeoclimatological and paleoenvironmental events as well as for archaeological studies to date important events in human history.

The Whitney Mesa cryptotephra were correlated ...


Characterization Of Magma Storage And Dynamics At Akutan, Semisopochnoi, And Okmok Volcanoes From Analytical And Numerical Models Of Geodetic, Seismic, And Petrologic Data, Kimberly DeGrandpre 2020 Southern Methodist University

Characterization Of Magma Storage And Dynamics At Akutan, Semisopochnoi, And Okmok Volcanoes From Analytical And Numerical Models Of Geodetic, Seismic, And Petrologic Data, Kimberly Degrandpre

Earth Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Volcanic eruptions can cause significant socioeconomic loss, but a better understanding of the processes and dynamics influencing the evolution of volcanic plumbing systems will advance the development of eruption forecasting models that will ultimately mitigate hazards and risks associated with eruptive events. Geologic and geophysical data must be integrated in 3D, finite- element, multiphysical, numerical models to define the coupled evolution of magmatic and crustal stress regimes in volcanic environments, but in data limited regions this is not always an option. The remote nature of the Aleutian Island Arc restricts ground-based monitoring and sampling efforts, and due to sparse temporal ...


Changes In Atmospheric, Meteorological, And Ocean Parameters Associated With The 12 January 2020 Taal Volcanic Eruption, Feng Jing, Akshansa Chauhan, Ramesh P. Singh, Prasanjit Dash 2020 China Earthquake Administration

Changes In Atmospheric, Meteorological, And Ocean Parameters Associated With The 12 January 2020 Taal Volcanic Eruption, Feng Jing, Akshansa Chauhan, Ramesh P. Singh, Prasanjit Dash

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

The Taal volcano erupted on 12 January 2020, the first time since 1977. About 35 mild earthquakes (magnitude greater than 4.0) were observed on 12 January 2020 induced from the eruption. In the present paper, we analyzed optical properties of volcanic aerosols, volcanic gas emission, ocean parameters using multi-satellite sensors, namely, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder), OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), TROPOMI (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument) and ground observations, namely, Argo, and AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) data. Our detailed analysis shows pronounced changes in all the parameters, which mainly occurred in the western and south-western regions because ...


Reconstruction Of The 2018 Anak Krakatau Collapse Using Planetscope Imaging And Numerical Modeling, Davide Saviano 2020 Michigan Technological University

Reconstruction Of The 2018 Anak Krakatau Collapse Using Planetscope Imaging And Numerical Modeling, Davide Saviano

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The study was focused on the Anak Krakatau sector collapse that occurred on 22 December 2018 in the Sunda Strait (Indonesia). The goal of the study was to monitor and analyze changes of the volcanic edifice and to try to understand causes that may have predisposed and triggered the sector collapse.

The use of different remote sensing techniques allowed the acquisition of thermal data, SO2 emission data, structural data and the identification and analysis of the eruptive events that occurred on Anak Krakatau in the period from 1° January 2016 to 28 February 2019. The acquisition of 1221 thermal ...


Anatomy Of The Magmatic Plumbing System Of Los Humeros Caldera (Mexico): Implications For Geothermal Systems., Federico Lucci, Gerardo Carrasco-Nuñez, Federico Rossetti, Thomas Theye, John C. White, Stefano Urbani, Hossein Azzizi, Yosihiro Asahara, Guido Giordano 2020 Third University of Rome

Anatomy Of The Magmatic Plumbing System Of Los Humeros Caldera (Mexico): Implications For Geothermal Systems., Federico Lucci, Gerardo Carrasco-Nuñez, Federico Rossetti, Thomas Theye, John C. White, Stefano Urbani, Hossein Azzizi, Yosihiro Asahara, Guido Giordano

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

Understanding the anatomy of magma plumbing systems of active volcanoes is essential not only for unraveling magma dynamics and eruptive behaviors but also to define the geometry, depth, and temperature of the heat sources for geothermal exploration. The Pleistocene–Holocene Los Humeros volcanic complex is part of the eastern Trans- Mexican Volcanic Belt (central Mexico), and it constitutes one of the most important exploited geothermal fields in Mexico with ca. 90MWof produced electricity.With the aim to decipher the anatomy (geometry and structure) of the magmatic plumbing system feeding the geothermal field at Los Humeros, we carried out a field-based ...


