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Prevention And Preparedness Of The Messina-Reggio Calabria Strait: An Earthquake Forecasting And Didactic Project, Francesco Di Stefano, Gioacchino Giampaolo Giuliani, Dimitar Ouzounov, Daniele Cataldi, Cristiano Fidani, Angelo D'Errico, Giulia Fioravanti 2021 Foundation “G. Giuliani ONLUS”

Prevention And Preparedness Of The Messina-Reggio Calabria Strait: An Earthquake Forecasting And Didactic Project, Francesco Di Stefano, Gioacchino Giampaolo Giuliani, Dimitar Ouzounov, Daniele Cataldi, Cristiano Fidani, Angelo D'Errico, Giulia Fioravanti

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

This contribution is addressed to an introductive university course on the correlation existing between radon emission and earthquakes processes held following a flipped-class approach where students receive didactic materials prior to face-to-face lessons. This research was initially started to investigate the real correlation between Radon emission from the Earth and the occurrence of strong earthquakes by using measurements of hourly Radon flow variation. During quiet seismogenic conditions, we observe an unvarying level of Radon emission in the air. Before a strong earthquake, substantial variations of Radon (222Rn) concentration have been observed in the air, probably because of the increase ...


Stratigraphic Evidence Of Two Historical Tsunamis On The Semi-Arid Coast Of North-Central Chile, Jessica M. DePaolis, Tina Dura, Breanyn MacInnes, Lisa L. Ely, Marco Cisternas, Matías Carvajal, Hui Tang, Hermann M. Fritz, Cyntia Mizobe, Robert L. Wesson, Gino Figueroa, Nicole Brennan, Benjamin P. Horton, Jessica E. Pilarczyk, D. Reide Corbett, Benjamin C. Gill, Robert Weiss 2021 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Stratigraphic Evidence Of Two Historical Tsunamis On The Semi-Arid Coast Of North-Central Chile, Jessica M. Depaolis, Tina Dura, Breanyn Macinnes, Lisa L. Ely, Marco Cisternas, Matías Carvajal, Hui Tang, Hermann M. Fritz, Cyntia Mizobe, Robert L. Wesson, Gino Figueroa, Nicole Brennan, Benjamin P. Horton, Jessica E. Pilarczyk, D. Reide Corbett, Benjamin C. Gill, Robert Weiss

Geological Sciences Faculty Scholarship

On September 16, 2015, a Mw 8.3 earthquake struck the north-central Chile coast, triggering a tsunami observed along 500 km of coastline, between Huasco (28.5°S) and San Antonio (33.5°S). This tsunami provided a unique opportunity to examine the nature of tsunami deposits in a semi-arid, siliciclastic environment where stratigraphic and sedimentological records of past tsunamis are difficult to distinguish. To improve our ability to identify such evidence, we targeted one of the few low-energy, organic-rich depositional environments in north-central Chile: Pachingo marsh in Tongoy Bay (30.3°S).

We found sedimentary evidence of the ...


Assessing The Prevalance Of Joint-Controlled Mass Wasting In The Southern Appalachian Mountains, U.S.A., Madeline Konopinski 2021 Missouri State University

Assessing The Prevalance Of Joint-Controlled Mass Wasting In The Southern Appalachian Mountains, U.S.A., Madeline Konopinski

MSU Graduate Theses

Landslides are common hazards that produce devastating effects worldwide. Within the United States, the Appalachian Mountains are identified as an area of moderate to high susceptibility and incidence for landslides (Mirus et al., 2020; Wieczorek and Morgan, 2008). Given the presence of active seismic zones (eastern Tennessee and Giles County seismic zones) and variable rainfall due to seasonal storms (hurricanes) throughout the Appalachians, ancient earthquake activity or intense rainfall may trigger mass wasting events. Regional bedrock joints may further control the susceptibility of landslides to develop in specific locations during trigger events by providing a pre-existing weakness in the substrate ...


Geology Of The Clairmont Springs 7.5-Minute Quadrangle And Geochronology Of The Alabama Blue Ridge, Adelie Ionescu 2021 Missouri State University

Geology Of The Clairmont Springs 7.5-Minute Quadrangle And Geochronology Of The Alabama Blue Ridge, Adelie Ionescu

MSU Graduate Theses

The Alabama Blue Ridge (USA) of the southern Appalachians contains metamorphic rocks and structures associated with island arc accretion and continent-continent collision that record the Acadian and Alleghenian orogenies. The western Blue Ridge is underlain by Cambrian to Mississippian, clastic and carbonate, low-grade, greenschist facies metamorphic Talladega belt that formed outboard from the Alabama promontory or along the Laurentian margin. The eastern Blue Ridge contains the Neoproterozoic to Paleozoic, lithologically diverse, high grade, middle to upper amphibolite facies Ashland Supergroup. Geologic mapping of the Clairmont Springs 7.5- minute quadrangle unveils tectonic relationships between the eastern and western Blue Ridge ...


