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Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction Of Quaternary Saltville, Virginia, Using Ostracode Autecology, Austin Gause 2020 East Tennessee State University

Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction Of Quaternary Saltville, Virginia, Using Ostracode Autecology, Austin Gause

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Saltville valley in southwestern Virginia is home to Quaternary localities containing paleontological and archaeological remains. Historically the valley has been mined for salt and the small lakes, ponds and springs along the valley floor have a brackish signature. A preliminary report on the site’s ostracode fauna suggested that the site’s water was not always saline. This study analyzed modern and Quaternary ostracodes to understand the valley’s hydrologic and chemical evolution. Sediments contained primarily freshwater species, including the environmentally sensitive Candona crogmaniana. The presence of Pelocypris tuberculatum and a new Fabaeformiscandona species throughout a vertical section spanning ...


Using Foraminifera To Identify Overwash Deposits In St Vincent Island, Florida In The Wake Of Hurricane Michael, Kayla Washington 2020 Coastal Carolina University

Using Foraminifera To Identify Overwash Deposits In St Vincent Island, Florida In The Wake Of Hurricane Michael, Kayla Washington

Honors Theses

Major hurricanes have geomorphic and stratigraphic impacts in coast environments that can be used to identify and characterize the storms. One of the approaches to identify storm impact is by studying assemblage of foraminifera, small organisms that live primarily in marine environments with some species living in marshes, in coastal marshes or ponds, with the assumption that storm-induced overwash flooding brings marine species ashore. Hurricane Michael made landfall ~40 km northwest of St Vincent Island (SVI), Florida, on October 10, 2018, as a Category 5 storm. The storm surge of Michael inundated a large part of SVI, which offers a ...


Vims 2019 York River Estuary Data In Support Of: Improved Penetrometer Performance In Stratified Sediment For Cost-Effective Characterization, Monitoring And Management Of Submerged Munitions Sites (Serdp Project: Mr18-1233), Grace M. Massey, Cristin L. Wright, Carl T. Friedrichs 2020 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Vims 2019 York River Estuary Data In Support Of: Improved Penetrometer Performance In Stratified Sediment For Cost-Effective Characterization, Monitoring And Management Of Submerged Munitions Sites (Serdp Project: Mr18-1233), Grace M. Massey, Cristin L. Wright, Carl T. Friedrichs

Data

This work complements the efforts by the Virginia Tech Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering in SERDP MR18-1233, as described in the project’s final report (Stark et al, 2020) and in the Master’s thesis by Dennis Kiptoo (Kiptoo, 2020). One of the objectives of the project was to improve calibration of the Bluedrop free fall penetrometer (FFP) with high resolution sampling of a variety of sediment types. To accomplish this, a series of 9 stations over 12 cruises were visited along the York River, an estuary in the Virginia portion of the Chesapeake Bay, and in the Pamunkey River ...


Vims 2019 Potomac River Estuary Data In Support Of: Improved Penetrometer Performance In Stratified Sediment For Cost-Effective Characterization, Monitoring And Management Of Submerged Munitions Sites (Serdp Project: Mr18-1233), Grace M. Massey, Cristin L. Wright, Carl T. Friedrichs 2020 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Vims 2019 Potomac River Estuary Data In Support Of: Improved Penetrometer Performance In Stratified Sediment For Cost-Effective Characterization, Monitoring And Management Of Submerged Munitions Sites (Serdp Project: Mr18-1233), Grace M. Massey, Cristin L. Wright, Carl T. Friedrichs

Data

This work complements the efforts by the Virginia Tech Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering in SERDP MR18-1233, as described in the project’s final report (Stark et al, 2020) and in the Master’s thesis by Dennis Kiptoo (Kiptoo, 2020). Previous work on this project, conducted in the York River during 2018-2918 worked to improve calibration of the Bluedrop free fall penetrometer (FFP) with high resolution sampling of a variety of sediment types (Massey et al, 2020a). Calibration methods developed (Kiptoo, 2020) were used to rapidly identify different sediment types from a grid of 59 Bluedrop PPF stations sampled on ...


Experiments To Synthesize Soft-Sedimentary Deformation And Clastic Dikes, Chelsi K. Howard 2020 Eastern Washington University

Experiments To Synthesize Soft-Sedimentary Deformation And Clastic Dikes, Chelsi K. Howard

2020 Symposium Posters

Clastic dikes are intrusions of sediments into layers of other sedimentary strata that are found in various places across eastern Washington. Three notable sites include Burlingame Canyon in Touchet, WA, Tucannon Valley near Starbuck, WA and Campion Park in Spokane, WA. Clastic dikes are thought to be formed by either overburden stress or from seismic activity. In eastern WA, the dikes were formed by large overburden pressure and seismic-like forces caused by cataclysmic floods that washed over eastern WA (known as the Missoula floods). We recreated this environment by layering saturated sand below and on top of kaolinite clay, and ...


