Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Sedimentology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

385 Full-Text Articles 650 Authors 33151 Downloads 48 Institutions

All Articles in Sedimentology

Faceted Search

385 full-text articles. Page 1 of 12.

Determining The Viability Of Recent Storms As Modern Analogues For North-Central Gulf Of Mexico Paleotempestology Through Sedimentary Analysis And Storm Surge Reconstruction, Joshua Caleb Bregy 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Determining The Viability Of Recent Storms As Modern Analogues For North-Central Gulf Of Mexico Paleotempestology Through Sedimentary Analysis And Storm Surge Reconstruction, Joshua Caleb Bregy

Master's Theses

The northern Gulf of Mexico has been devastated by recent intense storms. Camille (1969) and Katrina (2005) are two notable hurricanes that made landfall in virtually the same location in Mississippi. However, fully understanding the risks and processes associated with hurricane impacts is impeded by a short and fragmented instrumental record. Paleotempestology could potentially use modern analogues from intense storms in this region to extend the hurricane record back to pre-observational time. Existing empirically based models can back-calculate surge heights over coastal systems as a function of transport distance, particle settling velocity, and gravitational acceleration. We collected cores in a ...


The Spatial Distribution And Origins Of Sandstone Monoliths In The Swauk Watershed, Kittitas County, Wa, Rebeca Becerra, Daniel O'Dell 2016 CWU

The Spatial Distribution And Origins Of Sandstone Monoliths In The Swauk Watershed, Kittitas County, Wa, Rebeca Becerra, Daniel O'Dell

Symposium Of University Research and Creative Expression (SOURCE)

Large groups of gigantic sandstone and conglomerate monoliths populate the Swauk Watershed of northern Kittitas County. These monoliths rest on side slopes in the watershed and distinctively project from their surroundings. The origins of these features are unknown. We studied these monoliths in the field by mapping their spatial distribution, describing their morphology and composition, and measuring their orientation and sizes in order to determine their origins. We used Google Earth and topographic maps to locate the monoliths and map their distribution. Interpretations were based from field work data and past research. Our field results show commonalities between the features ...


Characterization Of Lower Permian Carbonate Subaqueous Gravity Flows In Crockett County, Texas, Wesley L. Turner 2016 Stephen F Austin State University

Characterization Of Lower Permian Carbonate Subaqueous Gravity Flows In Crockett County, Texas, Wesley L. Turner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Transitional sediments on carbonate ramp slopes act as a link to relatively well-studied platform and basin depositional environments. In the southern Midland Basin, the key to understanding the relationship between these environments lies in the allochthonous gravity flow sediments found on the slope. Here, a succession of various gravity flow deposits is used to interpret how base level fluctuations affect the type of deposits found on the slope and their effect on the deep basinal environment. This study utilizes core samples from the Wolfcamp Formation adjacent to the Central Basin Platform in five wells in Northwest Crockett County, Texas. The ...


Dating Late Quaternary Alluvial Fills In The Platte River Valley Using Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dating, Jacob C. Bruihler 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Dating Late Quaternary Alluvial Fills In The Platte River Valley Using Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dating, Jacob C. Bruihler

Theses and Dissertations in Geography

Alluvial fills underlying the Platte River Valley in Nebraska record the geologic history of the Platte River in the late Quaternary. This study investigated the alluvium underlying the valley near the cities of North Platte and Kearney, Nebraska. Data obtained from sediment cores drilled in the alluvial deposits was used to investigate the changes in Platte River dynamics on a glacial – interglacial timescale. Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating was used to determine burial ages of recovered sediments and to quantify the thicknesses of the late Pleistocene and Holocene alluvial fills at each study area. Our geochronology depicts considerable differences in ...


Systematic Patterning Of Sediments In French Polynesian Coral Reef Systems, Andrew Calhoun 2016 Nova Southeastern University

Systematic Patterning Of Sediments In French Polynesian Coral Reef Systems, Andrew Calhoun

Theses and Dissertations

Through a discipline termed “comparative sedimentology”, modern carbonate depositional environments have been used extensively as analogs to aid in the interpretation of equivalent fossil systems. Using field samples, GIS and remote sensing data for three isolated carbonate platforms in the Pacific, this thesis seeks to examine relationships between grain texture and grain type and their environment of deposition. The motivation is to highlight relationships that have the potential to better understand facies relations on carbonate platforms, and thereby reduce uncertainty and increase accuracy of subsurface exploration. The results of this study show that on Raivavae, Tubuai, and Bora Bora: French ...


