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Characterization And Delineation Of Karst Geohazards Along Rm652 Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography, Culberson County, Texas, Adam F. Majzoub 2016 Stephen F Austin State University

Characterization And Delineation Of Karst Geohazards Along Rm652 Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography, Culberson County, Texas, Adam F. Majzoub

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Delaware Basin of West Texas and southeastern New Mexico is the major western subdivision of the Permian Basin and a northern extension of the Chihuahuan Desert. The major evaporite unit within the Delaware Basin is the Castile Formation, which consists of gypsum/anhydrite and is highly susceptible to dissolution and karsting. Manifestations of karst within the Castile outcrop are abundant and include sinkholes, subsidence features and caves, both epigene and hypogene in origin.

Land reconnaissance surveys conducted during the summer of 2015 documented abundant karst landforms in close proximity to a major thoroughfare, RM 652, in Culberson County, Texas ...


Protracted Thrusting Followed By Late Rapid Cooling Of The Greater Himalayan Sequence, Annapurna Himalaya, Central Nepal: Insights From Titanite Petrochronology, Jesse Bennett Walters 2016 Boise State University

Protracted Thrusting Followed By Late Rapid Cooling Of The Greater Himalayan Sequence, Annapurna Himalaya, Central Nepal: Insights From Titanite Petrochronology, Jesse Bennett Walters

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Temperature-time (T-t) paths derived from coupled Zr-in-titanite thermometry and U-Pb geochronology are useful for examining middle-crustal tectonic processes. T-t data collected from the titanite-bearing calcsilicates of the upper Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) along the Marsyandi River, Annapurna Himalaya, illustrate a significantly different metamorphic history than previously recorded in central Nepal. Combined with traditional thermobarometry, textural relationships, and field mapping, titanite T-t data reveal a protracted history of mid-crustal tectonics. Peak Zr-in-titanite temperatures are 750-850 °C at 10-14 kbar. T-t paths are divided into two groups, which are separated by the Chame Shear Zone (CSZ). Group I (upper) rocks show cooling ...


Processes Leading To The Formation Of Deep Granitic Shear Zones In The Grenville Front Tectonic Zone, Ontario, Canada, Deborah J. Shulman 2016 University of Maine

Processes Leading To The Formation Of Deep Granitic Shear Zones In The Grenville Front Tectonic Zone, Ontario, Canada, Deborah J. Shulman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The rheology of the deep crust influences the transmission of mantle stresses to the surface as well as the topographic relief of orogenic terrains. Since deformation in the deep crust is often localized in shear zones, we investigate the mechanical processes associated with strain localization to understand the rheology of the deep crust. Strain localizes due to a strength heterogeneity, which can be created by the activation of one or more weakening factors. Studying the mechanical processes and weakening factors that sustain strain localization in the deep crust is becoming increasingly important as geodynamic models become more computationally robust, and ...


Discipline-Based Planetary Education Research And Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis Of Mars, Filis Coba 2016 Old Dominion University

Discipline-Based Planetary Education Research And Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis Of Mars, Filis Coba

Physics Theses & Dissertations

This thesis originates from the testing and implementation of an IRB-approved interactive animation designed to help students understand what causes The Reasons For The Seasons (RFTS) on Earth. Results from the testing indicated a small improvement in student understanding after exposure to the animation. Next, using the 3-D mapping tool Google Earth, students explored seasons and other planetary features on Mercury, Venus, the Moon and Mars through IRB-approved interactive tours which were developed and tested for astronomy education. Results from the tests indicated that there were statistically significant learning gains (p-value < 0.05) after students interacted with the tours compared to those who did not. The development of the tours inspired a geophysics study of the possibility of former plate motion (or plate tectonics) on Mars. A 2-D finite element convection model for the mantle of Mars was designed and solved using COMSOL Multiphysics 5.1, to investigate whether or not thermal gradients in a Mars-sized planet could cause vigorous upper mantle convection, consistent with plate tectonic processes. Results from this project indicated that stable convection could occur in the interior of a Mars-like planet assuming the presence of sufficiently high thermal gradients at about 0.8 times the mantle temperature of Earth. The convective patterns resembled hot upwelling and cool downwelling which may be similar to subduction-like features. Furthermore, increasing the temperature of the hot boundaries resulted in faster, more rigorous convective motions and a hotter average temperature.


