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Quartz Crystal Preferred Orientation And Recrystallization Patterns From Naturally Deformed Rocks Under Constriction, Riley Quine 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Quartz Crystal Preferred Orientation And Recrystallization Patterns From Naturally Deformed Rocks Under Constriction, Riley Quine

Materials Engineering

This study analyzes crystal preferred orientation (CPO) patterns within constrictional quartz-rich gneisses. Quartz deformation and CPO patterns are an area of interest because quartz is one of the most prevalent minerals in earth's crust. Understanding the typical way that quartz crystals reorient under different states of strain can provide geologists with an additional tool for understanding paleo-strain. Temperature and strain geometry are two dominant factors that control the orientation of quartz crystals within a rock. Temperature determines which slip planes are active and slip planes typically reorient so that they are perpendicular to maximum stress. Previous workers have suggested ...


Structure And Geochronology Of The White Fork Pluton, Southern Sierra Nevada, Ian Richard Mahaffey 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Structure And Geochronology Of The White Fork Pluton, Southern Sierra Nevada, Ian Richard Mahaffey

Natural Resources Management and Environmental Sciences

The Sierra Nevada batholith represents an archetypal continental arc, although the style of deformation throughout the history of the arc is only poorly understood, in part due to the voluminous nature of Late Cretaceous magmatism that has overprinted earlier structures. The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of pre-Late Cretaceous deformation in the Sierra Nevada batholith through a structural and geochronological study of the Jurassic White Fork pluton. A Jurassic age for the White Fork pluton is indicated by its inclusion of numerous 148 Ma Independence dikes, and geochronology on the White Fork pluton is limited ...


The Spatial Distribution And Origins Of Sandstone Monoliths In The Swauk Watershed, Kittitas County, Wa, Rebeca Becerra, Daniel O'Dell 2016 CWU

The Spatial Distribution And Origins Of Sandstone Monoliths In The Swauk Watershed, Kittitas County, Wa, Rebeca Becerra, Daniel O'Dell

Symposium Of University Research and Creative Expression (SOURCE)

Large groups of gigantic sandstone and conglomerate monoliths populate the Swauk Watershed of northern Kittitas County. These monoliths rest on side slopes in the watershed and distinctively project from their surroundings. The origins of these features are unknown. We studied these monoliths in the field by mapping their spatial distribution, describing their morphology and composition, and measuring their orientation and sizes in order to determine their origins. We used Google Earth and topographic maps to locate the monoliths and map their distribution. Interpretations were based from field work data and past research. Our field results show commonalities between the features ...


Plate Tectonics Initiation On Earth-Like Planets: Insights From Numerical And Theoretical Analysis Of Convection-Induced Lithospheric Failure, Teresa Wong 2016 Washington University in St. Louis

Plate Tectonics Initiation On Earth-Like Planets: Insights From Numerical And Theoretical Analysis Of Convection-Induced Lithospheric Failure, Teresa Wong

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Plate tectonics is central to many aspects of the geology and evolution of terrestrial planets, yet it is only observed on the Earth while all other known planets are covered with a stagnant lithosphere. Plate motions on the Earth are mostly driven by the pull of subducting slabs, therefore understanding the initiation of subduction is crucial to understanding plate tectonics initiation. On a one-plate planet which lacks the forces due to plate motions, some other mechanisms will have to cause the first episode of subduction to mobilize the surface. Sublithospheric convection has been proposed as a possible mechanism that induce ...