Effects Of Changes In Moisture Source And The Upstream Rainout On Stable Isotopes In Precipitation – A Case Study In Nanjing, Eastern China, Y. Tang, H. Pang, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Shuang-Ye Wu, S. Hou 2016 Nanjing University

Effects Of Changes In Moisture Source And The Upstream Rainout On Stable Isotopes In Precipitation – A Case Study In Nanjing, Eastern China, Y. Tang, H. Pang, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Shuang-Ye Wu, S. Hou

Shuang-ye Wu

In the Asian monsoon region, variations in the stable isotopic composition of speleothems have often been attributed to the "amount effect". However, an increasing number of studies suggest that the "amount effect" in local precipitation is insignificant or even non-existent. To explore this issue further, we examined the variability of daily stable isotopic composition (δ18O) in precipitation from September 2011 to November 2014 in Nanjing, eastern China. We found that intra-seasonal variations of δ18O during summer were not significantly correlated with local rainfall amount but could be linked to changes in the moisture source location and rainout processes in the ...


Reconstruction Of The Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) Palaeotopography In The Upper Yangtze Region, Linna Zhang, Junxuan Fan, Qing Chen, Shuang-Ye Wu 2016 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences

Reconstruction Of The Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) Palaeotopography In The Upper Yangtze Region, Linna Zhang, Junxuan Fan, Qing Chen, Shuang-Ye Wu

Shuang-ye Wu

Reconstruction of the Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) palaeotopography in South China is important for understanding the distribution pattern of the Hirnantian marine depositional environment. In this study, we reconstructed the Hirnantian palaeotopography in the Upper Yangtze region based on the rankings of the palaeo-water depths, which were inferred according to the lithofacies and biofacies characteristics of the sections. Data from 374 Hirnantian sections were collected and standardized through the online Geobiodiversity Database. The Ordinary Kriging interpolation method in the ArcGIS software was applied to create the continuous surface of the palaeo-water depths, i.e. the Hirnantian palaeotopography. Meanwhile, the line transect ...


Preliminary Correlation And Isopach Map Of Navajo-Aztec-Nugget Sandstones, Western United States, Emily Jackson 2016 Cedarville University

Preliminary Correlation And Isopach Map Of Navajo-Aztec-Nugget Sandstones, Western United States, Emily Jackson

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Lower and middle Jurassic sandstones across western North America were correlated using stratigraphic thickness and lithofacies data obtained from the AAPG-produced Correlation of Stratigraphic Units of North America (COSUNA) data charts and spreadsheets. An isopach map and a series of stratigraphic cross-sections were created to display the lateral and horizontal extent of the correlated formations. The goal was to determine lateral equivalents of the primarily lower Jurassic Navajo Sandstone from Utah, Arizona, and Colorado. The Nugget Sandstone of Wyoming, Utah, and southern Idaho, and the Aztec Sandstone of southeastern California and southern Nevada were determined to be laterally equivalent to ...


Correlation Of Basal Cambrian Sandstones Across North America, Joshua W. Perez 2016 Cedarville University

Correlation Of Basal Cambrian Sandstones Across North America, Joshua W. Perez

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

A thin, widespread sequence of siliciclastic strata ranging from lower to upper Cambrian age overlies Precambrian crystalline and metamorphic basement rock bounded by the Great Unconformity. This sequence is mainly comprised of basal Cambrian sandstones which can be subdivided into three distinct suites of lithofacies transitioning in age across most of North America. From the west, which is most notable for the Tapeats sandstone of Arizona and Nevada, lies gravelly to boulder sized conglomerates directly overlying basement rock. Eastward, the lower to middle Cambrian consists of a variety of ledge-forming sandstones which contain various areas rich in cross bedded, as ...


A Mineralogical And Geochemical Analysis Of Bed I In Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, David Michael Davis, Sanam M. Chaudhary, Alex M. Simpson, Daniel M. Deocampo, Nathan M. Rabideaux, Gail Ashley, Kevin Garrett 2016 Georgia State University

A Mineralogical And Geochemical Analysis Of Bed I In Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, David Michael Davis, Sanam M. Chaudhary, Alex M. Simpson, Daniel M. Deocampo, Nathan M. Rabideaux, Gail Ashley, Kevin Garrett

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Transition From Contraction To Extension In The Northeastern Basin And Range: New Evidence From The Copper Mountains, Nevada, Jeffrey M. Rahl, Allen J. McGrew, Kenneth A. Foland 2016 Yale University

Transition From Contraction To Extension In The Northeastern Basin And Range: New Evidence From The Copper Mountains, Nevada, Jeffrey M. Rahl, Allen J. Mcgrew, Kenneth A. Foland

Allen J. McGrew

New mapping, structural analysis, and 40Ar/39Ar dating reveal an unusually well‐constrained history of Late Eocene extension in the Copper Mountains of the northern Basin and Range province. In this area, the northeast‐trending Copper Creek normal fault juxtaposes a distinctive sequence of metacarbonate and granitoid rocks against a footwall of Upper Precambrian to Lower Cambrian quartzite and phyllite. Correlation of the hanging wall with footwall rocks to the northwest provides an approximate piercing point that requires 8–12 km displacement in an ESE direction. This displaced fault slice is itself bounded above by another normal fault (the Meadow ...