Structure And Geochronology Of The White Fork Pluton, Southern Sierra Nevada, Ian Richard Mahaffey 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Structure And Geochronology Of The White Fork Pluton, Southern Sierra Nevada, Ian Richard Mahaffey

Natural Resources Management and Environmental Sciences

The Sierra Nevada batholith represents an archetypal continental arc, although the style of deformation throughout the history of the arc is only poorly understood, in part due to the voluminous nature of Late Cretaceous magmatism that has overprinted earlier structures. The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of pre-Late Cretaceous deformation in the Sierra Nevada batholith through a structural and geochronological study of the Jurassic White Fork pluton. A Jurassic age for the White Fork pluton is indicated by its inclusion of numerous 148 Ma Independence dikes, and geochronology on the White Fork pluton is limited ...


Quartz Crystal Preferred Orientation And Recrystallization Patterns From Naturally Deformed Rocks Under Constriction, Riley Quine 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Quartz Crystal Preferred Orientation And Recrystallization Patterns From Naturally Deformed Rocks Under Constriction, Riley Quine

Materials Engineering

This study analyzes crystal preferred orientation (CPO) patterns within constrictional quartz-rich gneisses. Quartz deformation and CPO patterns are an area of interest because quartz is one of the most prevalent minerals in earth's crust. Understanding the typical way that quartz crystals reorient under different states of strain can provide geologists with an additional tool for understanding paleo-strain. Temperature and strain geometry are two dominant factors that control the orientation of quartz crystals within a rock. Temperature determines which slip planes are active and slip planes typically reorient so that they are perpendicular to maximum stress. Previous workers have suggested ...


The Influence Of The Great Falls Tectonic Zone On The Thrust Sheet Geometry Of The Southern Sawtooth Range, Montana, Usa, Caroline M. Burberry, J. M. Palu 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Influence Of The Great Falls Tectonic Zone On The Thrust Sheet Geometry Of The Southern Sawtooth Range, Montana, Usa, Caroline M. Burberry, J. M. Palu

Papers in the Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

The reactivation potential of pre-existing deep-seated structures influences deformation structures produced in subsequent compression. This contribution investigates thrust geometries produced in surface thrust sheets of the Sawtooth Range, Montana, USA, deforming over a previously faulted sedimentary section. Surface thrust fault patterns were picked using existing maps and remote sensing. Thrust location and regional transport direction was also verified in the field. These observations were used to design a series of analogue models, involving deformation of a brittle cover sequence over a lower section with varying numbers of vertical faults. A final model tested the effect of decoupling the upper cover ...


The Spatial Distribution And Origins Of Sandstone Monoliths In The Swauk Watershed, Kittitas County, Wa, Rebeca Becerra, Daniel O'Dell 2016 CWU

The Spatial Distribution And Origins Of Sandstone Monoliths In The Swauk Watershed, Kittitas County, Wa, Rebeca Becerra, Daniel O'Dell

Symposium Of University Research and Creative Expression (SOURCE)

Large groups of gigantic sandstone and conglomerate monoliths populate the Swauk Watershed of northern Kittitas County. These monoliths rest on side slopes in the watershed and distinctively project from their surroundings. The origins of these features are unknown. We studied these monoliths in the field by mapping their spatial distribution, describing their morphology and composition, and measuring their orientation and sizes in order to determine their origins. We used Google Earth and topographic maps to locate the monoliths and map their distribution. Interpretations were based from field work data and past research. Our field results show commonalities between the features ...


