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Guidance Index For Shallow Landslide Hazard Analysis, Cheila Cullen 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Guidance Index For Shallow Landslide Hazard Analysis, Cheila Cullen

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Rainfall-induced landslides are one of the most frequent hazards on slanted terrains. They lead to considerable economic losses and fatalities worldwide. Intense storms with high-intensity and long-duration rainfall have high potential to trigger rapidly moving soil masses due to changes in pore water pressure and seepage forces. Nevertheless, regardless of the intensity-duration of the rainfall, shallow landslides are influenced by antecedent soil moisture conditions. To the present day, no system exists that dynamically interrelates these two factors.

This work establishes a relationship between antecedent soil moisture and rainfall expressed in the form of a Shallow Landslide Index (SLI) at 1km ...


Is Coral Community Structure Linked To Damage Susceptibility? A Case Study From South Africa, Bernhard Riegl, Peter A. Cook 2016 Institut fur Palaontologie der Universitat Wien

Is Coral Community Structure Linked To Damage Susceptibility? A Case Study From South Africa, Bernhard Riegl, Peter A. Cook

Bernhard Riegl

Africa's southernmost coral communities are situated in northern Natal, South Africa (27°50' S), within the Maputaland and St. Lucia Marine Reserves. Growing concern about the possible impact of recreational acti vities on the health of the coral ecosystem prompted the present study on the structure and health of the reefs. Coral community studies by means of line transects identified three basic coral community types, which correlated with the geomorphology of the sandstone outcrops on which corals grew. 1) Fossil dunes were dominated by alcyonacea in depths between 8 and 24 m. 2) Flat outcrops between 18 and 24 ...


Permian Foraminifera From British Honduras, Charles A. Ross 2016 Selected Works

Permian Foraminifera From British Honduras, Charles A. Ross

Charles Ross

Fusulinids identified from the Macal Shale Group, Macal Series, south central British Honduras and Schwarerina gruperaensis Thompson and Miller, Schwagerina sp. A, Eoverbeekina aff. E. americana Thompson and Miller, Ozawainella? sp., and Staffella sp. One species of the Trochamminid genus Tetrataxis also occurs in these strata. These species suggest correlation with the lower part of the Chochal Limestone of Guatemala, the Grupera Formation of Chiapas, Mexico, and the Lenox Hills Formation (upper part of the standard Wolfcampian Series, Permian), Glass Mountains, Texas.


Early Permian Fusulinids From Macusani, Southern Peru, Charles A. Ross 2016 Western Washington University

Early Permian Fusulinids From Macusani, Southern Peru, Charles A. Ross

Charles Ross

Triticites patulus Dunbar and Newell and Schwagerina adamsi sp. nov. from the early Wolfcampian (Permian) part of the Copacabana Group near Macusani, southern Peru, show morphological features that add new data concerning the evolution of the genera Schwagerina and Pseudoschwagerina from lineages arising within the genus Triticites near the close of the Pennsylvanian.


Analysis Of Close Conjunctions Between Dayside Polar Cap Airglow Patches And Flow Channels By All-Sky Imager And Dmsp, Boyi Wang, Yukitoshi Nishimura, Larry R. Lyons, Ying Zou, Herbert C. Carlson, Harald U. Frey, Stephen B. Mende 2016 University of California, Los Angeles

Analysis Of Close Conjunctions Between Dayside Polar Cap Airglow Patches And Flow Channels By All-Sky Imager And Dmsp, Boyi Wang, Yukitoshi Nishimura, Larry R. Lyons, Ying Zou, Herbert C. Carlson, Harald U. Frey, Stephen B. Mende

Faculty publications

Recent imager and radar observations in the nightside polar cap have shown evidence that polar cap patches are associated with localized flow channels. To understand how flow channels propagate from the dayside auroral oval into the polar cap, we use an all-sky imager in Antarctica and DMSP (F13, F15, F16, F17 and F18) to determine properties of density and flows associated with dayside polar cap patches. We identified 50 conjunction events during the southern winter seasons of 2007–2011. In a majority (45) of events, longitudinally narrow flow enhancements directed anti-sunward are found to be collocated with the patches, have ...