A Consistent Model Of Terrestrial Planet Magnetospheres And Rotations In Our Solar System, Fred J. Cadieu 2021 CUNY Queens College

A Consistent Model Of Terrestrial Planet Magnetospheres And Rotations In Our Solar System, Fred J. Cadieu

Publications and Research

The Sun comprises 99.9% of the solar system mass so it is expected that Sun terrestrial planet interactions can influence the motion as well as the rotation of the terrestrial planets.Gravity affects the planet orbital motions while the changing magnetic fields of the Sun can influence the planet rotations. Planets that manifest a magnetic field dominate any weaker magnetic fields from the Sun, but the rotation of terrestrial planets without a magnetic field interacts with the changing Sun’s field dependent on the electrical conductivity of the core region. It is determined that the average planet density becomes ...


Digital Appendix Of Masters Thesis "Constraining Deformation Mechanisms Of Damage Zones: A Case Study Of The Shallow San Andreas Fault At Elizabeth Lake, Southern California, James P. Evans, Caroline Studnicky 2021 Utah State University

Digital Appendix Of Masters Thesis "Constraining Deformation Mechanisms Of Damage Zones: A Case Study Of The Shallow San Andreas Fault At Elizabeth Lake, Southern California, James P. Evans, Caroline Studnicky

Browse all Datasets

We performed macroscopic, optical petrographic, scanning electron microscopy, and geochemical analyses on rock core acquired across the San Andreas Fault at Elizabeth Lake, California, in order to understand the distribution and accommodation of fault-related slip and energy within the shallow damage zone of this continental scale strike-slip fault. We characterized the deformation structures, alteration textures, and elemental variabilities to constrain the properties of the uppermost ~2 km fault-related damage zone at this site. We identified evidence for coseismic slip in the form of pulverized rocks, injection veins, clay-clast aggregates, and pseudotachylyte, and aseismic slip through calcite twins, dilatant vein fills ...


Characterization Of Landslide Processes From Radar Remote Sensing And Hydromechanical Modeling, Yuankun Xu 2021 Southern Methodist University

Characterization Of Landslide Processes From Radar Remote Sensing And Hydromechanical Modeling, Yuankun Xu

Earth Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Landsides are a natural geomorphic process yet a dangerous hazard which annually causes thousands of casualties and billions of property loss in a global scale. Understanding landslide motion kinematics from early initiation to final deposition is critical for monitoring, assessing, and forecasting landslide movement in order to mitigate their hazards. Landslides occur under diverse environmental settings and appear in variable types; however, all types of landslides can be mechanically attributed to shearing failure at the basal surface due to stress regime shift contributed by internal and/or external forcing. Typical internal factors include soil/rock weathering, whereas typical external triggering ...


Determining Biostratigraphy And Correlation Using Color Alteration Index And Lithofacies Of Conodonts In The Edinburg Formation, Central Virginia, Lauren Showalter 2021 James Madison University

Determining Biostratigraphy And Correlation Using Color Alteration Index And Lithofacies Of Conodonts In The Edinburg Formation, Central Virginia, Lauren Showalter

Senior Honors Projects, 2020-current

Conodont species, CAI and lithofacies analysis are used as methods of correlation to determine the relative age, depositional environment, and post depositional burial history of the Edinburg Formation in central Virginia. Samples collected for conodont microfossils yielded faunas of Baltoniodus sp. or Amorphognathus sp., Periodon grandis and Protopanderodus liripipus from a site near Luray and Drepanoistodus suberectus, Plectodina sp., Protopanderodus liripipus, Oistodus sp., Phragmodus undatus, Erismodus radicans and Panderodus gracilis from a site in Harrisonburg. The species supports a Late Ordovician (Late Sandbian age). Conodonts from both sites have a CAI of 4-5, indicating post-depositional heating of over 300 degrees ...


Joint Spacing In The Caples Lake Granodiorite Of The Sierra Nevada Batholith In Eldorado National Forest, California: A Comparative Analysis Of Joint Sets And Data Resolution, Jimmy Wood 2021 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Joint Spacing In The Caples Lake Granodiorite Of The Sierra Nevada Batholith In Eldorado National Forest, California: A Comparative Analysis Of Joint Sets And Data Resolution, Jimmy Wood

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

Joints are the most common deformation structure in the Earth’s upper crust and exert a significant influence on structural stability, landscape morphology, and fluid flow . Therefore, a greater understanding of fracture parameters (e.g., length, aperture, etc.) allows us to more accurately predict their presence, persistence, and prevalence, in the subsurface . We study the fracture spacing of two sub-orthogonal joint sets—66 NE-246 SW and 330 NW-150 SE—in the Caples Lake granodiorite of the Sierra Nevada Batholith, California. Specifically, we investigate 1) their spacing distributions with a keen interest in power-law (fractal) spacing, 2) distribution comparisons between master ...


Application Of The Global Srtm And Aw3d30 Digital Elevation Models To Mapping Folds At Cave Sites, Mark J. Abolins, Albert E. Ogden 2021 Middle Tennessee State University, USA

Application Of The Global Srtm And Aw3d30 Digital Elevation Models To Mapping Folds At Cave Sites, Mark J. Abolins, Albert E. Ogden

International Journal of Speleology

A novel method to map and quantitatively describe very gentle folds (limb dip <5o) at cratonic cave sites was evaluated at Snail Shell and Nanna Caves, central Tennessee, USA. Elevations from the global SRTM digital terrain model (DTM) were assigned to points on late Ordovician geologic contacts, and the elevations of the points were used to interpolate 28 m cell size natural neighbor digital elevation models (DEM’s) of the contacts. The global Forest Canopy Height Dataset was subtracted from the global 28 m cell size AW3D30 digital surface model (DSM) to create a DTM, and that DTM was applied ...


An Investigation On Flow Field Partitioning Related To The Rheological Heterogeneities And Its Application To Geological Examples, Ankit Bhandari 2021 The University of Western Ontario

An Investigation On Flow Field Partitioning Related To The Rheological Heterogeneities And Its Application To Geological Examples, Ankit Bhandari

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Earth’s lithosphere is heterogeneous and composed of rheologically distinct elements at various scales of observations. This causes the flow of rocks to vary with space and time, which may influence the formation of various kinds of geological rock records. This thesis provides quantitative solutions to some first-order problems in structural geology regarding this heterogeneous flow variation and thereby the development of various geological rock records at different scales of observations.

Pressure in a rheologically heterogeneous element may deviate from its ambient value and if significant, may influence the metamorphic assemblages. This might cause problems in the routine use of ...


Serial Interaction Of Primitive Magmas With Felsic And Mafic Crust Recorded By Gabbroic Dikes From The Antarctic Extension Of The Karoo Large Igneous Province, Jussi S. Heinonen, Arto V. Luttinen, Frank J. Spera, Saku K. Vuori, Wendy A. Bohrson 2021 University of Helsinki

Serial Interaction Of Primitive Magmas With Felsic And Mafic Crust Recorded By Gabbroic Dikes From The Antarctic Extension Of The Karoo Large Igneous Province, Jussi S. Heinonen, Arto V. Luttinen, Frank J. Spera, Saku K. Vuori, Wendy A. Bohrson

Geological Sciences Faculty Scholarship

Two subvertical gabbroic dikes with widths of ~ 350 m (East-Muren) and ≥ 500 m (West-Muren) crosscut continental flood basalts in the Antarctic extension of the ~ 180 Ma Karoo large igneous province (LIP) in Vestfjella, western Dronning Maud Land. The dikes exhibit unusual geochemical profiles; most significantly, initial (at 180 Ma) εNd values increase from the dike interiors towards the hornfelsed wallrock basalts (from − 15.3 to − 7.8 in East-Muren and more gradually from − 9.0 to − 5.5 in West-Muren). In this study, we utilize models of partial melting and energy-constrained assimilation‒fractional crystallization in deciphering the magmatic evolution ...