Geochemical Constraints On Mantle Sources And Basalt Petrogenesis In The Strait Of Sicily Rift Zone (Italy): Insights Into The Importance Of Short Lengthscale Mantle Heterogeneity., John C. White, David A. Neave, Silvio G. Rotolo, Don F. Parker 2020 Eastern Kentucky University

Geochemical Constraints On Mantle Sources And Basalt Petrogenesis In The Strait Of Sicily Rift Zone (Italy): Insights Into The Importance Of Short Lengthscale Mantle Heterogeneity., John C. White, David A. Neave, Silvio G. Rotolo, Don F. Parker

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

Igneous activity from the late Miocene to historic time (most recently 1891 ce) in the Strait of Sicily has created two islands (Pantelleria and Linosa) and several seamounts. These volcanoes are dominated by transitional (ol+hy-normative) to alkaline (ne-normative) basaltic lavas and scoriae; peralkaline felsic rocks (trachyte-rhyolite) crop out only on Pantelleria. Although most likely erupted through continental crust, basalts demonstrate no evidence of crustal contamination and are geochemically similar to oceanic island basalts (OIB). Despite their isotopic similarities, there are considerable compositional differences with respect to major and trace element geochemistry both between and within the two islands that ...


Ashfall Fossil Beds: From Waterhole To Rhino Barn, Sandy Mosel 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln/Ashfall Fossil Beds

Ashfall Fossil Beds: From Waterhole To Rhino Barn, Sandy Mosel

Programs Information: Nebraska State Museum

Twelve million years ago a volcanic super-eruption in what is now southwestern Idaho created an enormous ashfall that blanketed the Great Plains with several inches of volcanic ash, devastating the local wildlife. Evidence of this geologic event lies within the hills of the Niobrara River Valley in northeast Nebraska, at a place aptly named the Ashfall Fossil Beds State Historical Park. Located near the tiny village of Royal, the Ashfall Park has been developed around a waterhole where animals succumbed after breathing in the volcanic dust. Buried deeply by windblown volcanic ash in the weeks following the eruption, the skeletons ...


Pumice Compositions And Mineral Chemistry From Lascar Volcano, Chile, Madelaine M. Stearn 2020 Missouri State University

Pumice Compositions And Mineral Chemistry From Lascar Volcano, Chile, Madelaine M. Stearn

MSU Graduate Theses

Lascar volcano is one the most active volcano in the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andean Cordillera, with 36 Holocene eruptions including a VEI 4 eruption in April 1993. Activity has not been consistent throughout time, and therefore, the processes behind it are poorly understood. Lascar volcano has cyclic behavior and has had four stages of activity, each of which had a unique eruptive style and product composition. Stage I (<43 >ka) had primarily mafic andesite lavas erupted effusively from a stratocone. Stage II initiated with dome building events ESE of the original vent and culminated in the 26.45 ka ...


Quantification Of Surface Roughness Of Lava Flows On Mars, Carolina Rodriguez Sanchez-Vahamonde 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Quantification Of Surface Roughness Of Lava Flows On Mars, Carolina Rodriguez Sanchez-Vahamonde

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Volcanism has played a significant role throughout Mars’ geologic history. Extensive lava flows are widely spread across Mars’ equatorial region, shaping the surface in a very distinct way. In radar images (at the decimeter scale), these flows are bright, which is a typical characteristic of extremely rough, blocky lavas flows seen on Earth. Although the source of the extreme roughness of Martian lava flows is unknown, their surface roughness parameters can be constrained to 1) gain information about Mars’ interior processes, 2) find appropriate analogues on other planetary bodies, and 3) ideally infer the emplacement style of such lavas. Here ...


Petrogenesis Of Basaltic Lavas In Iceland And The Springerville Volcanic Field, U.S.A.: The Influence Of Tectonic Setting, Depth Of Melting And Volatiles, Marissa Mnich 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Petrogenesis Of Basaltic Lavas In Iceland And The Springerville Volcanic Field, U.S.A.: The Influence Of Tectonic Setting, Depth Of Melting And Volatiles, Marissa Mnich

Doctoral Dissertations

Icelandic basalts were long thought to be low in water (e.g. Gunnarsson et al., 1998), but more recent studies suggest that hotspots, like the Iceland mantle plume, may be a source of hydrous basaltic melts (Nichols et al., 2002). To explore a possible link between location, volatile concentration and resulting petrogenetic implications, samples were collected from eleven volcanic centers throughout Iceland. Water concentrations were measured in melt inclusions and phenocrysts using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Results for a subset of samples indicate variable water in melt inclusions ranging from approximately 50 ppm to over 3000 ppm. Samples from ...