Plate Tectonics Initiation On Earth-Like Planets: Insights From Numerical And Theoretical Analysis Of Convection-Induced Lithospheric Failure, Teresa Wong 2016 Washington University in St. Louis

Plate Tectonics Initiation On Earth-Like Planets: Insights From Numerical And Theoretical Analysis Of Convection-Induced Lithospheric Failure, Teresa Wong

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Plate tectonics is central to many aspects of the geology and evolution of terrestrial planets, yet it is only observed on the Earth while all other known planets are covered with a stagnant lithosphere. Plate motions on the Earth are mostly driven by the pull of subducting slabs, therefore understanding the initiation of subduction is crucial to understanding plate tectonics initiation. On a one-plate planet which lacks the forces due to plate motions, some other mechanisms will have to cause the first episode of subduction to mobilize the surface. Sublithospheric convection has been proposed as a possible mechanism that induce ...


An Investigation Of Hydrogeologic, Stratigraphic, And Structural Controls On Acer Grandidentatum Communities In A Karst Landscape, Owl Mountain Province, Fort Hood Military Installation, Texas, Melinda S. Faulkner 2016 Stephen F Austin State University

An Investigation Of Hydrogeologic, Stratigraphic, And Structural Controls On Acer Grandidentatum Communities In A Karst Landscape, Owl Mountain Province, Fort Hood Military Installation, Texas, Melinda S. Faulkner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Owl Mountain Province is located within the Fort Hood Military Installation, an approximately 880 km2 installation established in the 1940s in Bell and Coryell counties, Texas, which has undergone extensive land use changes associated with military training, maintaining much of the vegetation in early succession. This study investigates thelithologic, stratigraphic, and structural controls on the hydrologic, hydrogeologic, and geomorphologic evolution of the Owl Mountain Province as expressed by mesic vegetation communities, including Pleistocene relicts Acer grandidentatum, within karst terrains. These systems exhibit complexly overprinted speleogenetic evolutions within a dynamic groundwater regime resulting from regional climate shifts throughout the Neogene ...


Effects Of Changes In Moisture Source And The Upstream Rainout On Stable Isotopes In Precipitation – A Case Study In Nanjing, Eastern China, Y. Tang, H. Pang, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Shuang-Ye Wu, S. Hou 2016 Nanjing University

Effects Of Changes In Moisture Source And The Upstream Rainout On Stable Isotopes In Precipitation – A Case Study In Nanjing, Eastern China, Y. Tang, H. Pang, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Shuang-Ye Wu, S. Hou

Shuang-ye Wu

In the Asian monsoon region, variations in the stable isotopic composition of speleothems have often been attributed to the "amount effect". However, an increasing number of studies suggest that the "amount effect" in local precipitation is insignificant or even non-existent. To explore this issue further, we examined the variability of daily stable isotopic composition (δ18O) in precipitation from September 2011 to November 2014 in Nanjing, eastern China. We found that intra-seasonal variations of δ18O during summer were not significantly correlated with local rainfall amount but could be linked to changes in the moisture source location and rainout processes in the ...


Reconstruction Of The Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) Palaeotopography In The Upper Yangtze Region, Linna Zhang, Junxuan Fan, Qing Chen, Shuang-Ye Wu 2016 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences

Reconstruction Of The Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) Palaeotopography In The Upper Yangtze Region, Linna Zhang, Junxuan Fan, Qing Chen, Shuang-Ye Wu

Shuang-ye Wu

Reconstruction of the Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) palaeotopography in South China is important for understanding the distribution pattern of the Hirnantian marine depositional environment. In this study, we reconstructed the Hirnantian palaeotopography in the Upper Yangtze region based on the rankings of the palaeo-water depths, which were inferred according to the lithofacies and biofacies characteristics of the sections. Data from 374 Hirnantian sections were collected and standardized through the online Geobiodiversity Database. The Ordinary Kriging interpolation method in the ArcGIS software was applied to create the continuous surface of the palaeo-water depths, i.e. the Hirnantian palaeotopography. Meanwhile, the line transect ...


Transition From Contraction To Extension In The Northeastern Basin And Range: New Evidence From The Copper Mountains, Nevada, Jeffrey M. Rahl, Allen J. McGrew, Kenneth A. Foland 2016 Yale University

Transition From Contraction To Extension In The Northeastern Basin And Range: New Evidence From The Copper Mountains, Nevada, Jeffrey M. Rahl, Allen J. Mcgrew, Kenneth A. Foland

Allen J. McGrew

New mapping, structural analysis, and 40Ar/39Ar dating reveal an unusually well‐constrained history of Late Eocene extension in the Copper Mountains of the northern Basin and Range province. In this area, the northeast‐trending Copper Creek normal fault juxtaposes a distinctive sequence of metacarbonate and granitoid rocks against a footwall of Upper Precambrian to Lower Cambrian quartzite and phyllite. Correlation of the hanging wall with footwall rocks to the northwest provides an approximate piercing point that requires 8–12 km displacement in an ESE direction. This displaced fault slice is itself bounded above by another normal fault (the Meadow ...


Paleomagnetic Analysis Of The Scottsville Mesozoic Rift Basin, Virginia: Implications For Regional Geologic History, Nathan Charles Keithline 2016 College of William and Mary

Paleomagnetic Analysis Of The Scottsville Mesozoic Rift Basin, Virginia: Implications For Regional Geologic History, Nathan Charles Keithline

College of William & Mary Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Scottsville basin forms one of the westernmost Mesozoic rift basins in Virginia. The basin lies ~25 km SW of Charlottesville, VA astride the transition zone between the Eastern Blue Ridge and Western Piedmont geologic provinces. The ~110 km2 basin is a half-graben bounded by a normal fault to the northwest, and unconformably overlies phyllitic rocks of the Piedmont on its southeast margin. Sedimentary rocks in the basin range from boulder conglomerates to sandstone and siltstone red beds and are sourced primarily from the Proterozoic units of the Blue Ridge. NNW striking diabase dikes associated with the Central Atlantic ...


Petrographic Controls On Weathering Of The Haney Limestone, Steven M. Devine 2016 Western Kentucky University

Petrographic Controls On Weathering Of The Haney Limestone, Steven M. Devine

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Although karst processes in south central Kentucky have been studied extensively, the Haney Limestone Member of the Golconda Formation has not been studied in detail in contrast to limestones stratigraphically below it that are thicker. In addition, the relationship between petrographic features of the Haney Limestone and the formation of caves and karst features has not been studied extensively compared to lithographic, petrographic, or structural variables

Petrographic data were collected using core and surface exposures across the study area of south central Kentucky from northern Logan and Warren counties up toward the Rough Creek Graben region, and stratigraphic columns were ...


Prevailing Weather Conditions During Summer Seasons Around Gangotri Glacier, Pratap Singh, Umesh K. Haritashya, K. S. Ramasastri, Naresh Kumar 2016 Hydro Tasmania Consulting

Prevailing Weather Conditions During Summer Seasons Around Gangotri Glacier, Pratap Singh, Umesh K. Haritashya, K. S. Ramasastri, Naresh Kumar

Umesh K. Haritashya

Meteorological data collected near the snout of the Gangotri Glacier suggest that the study area receives less rainfall. The average seasonal rainfall is observed to be about 260 mm. The rainfall distribution does not show any monsoon impact. Amount of seasonal rainfall is highly variable (131.4-368.8 mm) from year to year, but, in general, August had the maximum rainfall. A verage daily maximum and minimum temperatures were 14.7 and 4.1°C respectively, whereas average mean temperature was 9.4°C. July was recorded as the warmest month. During daytime, wind speed was four times higher than ...


Multispectral Image Analysis Of Glaciers And Glacier Lakes In The Chugach Mountains, Alaska, Jeffrey Kargel, Matthew Beedle, Andrew Bush, Francisco Carreño, Elena Castellanos, Umesh Haritashya, Gregory Leonard, Javier Lillo, Ivan Lopez, Mark Pleasants, Edward Pollock, David Wolfe 2016 University of Colorado

Multispectral Image Analysis Of Glaciers And Glacier Lakes In The Chugach Mountains, Alaska, Jeffrey Kargel, Matthew Beedle, Andrew Bush, Francisco Carreño, Elena Castellanos, Umesh Haritashya, Gregory Leonard, Javier Lillo, Ivan Lopez, Mark Pleasants, Edward Pollock, David Wolfe

Umesh Haritashya

The Chugach Mountains contain the largest nonpolar alpine glaciers in the world and include a wide variety of glacier types: some are land terminating; some calve variously into tidewater, lakes, and rivers; some are heavily debris covered; some are surge-type, whereas others are neither debris covered nor surge type. Nearly all are retreating, thinning, or both, though some rare ones are advancing, and some are thickening at high elevations. To assist the further documentation of changes, we establish an inventory of glaciers in the eastern Chugach Mountains. Several case studies of diverse glacier types showcase remotesensing applications and are used ...


Slow Slip Events And Time-Dependent Variations In Locking Beneath Lower Cook Inlet Of The Alaska-Aleutian Subduction Zone, Shanshan Li, Jeffrey Freymueller, Robert McCaffrey 2016 University of Alaska, Fairbanks

Slow Slip Events And Time-Dependent Variations In Locking Beneath Lower Cook Inlet Of The Alaska-Aleutian Subduction Zone, Shanshan Li, Jeffrey Freymueller, Robert Mccaffrey

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

We identify a series of abrupt changes in GPS site velocities in Lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, in late 2004, early 2010, and late 2011. The site motions during each time period are nearly linear. The surface deformations inferred from GPS for pre-2004 and 2010–2011 are similar to each other, as are 2004–2010 and post-2011. We estimate the slip distribution on the Alaska-Aleutian subduction plate interface accounting for upper plate block rotations and interpret this toggling between two deformation patterns as caused by transient slip. We find that by allowing negative slip deficit rates (i.e., creep rates in ...


The Relationship Between Magmatism And Deformation During The Acadian Orogeny: A Case Study From Eastern-Central Vermont, Samuel William Lagor 2016 University of Vermont

The Relationship Between Magmatism And Deformation During The Acadian Orogeny: A Case Study From Eastern-Central Vermont, Samuel William Lagor

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

The Silurian-Devonian metasedimentary rocks of the Connecticut Valley-Gaspé trough (CVGT) were subjected to multiple deformational and metamorphic events during the Acadian orogeny in the Middle-Late Devonian. Plutons intruding the Devonian Waits River and Gile Mountain Formations have been considered post-tectonic, but microstructural studies of the intrusions and their metamorphic aureoles indicate some of these plutons intruded syntectonically. This study investigates the relationship between Acadian deformation and intrusion of the Knox Mountain pluton (KMP) of central Vermont. Structural and geochronological data were collected along a c. 15 km transect from the western limit of the CVGT, where the unconformable Richardson Memorial ...


Dating Deformation In The Palmer Zone Of Transpression, Central Massachusetts: Temporal Constraints On Models For Progressive Deformation In The Middle Crust, James K. McCulla 2016 University of Kentucky

Dating Deformation In The Palmer Zone Of Transpression, Central Massachusetts: Temporal Constraints On Models For Progressive Deformation In The Middle Crust, James K. Mcculla

Theses and Dissertations--Earth and Environmental Sciences

The Palmer Zone of Transpression (PZoT) in the Bronson Hill zone of central Massachusetts is an expression of late Paleozoic oblique convergence between Avalonia and Laurentia. The steeply W-dipping, N-S trending PZoT is defined by bounding high strain zones (Mt. Dumplin on west, Central Maine and Conant Brook on east) of opposing shear sense enclosing the Monson orthogneiss. Research was designed to establish the timing of deformation to test the hypothesis that strain in transpressional systems occurs contemporaneously. An understanding of the timing of deformation in this zone could elucidate the mechanisms that formed the zone and contribute to a ...


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