The Lavrion Mines: A Unique Site Of Geological And Mineralogical Heritage, Panagiotis Voudouris, Vasilios Melfos, Constantinos Mavrogonatos, Adonis Photiades, Eugenia Moraiti, Branko Rieck, Uwe Kolitsch, Alexandre Tarantola, Christophe Scheffer, Denis Morin, Olivier Vanderhaeghe, Paul G. Spry, James Ross, Konstantinos Soukis, Markos Vaxevanopoulos, Igor V. Pekov, Nikita V. Chukanov, Andreas Magganas, Marianna Kati, Athanasios Katerinopoulos, Stefanos Zaimis 2021 National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

The Lavrion Mines: A Unique Site Of Geological And Mineralogical Heritage, Panagiotis Voudouris, Vasilios Melfos, Constantinos Mavrogonatos, Adonis Photiades, Eugenia Moraiti, Branko Rieck, Uwe Kolitsch, Alexandre Tarantola, Christophe Scheffer, Denis Morin, Olivier Vanderhaeghe, Paul G. Spry, James Ross, Konstantinos Soukis, Markos Vaxevanopoulos, Igor V. Pekov, Nikita V. Chukanov, Andreas Magganas, Marianna Kati, Athanasios Katerinopoulos, Stefanos Zaimis

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

The Lavrion area corresponds to the western part of the Attic-Cycladic metamorphic belt, in the back-arc region of the active Hellenic subduction zone. Between the Eocene and the Miocene, metamorphic rocks (mainly marbles and schists) underwent several stages of metamorphism and deformation due to collision and collapse of the Cycladic belt. Exhumation during the Miocene was accommodated by the movement of a large-scale detachment fault system, which also enhanced emplacement of magmatic rocks, leading to the formation of the famous Lavrion silver deposits. The area around the mines shows the stacking of nappes, with ore deposition mainly localized within the ...


The Geology, Geochemistry, And Origin Of The Porphyry Cu-Au-(Mo) System At Vathi, Serbo-Macedonian Massif, Greece, Christos L. Stergiou, Vasilios Melfos, Panagiotis Voudouris, Paul G. Spry, Lambrini Papadopoulou, Alexandros Chatzipetros, Katerina Giouri, Constantinos Mavrogonatos, Anestis Filippidis 2021 University of Thessaloniki

The Geology, Geochemistry, And Origin Of The Porphyry Cu-Au-(Mo) System At Vathi, Serbo-Macedonian Massif, Greece, Christos L. Stergiou, Vasilios Melfos, Panagiotis Voudouris, Paul G. Spry, Lambrini Papadopoulou, Alexandros Chatzipetros, Katerina Giouri, Constantinos Mavrogonatos, Anestis Filippidis

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

The Vathi porphyry Cu-Au ± Mo mineralization is located in the Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province of the Western Tethyan Metallogenic Belt. It is mainly hosted by a latite and is genetically associated with a quartz monzonite intrusion, which intruded the basement rocks of the Vertiskos Unit and the latite, 18 to 17 Ma ago. A phreatic breccia crosscuts the latite. The quartz monzonite was affected by potassic alteration, whereas the latite was subjected to local propylitic alteration. Both styles of alteration were subsequently overprinted by intense sericitic alteration. M-type and A-type veins are spatially associated with potassic alteration, whereas D-type veins are ...


The Effects Of Heterogeneities And Syn-Deformational Partial Melting On Rock Strength Evolution And Melt Migration, Nicole Wagner 2021 The University of Akron

The Effects Of Heterogeneities And Syn-Deformational Partial Melting On Rock Strength Evolution And Melt Migration, Nicole Wagner

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

In nature, the segregation of granitic melts at the source may be controlled by fabric and compositional heterogeneities in the source rock, such as foliation and lineation. To investigate the influence of foliation/lineation orientation and composition on rock strength and melt interconnectivity, I performed a series of experiments on cores of a fine-grained gneiss (Gneiss Minuti) and a fine-grained muscovite-bearing quartzite (Moine Thrust quartzite). These rocks were cored at six primary orientations parallel, 45 degrees, and perpendicular to the foliation and lineation and were deformed at a constant temperature of 900°C, pressure of ~2 GPa, and strain rate ...


Analyzing Slab Holes In Subduction Zones And Their Impacts Through Numerical Simulations, Taylor M. Arrowood 2021 University of Kentucky

Analyzing Slab Holes In Subduction Zones And Their Impacts Through Numerical Simulations, Taylor M. Arrowood

Theses and Dissertations--Earth and Environmental Sciences

Subduction zones form as higher density oceanic lithosphere is forced beneath an over-riding, lower density, continental or oceanic plate; a process driven by contrasts in buoyancy throughout this system. We seek to explore subduction zones in which the subducting lithosphere is discontinuous after passing through the trench, forming a slab gap. The main research objective is to determine the effect of slab gaps on surface topography in a subduction-related orogen and asthenospheric flow into the mantle wedge using two and three-dimensional numerical mechanical models. We obtain results from 24+ models that suggest a connection between slab gaps/holes and the ...


Analysis Of Water Concentration Formed Within Deformed Synthetic Quartz Crystals, Andrew Steward 2021 The University of Akron

Analysis Of Water Concentration Formed Within Deformed Synthetic Quartz Crystals, Andrew Steward

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Analyzing the strength of synthetic quartz is essential to understanding the strength of natural milky quartz, which likely controls the strength of Earth’s continental crust. Synthetic quartz is sometimes used for deformation experiments because it has a homogenous water distribution unlike natural milky quartz. The purpose of this study is to determine if annealing synthetic quartz at T = 600°C will convert the water in synthetic quartz to free water, like milky quartz, but with little water loss. Following two annealing experiments at Texas A&M University, I performed four annealing experiments to measure the water content of five ...


Genesis Of Trondhjemite By Low-Pressure Fraction Anatexis Of Hornblende-Gabbro At Alvand Plutonic Complex (Hamedan, Nw Iran): Insights From Geochemical Modelling., Federico Lucci, Adel Saki, Mirmohammad Miri, Ahmad Rabiee, John C. White 2021 Universita Roma Tre

Genesis Of Trondhjemite By Low-Pressure Fraction Anatexis Of Hornblende-Gabbro At Alvand Plutonic Complex (Hamedan, Nw Iran): Insights From Geochemical Modelling., Federico Lucci, Adel Saki, Mirmohammad Miri, Ahmad Rabiee, John C. White

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

Amphibole-dominated dehydration melting of gabbro is the primary process responsible for the genesis of adakites, low-K tonalites, modern trondhjemites, and plagiogranites aswell as Archean tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite suites that represent the earliest examples of continental crust. Previous literature has mostly focused on the role of Al-rich amphibole during anatexis of a mafic source and many of these studies have investigated this process through experimental melting runs. However, due to experimental boundary conditions, little is known about partial melting of amphibole-bearing mafic rock at temperatures < 800°C for upper crustal conditions (pressure < 500 MPa). Classic and forward thermobarometric modelling suggests that in situ trondhjemite leucosomes, hosted by Cheshmeh-Ghasaban mafic metatexites (Alvand Plutonic Complex, Hamedan, NW Iran), represent a rare natural case study of a low-temperature incipient amphibole-dominated anatectic event of a mafic source with a primary assemblage (Pl+Hbl+Cpx+Bt+Opx) typical of a hornblende-bearing gabbroic rock.


Quantifying Bedrock Recharge In Two Paired Mountainous Watersheds, Kimberly Bolhuis 2021 University of Montana, Missoula

Quantifying Bedrock Recharge In Two Paired Mountainous Watersheds, Kimberly Bolhuis

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

This study focuses on 1) estimating the magnitude of bedrock recharge and 2) mean transit time as a function of bedrock permeability in two paired catchments underlain by different lithology. Networks of bedrock wells and stream gauges were installed in two adjacent catchments of approximately the same size in west central Montana. Fracture network properties for both lithologies were characterized from borehole core logging and scan lines on exposed outcrop. Recharge was evaluated using the Water Table Fluctuation (WTF) method on bedrock well hydrographs installed in both catchments. Stable water isotope samples, collected approximately monthly, from precipitation and stream water ...


Structural Analysis And Interpretation Of Deformation Along The Keweenaw Fault System West Of Lake Gratiot, Keweenaw County, Michigan, Sophie A. Mueller 2021 Michigan Technological University

Structural Analysis And Interpretation Of Deformation Along The Keweenaw Fault System West Of Lake Gratiot, Keweenaw County, Michigan, Sophie A. Mueller

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The Keweenaw fault is perhaps the most significant fault associated with the Midcontinent Rift System of the north-central United States. The fault, parallel to the south edge of the rift, has been interpreted as a rift-bounding normal fault that was inverted by subsequent compressional events, thrusting copper-bearing Portage Lake Volcanics (~ 1.1 Ga) over younger Jacobsville Sandstone. Geologic maps and cross sections published in the 1950s by the U. S. Geological Survey depict the fault with a well-defined, single, sinuous trace that is locally associated with smaller branch faults. Cross-sections from that time generally show a simple listric stratal geometry ...


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