Deep Open Storage And Shallow Closed Transport System For A Continental Flood Basalt Sequence Revealed With Magma Chamber Simulator, Jussi S. Heinonen, Arto V. Luttinen, Frank J. Spera, Wendy A. Bohrson 2019 University of Helsinki

Deep Open Storage And Shallow Closed Transport System For A Continental Flood Basalt Sequence Revealed With Magma Chamber Simulator, Jussi S. Heinonen, Arto V. Luttinen, Frank J. Spera, Wendy A. Bohrson

All Faculty Scholarship for the College of the Sciences

The Magma Chamber Simulator (MCS) quantitatively models the phase equilibria, mineral chemistry, major and trace elements, and radiogenic isotopes in a multicomponent–multiphase magma + wallrock + recharge system by minimization or maximization of the appropriate thermodynamic potential for the given process. In this study, we utilize MCS to decipher the differentiation history of a continental flood basalt sequence from the Antarctic portion of the ~ 180 Ma Karoo large igneous province. Typical of many flood basalts, this suite exhibits geochemical evidence (e.g., negative initial εNd) of interaction with crustal materials. We show that isobaric assimilation-fractional crystallization models fail to produce ...


Remote Characterization Of Dominant Wavelengths From Surface Folding On Lava Flows Using Lidar And Discrete Fourier Transform Analyses, Nicholas Deardorff, Adam M. Booth, Katharine Cashman 2019 Indiana University of Pennsylvania

Remote Characterization Of Dominant Wavelengths From Surface Folding On Lava Flows Using Lidar And Discrete Fourier Transform Analyses, Nicholas Deardorff, Adam M. Booth, Katharine Cashman

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Surface folding is common in lava flows of all compositions and is believed to be due to changes in viscosity and flow velocity between the cooling crust and the more fluid flow interior. However, our understanding of the relationship between surface folding and flow rheology is incomplete. In this study we analyze digital terrain models of eight lava flows ranging in composition from basaltic andesite to rhyolite using a discrete Fourier transform analysis to quantitatively determine dominant surface fold wavelengths. Our discrete Fourier transform analyses show that each lava flow has multiple fold generations and that dominant wavelengths are more ...


Synthesizing Field And Experimental Techniques To Investigate The Enigmatic Processes Occurring At The Base Of Pyroclastic Currents, Nicholas M. Pollock 2019 Boise State University

Synthesizing Field And Experimental Techniques To Investigate The Enigmatic Processes Occurring At The Base Of Pyroclastic Currents, Nicholas M. Pollock

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Pyroclastic currents are the deadliest hazard associated with explosive volcanic eruptions. These gravity-driven currents consist of volcanic gases and solid particles that range in size from fine ash to boulders. The dangers associated with pyroclastic currents stem from their unpredictability and ability to travel extremely long distances, sometimes in excess of 100 km. To mitigate the risk to populations and infrastructure, we must understand the processes that control the runout distance of pyroclastic currents. The runout distance depends on the complex interplay of processes related to sediment transport, erosion, and deposition. Historically, studies focused on understanding sediment transport and deposition ...


Geochemical Analysis Of The Chinchín Formation In Southern Ecuador, Katherine Ludwig 2019 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Geochemical Analysis Of The Chinchín Formation In Southern Ecuador, Katherine Ludwig

Celebration of Learning

The subduction of the Nazca Plate under the South American Plate has led to the uplift of the majority of the Andes Mountains, but in Ecuador, the Nazca Plate subducts underneath the North Andes Plate, which then collides with the South American Plate. This tectonic setting has formed two parallel mountain chains as well as a complex series of basins between them. However, the formations that make up these basins are poorly understood. This study focuses on the Chinchín Formation, an ~3.5 km thick, volcanic formation that serves as the bedrock of the Quingeo Basin in southern Ecuador. This ...