Data-Driven Diagnostics Of Terrestrial Carbon Dynamics Over North America, Jingfeng Xiao, Scott V. Ollinger, Steve Frolking, George Hurtt, David Y. Hollinger, Kenneth J. Davis, Yude Pan, Xiaoyang Zhang, Feng Deng, Jiquan Chen, Dennis D. Baldocchi, Beverly E. Law, M. Altaf Arain, Ankur R. Desai, Andrew D. Richardson, Ge Sun, Brian Amiro, Hank Margolis, Lianhong Gu, Russell L. Scott, Peter D. Blanken, Andrew E. Suyker 2016 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Data-Driven Diagnostics Of Terrestrial Carbon Dynamics Over North America, Jingfeng Xiao, Scott V. Ollinger, Steve Frolking, George Hurtt, David Y. Hollinger, Kenneth J. Davis, Yude Pan, Xiaoyang Zhang, Feng Deng, Jiquan Chen, Dennis D. Baldocchi, Beverly E. Law, M. Altaf Arain, Ankur R. Desai, Andrew D. Richardson, Ge Sun, Brian Amiro, Hank Margolis, Lianhong Gu, Russell L. Scott, Peter D. Blanken, Andrew E. Suyker

Xiaoyang Zhang

The exchange of carbon dioxide is a key measure of ecosystem metabolism and a critical intersection between the terrestrial biosphere and the Earth’s climate. Despite the general agreement that the terrestrial ecosystems in North America provide a sizeable carbon sink, the size and distribution of the sink remain uncertain. We use a data-driven approach to upscale eddy covariance flux observations from towers to the continental scale by integrating flux observations, meteorology, stand age,aboveground biomass, and a proxy for canopy nitrogen concentrations from AmeriFlux and Fluxnet-Canada Research Network as well as a variety of satellite data streams from the ...


Tidal-Fluvial And Estuarine Processes In The Lower Columbia River: Ii. Water Level Models, Floodplain Wetland Inundation, And System Zones, David A. Jay, Amy B. Borde, Heida Diefenderfer 2016 Portland State University

Tidal-Fluvial And Estuarine Processes In The Lower Columbia River: Ii. Water Level Models, Floodplain Wetland Inundation, And System Zones, David A. Jay, Amy B. Borde, Heida Diefenderfer

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Spatially varying water-level regimes are a factor controlling estuarine and tidal-fluvial wetland vegetation patterns. As described in Part I, water levels in the Lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) are influenced by tides, river flow, hydropower operations, and coastal processes. In Part II, regression models based on tidal theory are used to quantify the role of these processes in determining water levels in the mainstem river and floodplain wetlands, and to provide 21-year inundation hindcasts. Analyses are conducted at 19 LCRE mainstem channel stations and 23 tidally exposed floodplain wetland stations. Sum exceedance values (SEVs) are used to compare wetland ...


Isolating Retrograde And Prograde Rayleigh-Wave Modes Using A Polarity Mute, Gabriel Gribler, Lee M. Liberty, T. Dylan Mikesell, Paul Michaels 2016 Boise State University

Isolating Retrograde And Prograde Rayleigh-Wave Modes Using A Polarity Mute, Gabriel Gribler, Lee M. Liberty, T. Dylan Mikesell, Paul Michaels

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Estimates of S-wave velocity with depth from Rayleigh-wave dispersion data are limited by the accuracy of fundamental and/or higher mode signal identification. In many scenarios, the fundamental mode propagates in retrograde motion, whereas higher modes propagate in prograde motion. This difference in particle motion (or polarity) can be used by joint analysis of vertical and horizontal inline recordings. We have developed a novel method that isolates modes by separating prograde and retrograde motions; we call this a polarity mute. Applying this polarity mute prior to traditional multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) analysis improves phase velocity estimation for fundamental ...


Mineral Physics Modeling Of The Effect Of Water On Crustal Seismic Velocity Ratios, Eric Lyman 2016 Utah State University

Mineral Physics Modeling Of The Effect Of Water On Crustal Seismic Velocity Ratios, Eric Lyman

Physics Capstone Project

This research explores the relationship between the presence of water (H2O) in the make up of rocks and minerals (specifically quartz) at different levels in the crust. The relationships were calculated using Perple_x software to adjust the level of the different chemical and mineral make up of the rock. The densities were calculated using the velocity of primary waves and shear waves as collected by Tony Lowry. There seems to be at least a casual link between water content and quartz content.


High-Resolution Signatures Of Oxygenation And Microbiological Activity In Speleothem Fluid Inclusions, Nigel Blamey, Penelope J. Boston, Laura Rosales-Lagarde 2016 New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology

High-Resolution Signatures Of Oxygenation And Microbiological Activity In Speleothem Fluid Inclusions, Nigel Blamey, Penelope J. Boston, Laura Rosales-Lagarde

International Journal of Speleology

Speleothems frequently host “fossil” fluids that were trapped in small inclusions during growth. Such fluids may provide valuable clues to past microbial, geochemical, and climatic processes during their formation. However, one difficulty is to understand which gases represent background atmosphere and fluids within a given cave system at a particular time, and which may be the product of post-trapping residual microbial activity or abiotic chemical reactions? Do we have any hope of sorting out these differences? The success depends on a quantitative understanding of the gas composition trapped in the inclusions and an understanding of the interactions of cave mineralogy ...


Martian Gully Formation And Evolution: Studies From The Local To Global Scale, Tanya Nicole Harrison 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Martian Gully Formation And Evolution: Studies From The Local To Global Scale, Tanya Nicole Harrison

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Gullies in the mid- and high-latitudes of Mars were first observed in Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images in 1997. Appearing to be geologically young, they quickly became a feature of interest due to the implication of liquid water in their formation based on distinct morphological characteristics including incised channels, many exhibiting features indicative of fluid flow. However, the temperature and pressure conditions on the surface of Mars during its most recent geologic era have not been conducive to sustaining water in the liquid phase for extended periods of time; therefore, a number of “wet” (water-related) and ...


First Major Appearance Of Brachiopod-Dominated Benthic Shelly Communities In The Reef Ecosystem During The Early Silurian, Cale A.C. Gushulak 2016 The University of Western Ontario

First Major Appearance Of Brachiopod-Dominated Benthic Shelly Communities In The Reef Ecosystem During The Early Silurian, Cale A.C. Gushulak

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The early Silurian reefs of the Attawapiskat Formation in the Hudson Bay Basin preserved the oldest record of major invasion of the coral-stromatoporoid skeletal reefs by brachiopods and other marine shelly benthos, providing an excellent opportunity for studying the early evolution, functional morphology, and community organization of the rich and diverse reef-dwelling brachiopods. Biometric and multivariate analysis demonstrate that the reef-dwelling Pentameroides septentrionalis evolved from the level-bottom-dwelling Pentameroides subrectus to develop a larger and more globular shell. The reef-dwelling brachiopods in the paleoequatorial Hudson Bay Basin were more diverse than contemporaneous higher latitude reef-dwelling brachiopod faunas, with ten distinct community ...


Isolating Retrograde And Prograde Rayleigh-Wave Modes Using A Polarity Mute, Gabriel Gribler, Lee M. Liberty, T. Dylan Mikesell, Paul Michaels 2016 Boise State University

Isolating Retrograde And Prograde Rayleigh-Wave Modes Using A Polarity Mute, Gabriel Gribler, Lee M. Liberty, T. Dylan Mikesell, Paul Michaels

Dylan Mikesell

Estimates of S-wave velocity with depth from Rayleigh-wave dispersion data are limited by the accuracy of fundamental and/or higher mode signal identification. In many scenarios, the fundamental mode propagates in retrograde motion, whereas higher modes propagate in prograde motion. This difference in particle motion (or polarity) can be used by joint analysis of vertical and horizontal inline recordings. We have developed a novel method that isolates modes by separating prograde and retrograde motions; we call this a polarity mute. Applying this polarity mute prior to traditional multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) analysis improves phase velocity estimation for fundamental ...


Accuracy Assessment Of Pictometry® Height Measurements Stratified By Cardinal Direction And Image Magnification Factor, Daniel Unger, David Kulhavy, I-Kuai Hung, Yanli Zhang 2016 Stephen F Austin State University

Accuracy Assessment Of Pictometry® Height Measurements Stratified By Cardinal Direction And Image Magnification Factor, Daniel Unger, David Kulhavy, I-Kuai Hung, Yanli Zhang

International Journal of Geospatial and Environmental Research

The aim of this project was to ascertain if Pictometry® estimated height could be used in lieu of field-based height estimation. Height of a light pole measured with a telescopic height pole was compared to Pictometry® hyperspatial 4-inch (10.2 centimeters) multispectral imagery estimated light pole height on the campus of Stephen F. Austin State University, Nacogdoches, Texas. Average percent agreement between light pole height and Pictometry® estimated light pole height summarized by Pictometry® image magnification factors at 100%, 125%, 150%, 200%, and 300% magnification were within 98% of light pole height with percent disagreement ranging from 1.37% to ...


Using Physical And Social Sensors In Real-Time Data Streaming For Natural Hazard Monitoring And Response, Yelena Kropivnitskaya 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Using Physical And Social Sensors In Real-Time Data Streaming For Natural Hazard Monitoring And Response, Yelena Kropivnitskaya

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Technological breakthroughs in computing over the last few decades have resulted in important advances in natural hazards analysis. In particular, integration of a wide variety of information sources, including observations from spatially-referenced physical sensors and new social media sources, enables better estimates of real-time hazard. The main goal of this work is to utilize innovative streaming algorithms for improved real-time seismic hazard analysis by integrating different data sources and processing tools into cloud applications. In streaming algorithms, a sequence of items from physical and social sensors can be processed in as little as one pass with no need to store ...


Trapping Fecal Bacteria And Sediment In Surface Runoff From Cropland Treated With Poultry Litter, Mark S. Coyne, R. A. Gilfillen, Robert L. Blevins 2016 University of Kentucky

Trapping Fecal Bacteria And Sediment In Surface Runoff From Cropland Treated With Poultry Litter, Mark S. Coyne, R. A. Gilfillen, Robert L. Blevins

Mark S. Coyne

Between 1991 and 1994 the broiler population exploded in Kentucky as the poultry industry began to expand. The Kentucky Department of Agriculture predicts that within four years annual broiler production could exceed 275 million birds. This may be good for Kentucky's economy but it carries some important environmental consequences. If expansion continues as anticipated, the estimated waste production from broilers for processing could reach 300,000 tons per year (assuming each broiler house produces 150,000 birds per year and the yearly manure and litter production per house is approximately 160 tons).


The Fecal Coliform/Fecal Streptococci Ratio (Fc/Fs) And Water Quality In The Bluegrass Region Of Kentucky, Mark S. Coyne, J. M. Howell 2016 University of Kentucky

The Fecal Coliform/Fecal Streptococci Ratio (Fc/Fs) And Water Quality In The Bluegrass Region Of Kentucky, Mark S. Coyne, J. M. Howell

Mark S. Coyne

In the mid 70' s, someone noticed that the ratio of two indicator bacteria in fecal wastes - fecal coliforms (FC) and fecal streptococci (FS) - was characteristic of particular animal wastes. In human wastes, the fecal coliform/fecal streptococci ratio (FC/FS ratio) was greater than 4. In domesticated animals, like cattle, the ratio was between 0.1 and 4.0. In wild animals, the ratio was less than 0.1. Since that time, many attempts have been made to use the ratio to determine the source of fecal bacteria in contaminated ground water.


Filter Strip Length And Fecal Bacteria Trapping From Poultry Waste - An Update, Mark S. Coyne, R. A. Gilfillen, Robert L. Blevins 2016 University of Kentucky

Filter Strip Length And Fecal Bacteria Trapping From Poultry Waste - An Update, Mark S. Coyne, R. A. Gilfillen, Robert L. Blevins

Mark S. Coyne

Cheap, efficient, and environmentally sound waste disposal will be needed as Kentucky's broiler industry expands. The filter strip length needed to protect water resources from contaminants in surface runoff is a pressing issue in waste management and water quality. In a previous Soil Science News and Views (Vol. 15, No. 8) we reported that grass filter strips as short as 15 feet can trap over 90% of the fecal bacteria eroding from land-applied and incorporated poultry waste during runoff following rainstorms. In this update, we provide some additional information and conclusions from that study on filter strip length, based ...


Water Quality And Fecal Indicator Bacteria, Mark S. Coyne 2016 University of Kentucky

Water Quality And Fecal Indicator Bacteria, Mark S. Coyne

Mark S. Coyne

How can you tell if water is fit to drink? Color and taste aren't reliable guides for water safety. Clear water can be contaminated with chemicals or microorganisms the senses can't detect. One of the principle qualities of potable (drinkable) water is its freedom from microbial contaminants. This article will describe some criteria and methods that are used to determine the microbial quality of water.


Infiltration Of Fecal Bacteria Through Soils: Timing And Tillage Effects, Mark S. Coyne, C. S. Stoddard, John H. Grove, William O. Thom 2016 University of Kentucky

Infiltration Of Fecal Bacteria Through Soils: Timing And Tillage Effects, Mark S. Coyne, C. S. Stoddard, John H. Grove, William O. Thom

Mark S. Coyne

Land-applying animal wastes potentially exposes humans and animals to fecal pathogens, either by direct contact with soil and produce, or via ground water contamination. Some of these organisms are Salmonella, certain pathogenic Escherichia coli strains, protozoa such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and enteric viruses. Whether soil adequately filters these pathogens before they reach ground water depends on the interaction of porosity, texture, depth, water content, rainfall intensity and duration, and soil management.


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