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Analysis Of The Soil Foodweb Structure On Organic- And Conventional Dairy Farms, N. van Eekeren, F. Smeding, A. J. Schouten 2022 Louis Bolk Institute, The Netherlands

Analysis Of The Soil Foodweb Structure On Organic- And Conventional Dairy Farms, N. Van Eekeren, F. Smeding, A. J. Schouten

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

The below ground biodiversity of soil organisms plays an important role in the functioning of the soil ecosystem, and consequently the efficiency of the above ground plant production on dairy farms. However, for farmers, soil biology remains a black box. It is difficult to interpret soil biology on dairy farms and to identify management measures to improve it. The objective of this study was to investigate if it is possible to classify the soil foodweb structure on a dairy farm in relation to management practices


Study Of Characteristics Of Soil Animals In Halophilous Plant Communities Of Leymus Chinensis Grasslands Of Northeast In China, Xiuqin Yin, Y. Zhang, W. Dong 2022 Northeast Normal University, China

Study Of Characteristics Of Soil Animals In Halophilous Plant Communities Of Leymus Chinensis Grasslands Of Northeast In China, Xiuqin Yin, Y. Zhang, W. Dong

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

We have researched soil animals in 8 types of halophilous plant communities of Leymus chinensis grasslands of Northeast China to characterise soil animal groups and explain the role and function of soil animals in grassland ecosystems (Richard & Roger, 1998) and provide a scientific basis for research to improve alkaline lands in these grasslands.


Impact Of Root Herbivory On Grassland Community Structure: From Landscape To Microscale, P. J. Murray, R. Cook, L. A. Dawson, A. C. Gange, S. J. Grayston, A. M. Treonis 2022 Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, UK

Impact Of Root Herbivory On Grassland Community Structure: From Landscape To Microscale, P. J. Murray, R. Cook, L. A. Dawson, A. C. Gange, S. J. Grayston, A. M. Treonis

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Root herbivores are an important functional group in grassland ecosystems. Whilst there is a plethora of information on their impact as pests in productive grassland, few studies of their impact on biodiversity in upland grassland have been made. Root herbivores act in a number of ways, they reduce host plant biomass, alter root architecture, change root exudation patterns and increase water stress in the plant. Root herbivores may change above ground plant diversity, both through direct removal of plant species and through reduction in competitive ability of some species, through their feeding. In addition, we postulate that root herbivores affect …


How Soil Properties Affect Egg Development And Larval Longevity Of A Grassland Insect Pest - An Empirically Based Model, S. N. Johnson, X. Zhang, J. W. Crawford, P. J. Gregory, S. C. Jarvis, P. J. Murray, I. M. Young 2022 University of Reading, UK

How Soil Properties Affect Egg Development And Larval Longevity Of A Grassland Insect Pest - An Empirically Based Model, S. N. Johnson, X. Zhang, J. W. Crawford, P. J. Gregory, S. C. Jarvis, P. J. Murray, I. M. Young

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

The clover root weevil (Sitona lepidus Gyllenhal.) is a destructive pest of white clover in temperate grasslands. Adults lay thousands of eggs that give rise to soil-dwelling larvae that initially feed on the root nodules housing symbiotic N2-fixing Rhizobium spp. bacteria. The period between egg hatch and consumption of root nodules by larvae is probably the most vulnerable part in the lifecycle, and if larvae do not locate roots relatively quickly they will die of starvation. In particular, the shells of eggs and the cuticles of emergent larvae are in constant physical contact with the external soil environment, so …


Grassland Management Practices And The Diversity Of Soil Nematode Communities, R. Cook, P. J. Murray, K. A. Mizen 2022 Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, UK

Grassland Management Practices And The Diversity Of Soil Nematode Communities, R. Cook, P. J. Murray, K. A. Mizen

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Nematodes are numerically abundant in northern temperate grassland soils where, through their feeding on plants, soil microbes and each other as well as being a food resource, they contribute to soil functioning and affect plant soil interrelationships. Permanent plant cover and the consequent abundance of root tissue supply a year-round food supply. There are only limited data on the effects of root-feeding by nematodes on the growth and development of pasture plants but under some circumstances above-ground biomass may be reduced. Herbivory by specific nematode parasites may not only directly affect the host plant but also promote soil microbial activity …