Petrology And Geochemistry Of The Bearwallow Mountain Andesite, Mogollon-Datil Volcanic Field, New Mexico, Conor Lee O'Dowd 2019 Missouri State University

Petrology And Geochemistry Of The Bearwallow Mountain Andesite, Mogollon-Datil Volcanic Field, New Mexico, Conor Lee O'Dowd

MSU Graduate Theses

The Mogollon-Datil volcanic field (MDVF), located in southern New Mexico, is the result of episodic volcanism and the transition between arc and rift magmatism. The MDVF has been the focus of several mapping, stratigraphic, petrologic, geochronological, and geochemical studies to understand the complete volcanic and tectonic history. However, the majority of previous studies lack geochemical analyses on intermediate composition volcanic rocks, giving more attention to the large-volume ignimbrites and rhyolite flows as well as the minor basalt flows that occurred between 36 and 20 Ma. I present new whole-rock major- and trace-element analyses and petrographic textures on one of the ...


Petrogenesis Of Off-Axis Lavas Erupted Along The 8˚20’ N Seamount Chain, East Pacific Rise, Molly Kassandra Anderson 2019 Boise State University

Petrogenesis Of Off-Axis Lavas Erupted Along The 8˚20’ N Seamount Chain, East Pacific Rise, Molly Kassandra Anderson

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Lavas erupted at off-axis seamounts provide a window into mantle heterogeneity and melting systematics that are not easily observed on-axis at fast spreading mid-ocean ridges (MORs). This is because axial melts are efficiently mixed and homogenized within shallow axial magma chambers prior to eruption. To understand the deeper magmatic processes contributing to oceanic crustal formation, we examine the compositions of lavas erupted along a chain of off-axis seamounts, adjacent to the East Pacific Rise (EPR). Essential questions include: (1) What is the range of compositional variability erupted off-axis and how does that compare to lavas erupted on-axis? (2) Is there ...


Tropospheric And Ionospheric Anomalies Induced By Volcanic And Saharan Dust Events As Part Of Geosphere Interaction Phenomena, Valerio Tramutoli, Francesco Marchese, Alfredo Falconieri, Carolina Filizzola, Nicola Genzano, Katsumi Hattori, Mariano Lisi, Jann-Yenq Liu, Dimitar Ouzounov, Michel Parrot, Nicola Pergola, Sergey Pulinets 2019 University of Basilicata

Tropospheric And Ionospheric Anomalies Induced By Volcanic And Saharan Dust Events As Part Of Geosphere Interaction Phenomena, Valerio Tramutoli, Francesco Marchese, Alfredo Falconieri, Carolina Filizzola, Nicola Genzano, Katsumi Hattori, Mariano Lisi, Jann-Yenq Liu, Dimitar Ouzounov, Michel Parrot, Nicola Pergola, Sergey Pulinets

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

In this work, we assessed the possible relation of ionospheric perturbations observed by Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions (DEMETER), Global Positioning System total electron content (GPS TEC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-derived outgoing longwave-Earth radiation (OLR), and atmospheric chemical potential (ACP) measurements, with volcanic and Saharan dust events identified by ground and satellite-based medium infrared/thermal infrared (MIR/TIR) observations. The results indicated that the Mt. Etna (Italy) volcanic activity of 2006 was probably responsible for the ionospheric perturbations revealed by DEMETER on 4 November and 6 December and by GPS TEC observations on 4 ...


There She Blows: Public Perceptions Of Mt. Merapi And Mt. Agung, Trey Atticus Spadone 2019 SIT Study Abroad

There She Blows: Public Perceptions Of Mt. Merapi And Mt. Agung, Trey Atticus Spadone

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Since Indonesia sits on the Pacific Ring of Fire, the archipelago is repeatedly affected by tsunamis, landslides, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions. Indonesia has the most active volcanoes of any country in the world due to subduction zones between the Eurasian and Indo-Australian plates. The last major eruptions were in 2017 (Mt. Agung in Bali) and 2010 (Mt. Merapi in Central Java) which both required thousands of people to be evacuated from their homes. Since volcanoes have such a geological presence in the country, I was interested in investigating how aware the public is of volcanoes and their associated risks. Where ...


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