Sediment Controls Dynamic Behavior Of A Cordilleran Ice Stream At The Last Glacial Maximum, Ellen A. Cowan, Sarah D. Zellers, Juliane Müller, Maureen H. Walczak, Lindsay L. Worthington, Beth E. Caissie, Wesley A. Clary, John M. Jaeger, Sean P. S. Gulick, Jacob W. Pratt, Alan C. Mix, Stewart J. Fallon 2020 Appalachian State University

Sediment Controls Dynamic Behavior Of A Cordilleran Ice Stream At The Last Glacial Maximum, Ellen A. Cowan, Sarah D. Zellers, Juliane Müller, Maureen H. Walczak, Lindsay L. Worthington, Beth E. Caissie, Wesley A. Clary, John M. Jaeger, Sean P. S. Gulick, Jacob W. Pratt, Alan C. Mix, Stewart J. Fallon

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

The uncertain response of marine terminating outlet glaciers to climate change at time scales beyond short-term observation limits models of future sea level rise. At temperate tidewater margins, abundant subglacial meltwater forms morainal banks (marine shoals) or ice-contact deltas that reduce water depth, stabilizing grounding lines and slowing or reversing glacial retreat. Here we present a radiocarbon-dated record from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1421 that tracks the terminus of the largest Alaskan Cordilleran Ice Sheet outlet glacier during Last Glacial Maximum climate transitions. Sedimentation rates, ice-rafted debris, and microfossil and biogeochemical proxies, show repeated abrupt collapses and slow ...


Interpretive Geologic Maps And Cross Sections For Phelps, Kearney, And Adams Counties In Nebraska, Dana Divine, Leslie M. Howard 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Interpretive Geologic Maps And Cross Sections For Phelps, Kearney, And Adams Counties In Nebraska, Dana Divine, Leslie M. Howard

Conservation and Survey Division

Data from thousands of test-hole and well logs were interpreted to improve understanding and management of the High Plains aquifer in a three-county study area adjacent to the Big Bend reach of the Platte River. Five principal conclusions resulted from these interpretations: (1) the extent of Neogene Ogallala deposits beneath the study area is different than previously mapped; (2) a large paleovalley incised into Cretaceous bedrock probably cuts across Kearney and Adams counties and may be the course of the ancestral Platte River prior to formation of the Big Bend; (3) a groundwater mound created by irrigation canals artificially raises ...


Dam Impoundments Sediment Mass – Tributaries To The Hudson River, Brian Yellen, Jonathan Woodruff 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Dam Impoundments Sediment Mass – Tributaries To The Hudson River, Brian Yellen, Jonathan Woodruff

Data and Datasets

This repository contains data from sediment cores collected during 2017-2018 from 17 impoundments that are located on tributaries to the tidal portion of the Hudson River as part of a larger NERRs collaborative project entitled Dams and Sediment on the Hudson (DaSH). A companion dataset that contains sediment core data from Hudson tidal marshes is archived at UMass Scholarworks data repository. Sediment cores collected from impoundments behind dams were recovered via piston push coring, which tends to minimize compaction and be representative of true sediment thicknesses. The general workflow for cores included (1) splitting; (2) Itrax XRF scanning; (3) subsampling ...


Hudson River Estuary Tidal Marsh Sediment Data, Brian Yellen, Jonathan Woodruff 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Hudson River Estuary Tidal Marsh Sediment Data, Brian Yellen, Jonathan Woodruff

Data and Datasets

This repository contains data from sediment cores collected at six tidal wetland complexes that are located within the Hudson River Estuary. The sites include Stockport Marsh, Esopus Delta, Tivoli North Bay, Tivoli South Bay, Vanderburgh Cove, and Iona Island Marsh. A variety of core collection tools and methods were used to collect uncompacted records, including gouge coring, Russian peat coring, and piston push coring, with the method determined by coring environment. The general workflow for cores included (1) splitting; (2) Itrax XRF scanning; (3) subsampling cores ~10 cm spacing; (4) drying and burning samples for percent water, organic, and mineral ...


Role Of Delta-Front Erosion In Sustaining Salt Marshes Under Sea-Level Rise And Fluvial Sediment Decline, Shi Lun Yang, Xiangxin Luo, Stijn Temmerman, Matthew Kirwan, et al 2020 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Role Of Delta-Front Erosion In Sustaining Salt Marshes Under Sea-Level Rise And Fluvial Sediment Decline, Shi Lun Yang, Xiangxin Luo, Stijn Temmerman, Matthew Kirwan, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Accelerating sea-level rise and decreasing riverine sediment supply are widely considered to lead to global losses of deltaic marshes and their valuable ecosystem services. However, little is known about the degree to which the related erosion of the seaward delta front can provide sediments to sustain salt marshes. Here, we present dataf rom the mesomacrotidal Yangtze Delta demonstrating that marshes have continued to accrete vertically and laterally, despite rapid relative sea-level rise (approx.10 mm yr−1) and a > 70% decrease in the Yangtze River sediment supply. Marsh progradation has decelerated at a lower rate than fluvial sediment reduction, suggesting ...