The Addition And Cessation Of Inorganic Fertiliser Amendments In Long-Term Managed Grasslands: Impacts On Above And Below-Ground Communities, C. D. Clegg, P. J. Murray, R. Cook, T. Tallec 2022 Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, UK

The Addition And Cessation Of Inorganic Fertiliser Amendments In Long-Term Managed Grasslands: Impacts On Above And Below-Ground Communities, C. D. Clegg, P. J. Murray, R. Cook, T. Tallec

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

In recent times, land use in the United Kingdom has undergone considerable changes because of social and economic pressures, leading to a fine balance between the demands of highly productive intensive systems and practices which are perceived to be more environmentally acceptable. Plant productivity is governed by the supply of nutrients from the soil, which in turn is dependent on the dynamics of organic matter decomposition driven by soil micro-, meso- and macro fauna. Considerable information is available concerning the impact of inorganic fertiliser additions on communities of macro-fauna and flora, but the effects on specific microbial communities in soils …


Benomyl Effects On Plant Productivity Through Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Restriction In A Greek Upland Grassland, M. Orfanoudakis, A. P. Mamolos, F. Karanika, D. S. Veresoglou 2022 Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

Benomyl Effects On Plant Productivity Through Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Restriction In A Greek Upland Grassland, M. Orfanoudakis, A. P. Mamolos, F. Karanika, D. S. Veresoglou

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Interactions between plants and microbes are important for plant community structure. Many plants establish symbioses with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, which play a central role in soil fertility, plant nutrition and the maintenance of stability and biodiversity within plant communities by improving uptake of nutrients and water. AM fungi can improve growth/performance in a variety of plant species by influencing intra- and interspecific competition of neighbouring plants and thus regulate coexistence and diversity in mixed communities. The aim was to study AMF effects on plant productivity and diversity in Greek upland grasslands.


40 Years Of Studies On The Relationships Between Grass Species, N Turnover And Nutrient Cycling In The Lamto Reserve In The Ivory Coast (Côte D’Ivoire), L. Abbadie, J. C. Lata 2022 ENS Labo. d'Ecologie, France

40 Years Of Studies On The Relationships Between Grass Species, N Turnover And Nutrient Cycling In The Lamto Reserve In The Ivory Coast (Côte D’Ivoire), L. Abbadie, J. C. Lata

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

The Lamto Station, dominated by grass savannas, was created in 1963. Among other problems, the relationships between savanna grasses (mainly Andropogoneae supertribe) and nutrient cycling, mainly nitrogen (N), have been intensively studied. Such grass systems are of major interest. Savannas represent 25% of terrestrial biomes and are second to tropical forests in the contribution to terrestrial primary production and are predominant in African social and economic environments. The Andropogoneae grasses are of particular interest for pastures. Second, savannas are generally extremely nutrient-poor, especially for N, which often limits productivity. Third, little is known about possible controls of grasses on N …


Cycling Of N And P In Grass-Alone (Brachiaria) And Mixed Grass/Legume (Brachiaria/ Desmodium Ovalifolium) Grazed Pastures In The Atlantic Forest Region Of Brazil, R. M. Boddey, R. Tarré, R. Macedo, C. de P. Rezende, J. M. Pereira, B. J. R. Alves, S. Urquiaga 2022 EMBRAPA, Brazil

Cycling Of N And P In Grass-Alone (Brachiaria) And Mixed Grass/Legume (Brachiaria/ Desmodium Ovalifolium) Grazed Pastures In The Atlantic Forest Region Of Brazil, R. M. Boddey, R. Tarré, R. Macedo, C. De P. Rezende, J. M. Pereira, B. J. R. Alves, S. Urquiaga

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

There are estimated to be > 80 M ha of Brachiaria pastures in the tropical regions of Brazil. When continuously grazed with only modest fertiliser inputs (and no N) these pastures can maintain reasonable cattle weight gains (> 200 kg LWG/ha per year). However, without fertiliser and when overgrazed, LWGs fall rapidly to low levels. Recent studies have shown that N and P deficiency are the most important factors limiting productivity. The objective of this study was to study fluxes of N and P in the pasture system in order to understand resilience to poor management and minimum nutrient requirements to …