Differentiating Saginaw From Huron-Erie Lce Lobe Meltwater Deposits In South Central Michigan Using Longitudinal Profiles, Grain Size Analysis, And Lithology, Nathan R. Erber 2016 Western Michigan University

Differentiating Saginaw From Huron-Erie Lce Lobe Meltwater Deposits In South Central Michigan Using Longitudinal Profiles, Grain Size Analysis, And Lithology, Nathan R. Erber

Master's Theses

The Saginaw and Huron-Erie lobes of the Laurentide Ice Sheet had a significant impact on the landscape of south-central Michigan after the Late Glacial Maximum. During the advances and retreats of these lobes, a complicated network of meltwater channels developed. Two goals of this study are: 1) to use sand-grain lithology, grain-size analysis, and longitudinal profiles to determine if a difference exists between Saginaw lobe and Huron-Erie lobe meltwater deposits; and 2) to determine if a large meltwater sluiceway containing the modern St. Joseph River had a source of meltwater and outwash from the Huron-Erie lobe. Two cores from drumlinized ...


Neogene Changes In Caribbean Paleoproductivity And The Diversity And Paleobiogeography Of Deep-Sea Benthic Foraminifera, Crystal Pletka 2016 Florida International University

Neogene Changes In Caribbean Paleoproductivity And The Diversity And Paleobiogeography Of Deep-Sea Benthic Foraminifera, Crystal Pletka

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Neogene history of Caribbean deep-sea benthic foraminifera was investigated by calculating changes in paleoproductivity, diversity and paleobiogeography ~26 to 2 Ma, which includes the progressive closure of the Central American Seaway. Three hypotheses were tested: (1) Paleoproductivity values prior to closure of the Central American Seaway are similar in both the Caribbean and equatorial Pacific and then diverge by the time of early shoaling events; (2) Diversity values of benthic foraminifera prior to the closure of the Central American Seaway were similar in the Caribbean and EEP, and had changed by the time of early shoaling; and (3) during ...


Correspondence Of Historic Salinity Fluctuations In Florida Bay, Usa, To Atmospheric Variability And Anthropogenic Changes, Anna Wachnicka, Evelyn Gaiser, Laurel Collins 2016 Department of Earth and Environment and Southeast Environmental Research Center, Florida International University

Correspondence Of Historic Salinity Fluctuations In Florida Bay, Usa, To Atmospheric Variability And Anthropogenic Changes, Anna Wachnicka, Evelyn Gaiser, Laurel Collins

Evelyn E. Gaiser

Florida Bay is a highly dynamic estuary that exhibits wide natural fluctuations in salinity due to changes in the balance of precipitation, evaporation and freshwater runoff from the mainland. Rapid and large-scale modification of freshwater flow and construction of transportation conduits throughout the Florida Keys during the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries reshaped water circulation and salinity patterns across the ecosystem. In order to determine long-term patterns in salinity variation across the Florida Bay estuary, we used a diatom-based salinity transfer function to infer salinity within 3.27 ppt root mean square error of prediction from diatom assemblages from four ...


Prevailing Weather Conditions During Summer Seasons Around Gangotri Glacier, Pratap Singh, Umesh K. Haritashya, K. S. Ramasastri, Naresh Kumar 2016 Hydro Tasmania Consulting

Prevailing Weather Conditions During Summer Seasons Around Gangotri Glacier, Pratap Singh, Umesh K. Haritashya, K. S. Ramasastri, Naresh Kumar

Umesh K. Haritashya

Meteorological data collected near the snout of the Gangotri Glacier suggest that the study area receives less rainfall. The average seasonal rainfall is observed to be about 260 mm. The rainfall distribution does not show any monsoon impact. Amount of seasonal rainfall is highly variable (131.4-368.8 mm) from year to year, but, in general, August had the maximum rainfall. A verage daily maximum and minimum temperatures were 14.7 and 4.1°C respectively, whereas average mean temperature was 9.4°C. July was recorded as the warmest month. During daytime, wind speed was four times higher than ...