An Investigation Of Hydrogeologic, Stratigraphic, And Structural Controls On Acer Grandidentatum Communities In A Karst Landscape, Owl Mountain Province, Fort Hood Military Installation, Texas, Melinda S. Faulkner 2016 Stephen F Austin State University

An Investigation Of Hydrogeologic, Stratigraphic, And Structural Controls On Acer Grandidentatum Communities In A Karst Landscape, Owl Mountain Province, Fort Hood Military Installation, Texas, Melinda S. Faulkner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Owl Mountain Province is located within the Fort Hood Military Installation, an approximately 880 km2 installation established in the 1940s in Bell and Coryell counties, Texas, which has undergone extensive land use changes associated with military training, maintaining much of the vegetation in early succession. This study investigates thelithologic, stratigraphic, and structural controls on the hydrologic, hydrogeologic, and geomorphologic evolution of the Owl Mountain Province as expressed by mesic vegetation communities, including Pleistocene relicts Acer grandidentatum, within karst terrains. These systems exhibit complexly overprinted speleogenetic evolutions within a dynamic groundwater regime resulting from regional climate shifts throughout the Neogene ...


Effects Of Changes In Moisture Source And The Upstream Rainout On Stable Isotopes In Precipitation – A Case Study In Nanjing, Eastern China, Y. Tang, H. Pang, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Shuang-Ye Wu, S. Hou 2016 Nanjing University

Effects Of Changes In Moisture Source And The Upstream Rainout On Stable Isotopes In Precipitation – A Case Study In Nanjing, Eastern China, Y. Tang, H. Pang, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Shuang-Ye Wu, S. Hou

Shuang-ye Wu

In the Asian monsoon region, variations in the stable isotopic composition of speleothems have often been attributed to the "amount effect". However, an increasing number of studies suggest that the "amount effect" in local precipitation is insignificant or even non-existent. To explore this issue further, we examined the variability of daily stable isotopic composition (δ18O) in precipitation from September 2011 to November 2014 in Nanjing, eastern China. We found that intra-seasonal variations of δ18O during summer were not significantly correlated with local rainfall amount but could be linked to changes in the moisture source location and rainout processes in the ...


Reconstruction Of The Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) Palaeotopography In The Upper Yangtze Region, Linna Zhang, Junxuan Fan, Qing Chen, Shuang-Ye Wu 2016 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences

Reconstruction Of The Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) Palaeotopography In The Upper Yangtze Region, Linna Zhang, Junxuan Fan, Qing Chen, Shuang-Ye Wu

Shuang-ye Wu

Reconstruction of the Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) palaeotopography in South China is important for understanding the distribution pattern of the Hirnantian marine depositional environment. In this study, we reconstructed the Hirnantian palaeotopography in the Upper Yangtze region based on the rankings of the palaeo-water depths, which were inferred according to the lithofacies and biofacies characteristics of the sections. Data from 374 Hirnantian sections were collected and standardized through the online Geobiodiversity Database. The Ordinary Kriging interpolation method in the ArcGIS software was applied to create the continuous surface of the palaeo-water depths, i.e. the Hirnantian palaeotopography. Meanwhile, the line transect ...


Transition From Contraction To Extension In The Northeastern Basin And Range: New Evidence From The Copper Mountains, Nevada, Jeffrey M. Rahl, Allen J. McGrew, Kenneth A. Foland 2016 Yale University

Transition From Contraction To Extension In The Northeastern Basin And Range: New Evidence From The Copper Mountains, Nevada, Jeffrey M. Rahl, Allen J. Mcgrew, Kenneth A. Foland

Allen J. McGrew

New mapping, structural analysis, and 40Ar/39Ar dating reveal an unusually well‐constrained history of Late Eocene extension in the Copper Mountains of the northern Basin and Range province. In this area, the northeast‐trending Copper Creek normal fault juxtaposes a distinctive sequence of metacarbonate and granitoid rocks against a footwall of Upper Precambrian to Lower Cambrian quartzite and phyllite. Correlation of the hanging wall with footwall rocks to the northwest provides an approximate piercing point that requires 8–12 km displacement in an ESE direction. This displaced fault slice is itself bounded above by another normal fault (the Meadow ...


Paleomagnetic Analysis Of The Scottsville Mesozoic Rift Basin, Virginia: Implications For Regional Geologic History, Nathan Charles Keithline 2016 College of William and Mary

Paleomagnetic Analysis Of The Scottsville Mesozoic Rift Basin, Virginia: Implications For Regional Geologic History, Nathan Charles Keithline

College of William & Mary Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Scottsville basin forms one of the westernmost Mesozoic rift basins in Virginia. The basin lies ~25 km SW of Charlottesville, VA astride the transition zone between the Eastern Blue Ridge and Western Piedmont geologic provinces. The ~110 km2 basin is a half-graben bounded by a normal fault to the northwest, and unconformably overlies phyllitic rocks of the Piedmont on its southeast margin. Sedimentary rocks in the basin range from boulder conglomerates to sandstone and siltstone red beds and are sourced primarily from the Proterozoic units of the Blue Ridge. NNW striking diabase dikes associated with the Central Atlantic ...


Petrographic Controls On Weathering Of The Haney Limestone, Steven M. Devine 2016 Western Kentucky University

Petrographic Controls On Weathering Of The Haney Limestone, Steven M. Devine

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Although karst processes in south central Kentucky have been studied extensively, the Haney Limestone Member of the Golconda Formation has not been studied in detail in contrast to limestones stratigraphically below it that are thicker. In addition, the relationship between petrographic features of the Haney Limestone and the formation of caves and karst features has not been studied extensively compared to lithographic, petrographic, or structural variables

Petrographic data were collected using core and surface exposures across the study area of south central Kentucky from northern Logan and Warren counties up toward the Rough Creek Graben region, and stratigraphic columns were ...


Prevailing Weather Conditions During Summer Seasons Around Gangotri Glacier, Pratap Singh, Umesh K. Haritashya, K. S. Ramasastri, Naresh Kumar 2016 Hydro Tasmania Consulting

Prevailing Weather Conditions During Summer Seasons Around Gangotri Glacier, Pratap Singh, Umesh K. Haritashya, K. S. Ramasastri, Naresh Kumar

Umesh K. Haritashya

Meteorological data collected near the snout of the Gangotri Glacier suggest that the study area receives less rainfall. The average seasonal rainfall is observed to be about 260 mm. The rainfall distribution does not show any monsoon impact. Amount of seasonal rainfall is highly variable (131.4-368.8 mm) from year to year, but, in general, August had the maximum rainfall. A verage daily maximum and minimum temperatures were 14.7 and 4.1°C respectively, whereas average mean temperature was 9.4°C. July was recorded as the warmest month. During daytime, wind speed was four times higher than ...


Multispectral Image Analysis Of Glaciers And Glacier Lakes In The Chugach Mountains, Alaska, Jeffrey Kargel, Matthew Beedle, Andrew Bush, Francisco Carreño, Elena Castellanos, Umesh Haritashya, Gregory Leonard, Javier Lillo, Ivan Lopez, Mark Pleasants, Edward Pollock, David Wolfe 2016 University of Colorado

Multispectral Image Analysis Of Glaciers And Glacier Lakes In The Chugach Mountains, Alaska, Jeffrey Kargel, Matthew Beedle, Andrew Bush, Francisco Carreño, Elena Castellanos, Umesh Haritashya, Gregory Leonard, Javier Lillo, Ivan Lopez, Mark Pleasants, Edward Pollock, David Wolfe

Umesh Haritashya

The Chugach Mountains contain the largest nonpolar alpine glaciers in the world and include a wide variety of glacier types: some are land terminating; some calve variously into tidewater, lakes, and rivers; some are heavily debris covered; some are surge-type, whereas others are neither debris covered nor surge type. Nearly all are retreating, thinning, or both, though some rare ones are advancing, and some are thickening at high elevations. To assist the further documentation of changes, we establish an inventory of glaciers in the eastern Chugach Mountains. Several case studies of diverse glacier types showcase remotesensing applications and are used ...


Slow Slip Events And Time-Dependent Variations In Locking Beneath Lower Cook Inlet Of The Alaska-Aleutian Subduction Zone, Shanshan Li, Jeffrey Freymueller, Robert McCaffrey 2016 University of Alaska, Fairbanks

Slow Slip Events And Time-Dependent Variations In Locking Beneath Lower Cook Inlet Of The Alaska-Aleutian Subduction Zone, Shanshan Li, Jeffrey Freymueller, Robert Mccaffrey

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

We identify a series of abrupt changes in GPS site velocities in Lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, in late 2004, early 2010, and late 2011. The site motions during each time period are nearly linear. The surface deformations inferred from GPS for pre-2004 and 2010–2011 are similar to each other, as are 2004–2010 and post-2011. We estimate the slip distribution on the Alaska-Aleutian subduction plate interface accounting for upper plate block rotations and interpret this toggling between two deformation patterns as caused by transient slip. We find that by allowing negative slip deficit rates (i.e., creep rates in ...


Dating Deformation In The Palmer Zone Of Transpression, Central Massachusetts: Temporal Constraints On Models For Progressive Deformation In The Middle Crust, James K. McCulla 2016 University of Kentucky

Dating Deformation In The Palmer Zone Of Transpression, Central Massachusetts: Temporal Constraints On Models For Progressive Deformation In The Middle Crust, James K. Mcculla

Theses and Dissertations--Earth and Environmental Sciences

The Palmer Zone of Transpression (PZoT) in the Bronson Hill zone of central Massachusetts is an expression of late Paleozoic oblique convergence between Avalonia and Laurentia. The steeply W-dipping, N-S trending PZoT is defined by bounding high strain zones (Mt. Dumplin on west, Central Maine and Conant Brook on east) of opposing shear sense enclosing the Monson orthogneiss. Research was designed to establish the timing of deformation to test the hypothesis that strain in transpressional systems occurs contemporaneously. An understanding of the timing of deformation in this zone could elucidate the mechanisms that formed the zone and contribute to a ...


Kinematic Constraints On Tectonics Of The Northern Basin And Range, Dylan Schmeelk 2016 University of Montana, Missoula

Kinematic Constraints On Tectonics Of The Northern Basin And Range, Dylan Schmeelk

Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers

We derive surface velocities relative to North America, using data from 1989 through 2014 in the interior northwest, to investigate kinematics from the Snake River Plain (SRP) to the Canadian border. The Centennial Tectonic Belt (CTB) exhibits similarities to the main Basin and Range Province (BRP) that suggest the CTB is an extension of the BRP, including range and fault orientation, increasing velocity magnitudes westward, and a distinct high rate of strain across the Madison Range. Calculations of fault spreading rates and orientations from geodetic data show that several faults are more active than previously assumed when compared to seismic ...


Spatiotemporal Slip Rate Variations Along Surprise Valley Fault In Relation To Pleistocene Pluvial Lakes, Brian N. Marion 2016 Central Washington University

Spatiotemporal Slip Rate Variations Along Surprise Valley Fault In Relation To Pleistocene Pluvial Lakes, Brian N. Marion

All Master's Theses

Using mapped paleoshoreline features with high-resolution topographic data and obtained radiocarbon dates on paleoshoreline tufas, I documented precise fault offsets of dated features over the last 25 ka along the Surprise Valley Fault (SVF). Fault offset measured in three lake sections within Surprise Valley ranged from 3.6 m in the southern section to 14.4 m in the central section. The offset paleoshorelines are dated to the late Pleistocene (<22 >ka) and were formed during the latest impoundment of pluvial Lake Surprise since the last glacial maximum. Slip rates vary along strike, assuming a fault dip of 68° with 0 ...


Tectonic Alteration Of A Major Neogene River Drainage Of The Basin And Range, Stuart D. Parker 2016 University of Montana

Tectonic Alteration Of A Major Neogene River Drainage Of The Basin And Range, Stuart D. Parker

Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers

Depositional characteristics of the ‘Divide unit’ of the Cretaceous Beaverhead Group within the southern Beaverhead Mountains challenge previous interpretations. This study reassigns the Divide unit to the Neogene. This revised age assignment highlights a major influx of immature sediment at the onset of Basin-Range normal faulting. Syntectonic deposition in an active half-graben continued from Middle Miocene to the Pliocene, attaining a thickness of 800 m. Local clasts of carbonate, siliciclastic and orthoquartzite entered the channel from the immediate west through large mass-wasting events. Dacitic fluvial cobbles dated herein to 98 Ma were transported from an unknown southwesterly source. Clasts of ...


Apparent Glacially Induced Structural Controls On Limestone Conduit Development In Ohio Caverns, United States, Adrienne M. Watts, Ira D. Sasowsky 2015 University Of Akron

Apparent Glacially Induced Structural Controls On Limestone Conduit Development In Ohio Caverns, United States, Adrienne M. Watts, Ira D. Sasowsky

International Journal of Speleology

Rock discontinuities such as bedding planes and joints are important controls on the form that caves take. We examined structural controls on the development of Ohio Caverns. The cave formed in Devonian limestone underlying a small bedrock knob (Mt. Tabor) within the Interior Lowland province, United States. The area has been overridden by continental glaciation multiple times. The bedrock is pervasively fractured, with many curved and wavy near-vertical fractures showing many different orientations. In the case of Ohio Caverns, it appears that the controlling fractures in map view may not be joints sensu stricto, but rather some combination of tensile ...


Mineralogy And Geochemistry Of Late Archean And Paleoproterozoic Granites And Pegmatites In The Northern Penokean Terrane Of Marquette And Dickinson Counties, Michigan, Christopher M. Johnson, Christopher M. Van Daalen 2015 University of New Orleans

Mineralogy And Geochemistry Of Late Archean And Paleoproterozoic Granites And Pegmatites In The Northern Penokean Terrane Of Marquette And Dickinson Counties, Michigan, Christopher M. Johnson, Christopher M. Van Daalen

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

This thesis focuses on mineralogy, geochemistry, and origin of eight pegmatites and two spatially associated granites of Late Archean and Paleoproterozoic ages located in Marquette and Dickinson Counties, Michigan. Biotite geochemistry reveals that both granites and all pegmatites are peraluminous and have an orogenic signature. However, bulk composition reveals the Humboldt granite is a peraluminous A-type granite and the Bell Creek granite is a peraluminous mix between I-, S-, and A-type granites. The Republic Mine pegmatite appears to be geochemically similar to the Bell Creek granite and Grizzly pegmatite. The Crockley pegmatite is genetically related to the Humboldt granite. The ...


Integrated Analytical-Computational Analysis Of Microstructural Influences On Seismic Anisotropy, Scott E. Johnson, Christopher Gerbi, Andrew J. Goupee, Senthil Vel 2015 Principal Investigator; University of Maine, Orono

Integrated Analytical-Computational Analysis Of Microstructural Influences On Seismic Anisotropy, Scott E. Johnson, Christopher Gerbi, Andrew J. Goupee, Senthil Vel

University of Maine Office of Research and Sponsored Programs: Grant Reports

The magnitudes, orientations and spatial distributions of elastic anisotropy in Earth's crust and mantle carry valuable information about gradients in thermal, mechanical and kinematic parameters arising from mantle convection, mantle-crust coupling and tectonic plate interactions. Relating seismic signals to deformation regimes requires knowledge of the elastic signatures (bulk stiffnesses) of different microstructures that characterize specific deformation environments, but the influence of microstructural heterogeneity on bulk stiffness has not been comprehensively evaluated. The objectives of this project are to: (1) scale up a preliminary method to determine the bulk stiffness of rocks using integrated analytical (electron backscatter diffraction) and computational ...


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