Estimating Nitrogen Fixation By Pastures On A Regional Or Continental Scale, Murray Unkovich 2022 The University of Adelaide, Australia

Estimating Nitrogen Fixation By Pastures On A Regional Or Continental Scale, Murray Unkovich

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

With fertiliser N inputs dramatically increasing in Australia in recent years (Angus, 2001), regional and continental scale estimates of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) are now required for assessing the risks of terrestrial and surface water eutrophication, groundwater contamination, and gaseous N emissions.


The Influence Of Burning On Soil Microbial Biomass And Activity Along The Boro Route In The Okavango Delta Of Botswana, Tabo Mubyana-John, A. Banda 2022 University of Botswana, South Africa

The Influence Of Burning On Soil Microbial Biomass And Activity Along The Boro Route In The Okavango Delta Of Botswana, Tabo Mubyana-John, A. Banda

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

The Okavango Delta, a protected area in northeastern Botswana because of its annual flooding pattern, is the main source of water in an otherwise arid environment with a high diversity of plants and animals and forms the main tourist area in the region. However, the area is under threat from range fires. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of fire on soil microbial activity, biomass C, fungal population and diversity, and some soil properties along the Boro route of the Okavango Delta (Botswana).


Integrating Below-Ground Ecology Into Sustainable Grassland Management, R. D. Bardgett 2022 Lancaster University, UK

Integrating Below-Ground Ecology Into Sustainable Grassland Management, R. D. Bardgett

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Key points

1. Grasslands produce soils that sustain an abundant and diverse soil food web, providing tremendous opportunity for below-ground interactions to influence nutrient cycling processes and plant production.

2. Fast developing areas of ecological science offer scope to harness positive outcomes of below-ground ecology for enhancing efficient cycling of nutrients in sustainable grassland systems.


Chemical Components And Effects On Soil Quality In Temperate Grazed Pasture Systems, M. H. Beare, D. Curtin, S. Thomas, P. M. Fraser, G. S. Francis 2022 New Zealand Institute for Crop & Food Research

Chemical Components And Effects On Soil Quality In Temperate Grazed Pasture Systems, M. H. Beare, D. Curtin, S. Thomas, P. M. Fraser, G. S. Francis

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Key points

1. Legume/grass pastures retain feedbacks on N supply that may help to reduce losses of N to the wider environment.

2. Intensive use of N fertilisers tends to increase SOM turnover and increase losses of N to the environment.

3. Increased use of fertilisers has contributed little to soil organic matter storage in grazed pastoral systems.


Physical Constraints In Grassland Ecosystems, I. M. Young, K. Ritz, C. S. Sturrock, R. Heck 2022 University of Abertay Dundee, UK

Physical Constraints In Grassland Ecosystems, I. M. Young, K. Ritz, C. S. Sturrock, R. Heck

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Key points

1. Grassland system management must account adequately for biophysical and biochemical processes.

2. Amenity turf, especially sports turf, provides an excellent case study on how biology and physics interact to impact on the functioning of a grass ecosystem.

3. Microorganisms produce hydrophobic compounds that act to decrease water ingress and alter the function of the soil-grass ecosystem.


Adoption Of Brachiaria Grasses In Mexico And Central America: A Successful Story, F. Holmann, Pedro Argel, C. E. Lascano 2022 ILRI, Colombia

Adoption Of Brachiaria Grasses In Mexico And Central America: A Successful Story, F. Holmann, Pedro Argel, C. E. Lascano

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

In Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) there has been a major effort to develop new pastures technologies, to increase livestock productivity for the extensive systems prevailing in the tropical lowlands. This multi-national and inter-institutional effort was initiated through the International Network for the Evaluation of Tropical Pastures (RIEPT, by its name in Spanish), which operated from 1976 to 1996 under CIAT leadership. This network became a platform for institutions to train technicians, share forage material from existing gene banks, study the behaviour of new germplasm under different environments, and established the exchange of scientific information to extrapolate research results …