Multispectral Image Analysis Of Glaciers And Glacier Lakes In The Chugach Mountains, Alaska, Jeffrey Kargel, Matthew Beedle, Andrew Bush, Francisco Carreño, Elena Castellanos, Umesh Haritashya, Gregory Leonard, Javier Lillo, Ivan Lopez, Mark Pleasants, Edward Pollock, David Wolfe 2016 University of Colorado

Multispectral Image Analysis Of Glaciers And Glacier Lakes In The Chugach Mountains, Alaska, Jeffrey Kargel, Matthew Beedle, Andrew Bush, Francisco Carreño, Elena Castellanos, Umesh Haritashya, Gregory Leonard, Javier Lillo, Ivan Lopez, Mark Pleasants, Edward Pollock, David Wolfe

Umesh Haritashya

The Chugach Mountains contain the largest nonpolar alpine glaciers in the world and include a wide variety of glacier types: some are land terminating; some calve variously into tidewater, lakes, and rivers; some are heavily debris covered; some are surge-type, whereas others are neither debris covered nor surge type. Nearly all are retreating, thinning, or both, though some rare ones are advancing, and some are thickening at high elevations. To assist the further documentation of changes, we establish an inventory of glaciers in the eastern Chugach Mountains. Several case studies of diverse glacier types showcase remotesensing applications and are used ...


Changing Sediment Transport Processes In Response To Anthropocene Forcing, Brian C. Yellen 2016 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Changing Sediment Transport Processes In Response To Anthropocene Forcing, Brian C. Yellen

Doctoral Dissertations May 2014 - current

The denudation of uplands and sediment deposition within lowlands comprises one of the most fundamental earth processes. Much like plate tectonics or isostasy, sediment transport runs through nearly every geologic sub-discipline. Its importance extends to other fields as well, such as soil and plant science, archaeology, and engineering. Research in the field of sedimentology remains current, with changes in global sediment transport invoked as a primary line of evidence for the arrival of the Anthropocene, and sedimentary archives frequently employed to evaluate current processes relative to the past. In this vein, my doctoral studies have centered on understanding some aspects ...


Lateral Variations In Sediment Provenance And Grain Size Along The Baffin Island Slope, Anna Klein 2016 University of Colorado, Boulder

Lateral Variations In Sediment Provenance And Grain Size Along The Baffin Island Slope, Anna Klein

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Baffin Bay is a 689,000 km­­2 basin linking the Arctic and the North Atlantic oceans. Nearby ice sheets and their ice streams are responsible for eroding, transporting, and depositing sediment of various size fractions on the sea floor. For over thirty years, geologists have known of the presence of detrital carbonate-rich (DC-) facies in the Baffin Bay Quaternary sediment sequence. It has been demonstrated that the distribution of marine carbonate facies, carbonate sources on land, and carbonate on the floors of the large Canadian Arctic Channels can reveal a relationship between land and sea records. This thesis aims ...


Late Pleistocene Glaciations And Catastrophic Glacial Floods Of Central Colorado, Cole C. Pazar 2016 University of Colorado Boulder, Department of Geological Sciences

Late Pleistocene Glaciations And Catastrophic Glacial Floods Of Central Colorado, Cole C. Pazar

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Late Pleistocene glaciations of the Sawatch and Elk Mountain Ranges of Central Colorado at ~130 and ~20 ka left behind glacial features in the topography, ideal for constraining the local climactic variability. In the northern end of the Sawatch Range, distinct lateral and terminal moraines reveal strong geologic evidence that multiple large glaciers drained eastward. Two of these appear to have dammed the Arkansas River. Very fine-grained lacustrine sediments, ‘ice-rafted’ boulders, and catastrophic glacial flood boulders down-valley, show at least two glacial-ice dammed lakes that catastrophically drained. We report flood discharge calculations consistent with previous estimates, on the order of ...


Variability Of Nanopore Systems In The Lincoln Limestone, Denver-Julesburg Basin, Colorado, Usa, Brandon Chase 2016 University of Colorado, Boulder

Variability Of Nanopore Systems In The Lincoln Limestone, Denver-Julesburg Basin, Colorado, Usa, Brandon Chase

Undergraduate Honors Theses

With a shift to exploiting unconventional petroleum plays in the United States to support energy consumption, understanding the nanopore systems in those unconventional resources becomes important for future exploitation. The goal of this study is to characterize the pore systems of the Cretaceous Lincoln Limestone found in the Denver-Julesburg (DJ) Basin in order to test the hypothesis that lithologic variability has a control on pore characteristics and total porosity. The Lincoln Limestone represents a possible reservoir interval in close proximity to a source interval, the Hartland Shale, which directly overlies it, thus making it a potentially profitable future exploration target ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress