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The Dynamic Relationship Between The Bear River, Quaternary Basaltic Center, Normal Faults, And The Resulting Rearrangement Of Rivers In The Northeast Edge Of The Great Basin, Southeast Idaho, Brady Utley 2017 Utah State University

The Dynamic Relationship Between The Bear River, Quaternary Basaltic Center, Normal Faults, And The Resulting Rearrangement Of Rivers In The Northeast Edge Of The Great Basin, Southeast Idaho, Brady Utley

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

The objective of this research project in Gem Valley graben, southeast Idaho is to identify the location, age and history of the Quaternary diversion of the Bear River into paleo-Lake Thatcher, and then into the Lake Bonneville basin from the Columbia River basin. Mapping, geochemical analysis, cross-cutting relationships, and five new age determinations, together with prior published research, shed new light on the complex history of interaction between the volcanic rocks, rivers, lakes, and faults in Gem Valley. Research goals were to test the hypothesis that local faulting and volcanism drove the diversion of the Bear River and controlled the ...


A Case Study In Basement And Surface Structure Relationships And Their Implications For Fault Reactivation, Sawtooth Range, Mt, Jason M. Palu 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A Case Study In Basement And Surface Structure Relationships And Their Implications For Fault Reactivation, Sawtooth Range, Mt, Jason M. Palu

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

The reactivation of pre-existing basement structures affects the geometry of subsequent deformation structures. A case study analyzing the results of these interactions can be used to examine multiple fold-thrust systems and lead to valuable deformation predictions. These predictions include the potential for hydrocarbon traps or seismic risk in an actively deforming area. This case study examined the development of structures close to the Augusta Syncline in the Sawtooth Range, Montana (USA), using: 1) an ArcGIS map of basement structures, based on analysis of gravimetric and aeromagnetic data, seismic data, and well logs; 2) an ArcGIS map of the surface deformation ...


Investigation Of Wing Crack Formation With A Combined Phase-Field And Experimental Approach, Sanghyun Lee, Jacqueline E. Reber, Nicholas W. Hayman, Mary F. Wheeler 2017 University of Texas at Austin

Investigation Of Wing Crack Formation With A Combined Phase-Field And Experimental Approach, Sanghyun Lee, Jacqueline E. Reber, Nicholas W. Hayman, Mary F. Wheeler

Jacqueline Reber

Fractures that propagate off of weak slip planes are known as wing cracks and often play important roles in both tectonic deformation and fluid flow across reservoir seals. Previous numerical models have produced the basic kinematics of wing crack openings but generally have not been able to capture fracture geometries seen in nature. Here we present both a phase-field modeling approach and a physical experiment using gelatin for a wing crack formation. By treating the fracture surfaces as diffusive zones instead of as discontinuities, the phase-field model does not require consideration of unpredictable rock properties or stress inhomogeneities around crack ...


Stick-Slip And Creep Behavior In Lubricated Granular Material: Insights Into The Brittle-Ductile Transition, Jacqueline E. Reber, Nicholas W. Hayman, Luc L. Lavier 2017 Iowa State University

Stick-Slip And Creep Behavior In Lubricated Granular Material: Insights Into The Brittle-Ductile Transition, Jacqueline E. Reber, Nicholas W. Hayman, Luc L. Lavier

Jacqueline Reber

Crustal deformation can occur via stick-slip events, viscous creep, or strain transients at variable rates. Here we explore such strain transients with physical experiments comprising a quasi-two-dimensional shear zone with elastic, acrylic discs and interstitial viscous silicone. Experiments of solely elastic discs produce stick-slip events and an overall (constant volume) strengthening. The addition of the viscous silicone enhances localization but does not greatly change the overall pattern of strengthening. It does, however, damp the stick-slip events, leading to transient, creep-like behavior that approaches the behavior of a Maxwell body. There is no gradual transition from frictional to viscous deformation with ...


Physical Experiments Of Tectonic Deformation And Processes: Building A Strong Community, Michael L. Cooke, Jacqueline E. Reber, Saad Haq 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Physical Experiments Of Tectonic Deformation And Processes: Building A Strong Community, Michael L. Cooke, Jacqueline E. Reber, Saad Haq

Jacqueline Reber

The recent revolution in the analysis of physical experiments of tectonic processes has provided new quantitative tools to analyze their outcomes. Physical experiments using scaled analog models are unique in providing information on complex three-dimensional deformation where processes can be directly observed. These observations critically complement insights gained from field and analytical/numerical investigations. Recent innovations in rheologic testing, digital image processing, and data collection are revolutionizing how we use experiments to provide insight into crustal deformation. At the same time, we are seeing the benefits of physical experiments in classroom teaching by engaging students in hypothesis testing and hands-on ...


Gravitational Study Of The Hastings Salt Dome And Associated Faults In Brazoria And Galveston Counties,Texas, Francis C. Okocha 2017 Stephen F. Austin State University

Gravitational Study Of The Hastings Salt Dome And Associated Faults In Brazoria And Galveston Counties,Texas, Francis C. Okocha

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Salt domes are important geological structures because they are potential major hydrocarbon traps and have a profound effect on overlying strata in the subsurface. Over five hundred salt domes have been located on the United States Gulf Coast region, including the Hastings Salt Dome. Hastings Oil Field is located about 40.2 km (25 miles) southeast of Houston, Texas. The Hasting oil field was discovered in 1934 and it was considered the largest oil reserve on the Gulf Coast. Its peak production of 75,000 BOPD (barrels of oil per day) was recorded in 1977 and it had a cumulative ...


Structural And Stratigraphic Reconstruction Of The Whiting Dome Salt Structure In Viosca Knoll-Mississippi Canyon, Gom, Using 3d Seismic Data, Matthew R. Worrell 2017 Stephen F Austin State University

Structural And Stratigraphic Reconstruction Of The Whiting Dome Salt Structure In Viosca Knoll-Mississippi Canyon, Gom, Using 3d Seismic Data, Matthew R. Worrell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Understanding the complexities of salt tectonics is one of the most important factors regarding seismic interpretation of stratigraphy, structure, and geomorphology in the Gulf of Mexico. Evaluating the processes affecting recent mobilization of salt in the shallow, well-imaged section can help provide analogues for older, similar occurrences in the deeper section, thereby providing structural models for the autochthonous salt and its effect on stratigraphy and even potential timing and migration issues of hydrocarbons.

Progradation of delta front and shelf to slope transitional sediments has expulsed and emplaced an allochthonous salt structure (Whiting Dome) in the Viosca Knoll and Mississippi Canyon ...


Basement And Cover Structural Analysis Along The Eagle River Gorge, Sawatch Range, Colorado, Kaitlin Lee Askelson 2017 Stephen F Austin State University

Basement And Cover Structural Analysis Along The Eagle River Gorge, Sawatch Range, Colorado, Kaitlin Lee Askelson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Sawatch Range within the Rocky Mountains of central Colorado exposes Paleoproterozoic basement and overlying Paleozoic sedimentary rocks with a complex history of ductile and brittle deformation.

The goal of this study is to conduct analyses of brittle structures that occur in the basement and cover units to determine geometric relationships between the structures, provide a detailed description of structures and refine a geologic history for structures along the basement-cover contact in the northeastern Sawatch Range along the Eagle River canyon and U.S. Highway 24 from Red Cliff to Gilman, Colorado. Paleoproterozoic basement rocks include the Cross Creek granite ...


Impacts On The Stakeholders Of The Nexus Pipeline, Jessica A. Speweike 2017 Bowling Green State University

Impacts On The Stakeholders Of The Nexus Pipeline, Jessica A. Speweike

Honors Projects

This journalistic feature covers the different impacts on those individuals who are involved with or affected by the Nexus Gas Transmission pipeline. Testimony from Ohio landowners, activists, scientists and public officials cover a variety of opinions and concerns raised by the pipeline. Private property rights, environmental impact, and possible economic implications are detailed by those who have been involved with the Nexus pipeline since its early stages of implementation.


Controls On Fracture Network Characteristics Of The Middle Member Of The Bakken Formation, Elm Coulee Field, Williston Basin, Usa, Shashank Khatri 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Controls On Fracture Network Characteristics Of The Middle Member Of The Bakken Formation, Elm Coulee Field, Williston Basin, Usa, Shashank Khatri

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

The Bakken formation in the Elm Coulee Field of the Williston Basin consists of three members: 1) upper shale member, 2) middle silty dolostone member, and 3) lower shale member. The upper and lower members act as excellent source rocks and the main reservoir is the middle member with an average porosity of 3 to 9% and average permeability of 0.04md. The Bakken oil play in this area is a stratigraphic trap with a pinch-out to the southwest and a diagenetic facies change in the northeast. The main production is interpreted to come from matrix permeability in the field ...


Ground-Rupturing Earthquakes On The Northern Big Bend Of The San Andreas Fault, California, 800a.D. To Present, Katherine Scharer, Ray J. Weldon II, Glenn Biasi, Ashley Strieg, Thomas Fumal 2017 U.S. Geological Survey

Ground-Rupturing Earthquakes On The Northern Big Bend Of The San Andreas Fault, California, 800a.D. To Present, Katherine Scharer, Ray J. Weldon Ii, Glenn Biasi, Ashley Strieg, Thomas Fumal

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Paleoseismic data on the timing of ground-rupturing earthquakes constrain the recurrence behavior of active faults and can provide insight on the rupture history of a fault if earthquakes dated at neighboring sites overlap in age and are considered correlative. This study presents the evidence and ages for 11 earthquakes that occurred along the Big Bend section of the southern San Andreas Fault at the Frazier Mountain paleoseismic site. The most recent earthquake to rupture the site was the Mw7.7–7.9 Fort Tejon earthquake of 1857. We use over 30 trench excavations to document the structural and sedimentological evolution ...


The Tuscaloosa Marine Shale: Geologic History, Depositional Analysis, And Exploration Potential, Jessica D. Pair 2017 Stephen F Austin State University

The Tuscaloosa Marine Shale: Geologic History, Depositional Analysis, And Exploration Potential, Jessica D. Pair

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Tuscaloosa Marine Shale (TMS) was deposited across southern Louisiana and Mississippi during the Upper Cretaceous. The study focuses on a core region containing vast deposits of Cretaceous-aged sediments that have economic importance for oil and gas exploration. This region has been conventionally drilled for decades, focusing on the recovery of the Cretaceous hydrocarbons. Explorers within this region had traditionally targeted the massive sand units of the Lower and Upper Tuscaloosa Group while neglecting the middle Tuscaloosa Marine Shale unit. With the onset of unconventional drilling technology, new explorers to the region have begun to delineate the Tuscaloosa Marine Shale ...


Pressure Dependence Of Polycrystalline Magnesite And Dolomite, Cole Blasko 2017 The University of Akron

Pressure Dependence Of Polycrystalline Magnesite And Dolomite, Cole Blasko

Honors Research Projects

Intermediate depth (170-400 km) deep focus earthquakes are observed in subducting slabs, but unlike shallow (50-170 km) and deep (400-660 km) deep focus earthquakes, the mechanism(s) responsible for them are not clear. Two common alteration products observed in peridotites, magnesite and dolomite, are stable along the pressure-temperature path of a subducting slab. Low pressure experiments indicate that these minerals are weaker than olivine, but there are no data about the pressure dependence of the strength of magnesite or dolomite. Magnesite and dolomite cylinders (1mm by 1mm) were deformed in stacked series to 25-30% strain using the deformation-DIA (DDIA) at ...


Structural Analysis Of A Triangle Zone Culmination, Comb Rock, Lewis And Clark County, Montana, Shane S. Fussell 2017 University of Montana

Structural Analysis Of A Triangle Zone Culmination, Comb Rock, Lewis And Clark County, Montana, Shane S. Fussell

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

A triangle zone is a structure commonly found at the leading edge of a thrust belt, characterized by a triangular cross-section of thrust faults. In the Montana triangle zone, west-dipping thrust faults intersect east-dipping ones above a regional detachment fault. Most studies of triangle zones focus on the structure in a cross-sectional sense, but little work addresses variations along the trend. The Canadian Rocky Mountain triangle zone has long been a productive petroleum province, so understanding the southern extent of this zone, where it enters Montana, is of interest for economic purposes as well as geologic understanding. Previous studies have ...


A New Paradigm For Predicting Fracture Growth, Interaction And Linkage: Faulting In Numerical And Physical Experiments With Work Optimization, Jessica McBeck 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst

A New Paradigm For Predicting Fracture Growth, Interaction And Linkage: Faulting In Numerical And Physical Experiments With Work Optimization, Jessica Mcbeck

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation predicts fracture propagation and interaction within the framework of work optimization. With this approach, fractures are predicted to propagate along the path that optimizes work. This dissertation includes three projects that predict fracture growth using work optimization in varying tectonic environments. The projects build on work completed during my M.S. at UMass, which includes the development of the fracture modeling tool Growth by Optimization of Work (GROW) [McBeck et al., 2016]. GROW simulates fracture propagation, interaction and linkage by iteratively searching for fracture propagation paths that maximize the change in external work done on the system divided ...


Archived Rock Samples From Jane Selverstone's Research Collection, Jane Selverstone 2017 University of New Mexico - Main Campus

Archived Rock Samples From Jane Selverstone's Research Collection, Jane Selverstone

Earth and Planetary Sciences Faculty and Staff Publications

This Excel spreadsheet lists all of the rock samples from Jane Selverstone's research collection that have been archived into the Earth and Planetary Sciences Collections at the University of New Mexico. All samples are listed by original (published) sample number and by an affiliated International GeoSample Number. Samples are grouped by research project, and doi information is given for all publications resulting from work on each project. Rock samples include various combinations of hand specimens, powders, thin sections, and billets from which thin sections were prepared. Information is included to identify the drawers within which each sample can be ...


Characterization Of Elastic Tensors Of Crustal Rocks With Respect To Seismic Anisotropy, Anissha Raju 2017 University of Colorado Boulder

Characterization Of Elastic Tensors Of Crustal Rocks With Respect To Seismic Anisotropy, Anissha Raju

Undergraduate Honors Theses

A wide range of minerals are stable is the Earth’s crust. Minerals belong to one of the seven crystal systems and have a wide range of densities. Hence, evaluating crustal seismic anisotropy is very complicated. Seismic anisotropy does not only depend on the types of minerals present, but rather considers mineral orientation, which is greatly dependent on the presence of Lattice Preferred Orientation (LPO), within a rock body. This study aims to investigate mineralogical role in rocks’ anisotropy and anisotropy symmetry. Hence, over 100 elastic tensors of crustal rocks was compiled from published studies from all over the world ...


Constraining The Timing Of River Incision In The Upper Colorado Drainage Basin Using Apatite (U-Th)/He Thermochronology In The Elk Mountains, Western Colorado, Coleman Hiett 2017 University of Colorado, Boulder

Constraining The Timing Of River Incision In The Upper Colorado Drainage Basin Using Apatite (U-Th)/He Thermochronology In The Elk Mountains, Western Colorado, Coleman Hiett

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This study utilizes apatite (U-Th)/He, or AHe, to produce a vertical transect of cooling histories along the height of the partially exhumed Crystal Pluton in the Elk Mountains of west/central Colorado. These cooling histories are interpreted to reflect exhumation controlled by the incision of the Crystal River – a tributary of the Colorado River. A period of rapid exhumation is observed from 8 – 11 Ma, likely beginning earlier, that is consistent with previous AHe data taken from nearby exhumed plutons in the Elk and northern West Elk Mountains. This period of exhumation predates the incision of a low relief ...


Lithospheric Evaluation Of The Mid-Continental Rift System In Iowa From A Gravity And Magnetic Analysis, Moamen Mohamed Almaz 2017 Missouri State University

Lithospheric Evaluation Of The Mid-Continental Rift System In Iowa From A Gravity And Magnetic Analysis, Moamen Mohamed Almaz

MSU Graduate Theses

The Proterozoic Midcontinent Rift System (MCRS) is considered one of the most important tectonic features in North America and was formed during a continental breakup event at 1.1 Ga (billion years). The MCRS is totally covered by Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks except in the Lake Superior region. Consequently, the geological characteristics of the MCRS are primarily inferred from extrapolations from the outcrop areas, drill holes, and from a variety of geophysical investigations. Iowa has a large segment of the MCRS which to date has only been partially investigated geophysically with little information regarding the lower crustal and upper mantle structure ...


Characterization And Delineation Of Karst Geohazards Along Rm652 Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography, Culberson County, Texas, Adam F. Majzoub 2016 Stephen F Austin State University

Characterization And Delineation Of Karst Geohazards Along Rm652 Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography, Culberson County, Texas, Adam F. Majzoub

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Delaware Basin of West Texas and southeastern New Mexico is the major western subdivision of the Permian Basin and a northern extension of the Chihuahuan Desert. The major evaporite unit within the Delaware Basin is the Castile Formation, which consists of gypsum/anhydrite and is highly susceptible to dissolution and karsting. Manifestations of karst within the Castile outcrop are abundant and include sinkholes, subsidence features and caves, both epigene and hypogene in origin.

Land reconnaissance surveys conducted during the summer of 2015 documented abundant karst landforms in close proximity to a major thoroughfare, RM 652, in Culberson County, Texas ...


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