Improved Livelihoods From Grasslands; The Case Of Napier Grass In Smallholder Dairy Farms In Kenya, David Miano Mwangi, D. Romney, S. Staal, I. Baltenweck, S. Mwendia 2022 Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Kenya

Improved Livelihoods From Grasslands; The Case Of Napier Grass In Smallholder Dairy Farms In Kenya, David Miano Mwangi, D. Romney, S. Staal, I. Baltenweck, S. Mwendia

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

In Kenya, smallholder farmers produce about 80% of the marketed milk. The farming systems vary from mixed farms with up to 10 ha of land and < 10 dairy cows (Gitau et al., 1994; Anon., 1985), to intensive smallholder dairy producers in the high human population central Kenya region with 0.9 to 2 ha of land and 3-4 dairy cows (Staal et al., 2001a). Milk production depends heavily on the cultivation of forages, with Pennisetum purpureum (Napier grass) by far the most important. An estimated 350,000 of the 600,000 smallholder farms in Kenya grow and utilize P. purpureum on their farms.

There are …


Role Of Information And Information Providers In Technology Transfer, D. Undersander 2022 University of Wisconsin-Madison

Role Of Information And Information Providers In Technology Transfer, D. Undersander

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Technology transfer is an essential component of economic change in society. Developers of new technology often fail to realize that there is a science to technology transfer. This lack of appreciation for the skills involved in information dissemination and in activities necessary to affect a change of action in an audience often severely limits the rate and amount of technology transfer that occurs. Significant differences exist between doing a news release or writing a publication and causing audience acceptance of a new technology. The old standards of expecting adoption of a new technology simply because it “will profit farmers” or …


The Contribution Of Participatory Research: On-Farm Research, P. F. Fennessy, N. J. Daniels, S. A. Chadwick, P. A. Speck 2022 Abacus Biotech Limited, New Zealand

The Contribution Of Participatory Research: On-Farm Research, P. F. Fennessy, N. J. Daniels, S. A. Chadwick, P. A. Speck

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Participatory research in agriculture may range from research and technology development (R&D), carried out on a research station with some involvement of farmers, through to genuine participatory research involving researchers and farmers working together. The latter involves the end-user in actually carrying out aspects of the research and/or in the development and evaluation of technology that is appropriate to commercial enterprises. Researchers often question the validity of the ‘findings of on-farm participatory research’ as they are more comfortable with the ‘controlled’ environment of the research station. However if research is to be applied appropriately on farms, it must go through …


Participatory Research For Smallholder Livestock Systems: Applying Common Sense To Complex Problems, P. M. Horne, Werner Stür 2022 CIAT, Lao PDR

Participatory Research For Smallholder Livestock Systems: Applying Common Sense To Complex Problems, P. M. Horne, Werner Stür

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Key Points:

1. Participatory approaches to research (PAR) bring researchers closer to farmers, the intended users of research outputs.

2. Active, functional participation of farmers in the evaluation and development of new technologies requires researchers to make an important commitment: respecting the knowledge, skills and opinions of farmers while maintaining confidence in their own scientific knowledge.

3. Farmer experimentation is not usually suitable to provide quantitative biophysical data (this can be achieved more effectively in researcher controlled experiments), but to provide qualitative information and improve understanding. This type of information can be collected systematically to enable rigorous analysis.

4. While …


Computer-Based Forage Management Tools: Historical, Current, And Future Applications, David B. Hannaway, C. Daly, D. F. Chapman, B. B. Baker, A. S. Cooper 2022 Oregon State University

Computer-Based Forage Management Tools: Historical, Current, And Future Applications, David B. Hannaway, C. Daly, D. F. Chapman, B. B. Baker, A. S. Cooper

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Forage management has been an important human activity since the beginning of civilization. By comparison, the personal computer has been available only in the immediate past. The software developed to deal with the complexity of climate, soil, plant, animal, and socioeconomic factors has seen huge changes in a few decades. Mainframe computers facilitated numerical calculations for exploring relationships among dozens of variables. Personal computers opened the door for more individual scientist creativity and routine communication. Web-based communication globalised the option for multidisciplinary teams to tackle problems. Forage-related computer applications abound, allowing farmers, ranchers, and others to more effectively manage the …


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