Impacts Of Muddy Bed Aggregates On Sediment Transport And Management In The Tidal James River, Va, David W. Perkey, S. Jarrell Smith, Kelsey A. Fall, Grace M. Massey, Carl T. Friedrichs, Emmalynn M. Hicks 2020 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Impacts Of Muddy Bed Aggregates On Sediment Transport And Management In The Tidal James River, Va, David W. Perkey, S. Jarrell Smith, Kelsey A. Fall, Grace M. Massey, Carl T. Friedrichs, Emmalynn M. Hicks

VIMS Articles

Aggregation state significantly influences the size, density and transport characteristics of fine sediment. Understanding sediment transport and deposition processes in the nation’s navigable waterways is a primary mission for the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), particularly when it comes to infilling of navigation channels. In this study, a newly developed camera system was used to evaluate the aggregation state of eroded sediment from cores collected in the tidal James River, VA. Results showed that bed sediments were composed mostly of mud, but that erosion predominately occurred in the form of aggregates with median sizes 50-270x larger than the ...


Process Based Analysis Of Fluvial Stratigraphic Record: Middle Pennsylvanian Allegheny Formation, North-Central Wv, Oluwasegun O. Abatan 2020 West Virginia University

Process Based Analysis Of Fluvial Stratigraphic Record: Middle Pennsylvanian Allegheny Formation, North-Central Wv, Oluwasegun O. Abatan

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Fluvial deposits represent some of the best hydrocarbon reservoirs, but the quality of fluvial reservoirs varies depending on the reservoir architecture, which is controlled by allogenic and autogenic processes. Allogenic controls, including paleoclimate, tectonics, and glacio-eustasy, have long been debated as dominant controls in the deposition of fluvial strata. However, recent research has questioned the validity of this cyclicity and may indicate major influence from autogenic controls. To further investigate allogenic controls on stratal order, I analyzed the facies architecture, geomorphology, paleohydrology, and the stratigraphic framework of the Middle Pennsylvanian Allegheny Formation (MPAF), a fluvial depositional system in the Appalachian ...


Analysis Of Clastic Cave Sediment In A Fluviokarst System, Russell Cave, Northeast Alabama, Jonathan Camelo 2020 Fort Hays State University

Analysis Of Clastic Cave Sediment In A Fluviokarst System, Russell Cave, Northeast Alabama, Jonathan Camelo

Master's Theses

Russell Cave is part of a fluviokarst system located along the edge of the Cumberland Plateau in northeast Alabama. The cave system acts as a surface-subsurface drainage system transporting, depositing, and accumulating large influxes of terrestrial-derived materials (sediments, organic material, and magnetic minerals) into the subsurface system forming sediment traps. Five core sites along various discontinuous sediment banks were collected and sampled in 2 cm intervals. Data collection involved Red-Green-Blue (RGB) color, loss on ignition (LOI), magnetic susceptibility (MS) grain-size analysis, end member mixing analysis (EMMA), and 14C radiocarbon dating. The goals for this research were to identify the ...


Crystalline Architecture And Stratigraphy Of Coral Skeletal Density Banding: A Geobiological Record Of Changing Coral Reef Ecology, Kyle Fouke 2020 Bucknell University

Crystalline Architecture And Stratigraphy Of Coral Skeletal Density Banding: A Geobiological Record Of Changing Coral Reef Ecology, Kyle Fouke

Honors Theses

Coral skeletal density banding (CSDB), composed of alternating high density band (HDB) and low density band (LDB) layers that comprise the CaCO3 (aragonite) skeleton of scleractinian corals, are used as chronometers for global paleoclimatic reconstructions of sea surface temperature (SST). Scleractinian coral skeletons have been intensively studied for centuries with detail analysis of the macro- and microscale skeletal structure to establish taxonomic and evolutionary relationships of coral species, mechanisms of biomineralization, and seafloor physical, chemical and biological alteration (diagenesis) of the skeleton. This study is the first to determine the crystalline architecture of HDBs and CSDB stratigraphic sequences in ...


Fluvial Sedimentology And Architecture Of Two Latest Devonian Lower Huntley Mountain Formation Outcrops, North-Central Pennsylvania, Usa, Evan W. Filion 2020 Bucknell University

Fluvial Sedimentology And Architecture Of Two Latest Devonian Lower Huntley Mountain Formation Outcrops, North-Central Pennsylvania, Usa, Evan W. Filion

Honors Theses

Thick successions of river deposits accumulated in the north-central Pennsylvania region of the Appalachian foreland basin during Late Devonian time (~380-360 Ma). The properties and morphologies of these paleorivers are not well characterized. Latest Devonian tectonic, climatic, and eustatic controls on river dynamics and basin infilling also remain unclear. This study assesses the sedimentology, facies architecture, paleochannel depths, and grain size of a 133 m thick section of fluvial strata exposed across two outcrops, Blossburg South (older) and Blossburg West (younger), mapped as lower Huntley Mountain Formation near Blossburg, Pennsylvania. Field-based lithofacies observations, high-resolution panoramic photography, terrestrial lidar scanning, and ...


Sedimentological, Architectural, And Paleoenvironmental Analysis Of The Fluvial Upper Devonian Catskill Formation, North-Central Pennsylvania, Usa, Matylda Zaklicki 2020 Bucknell University

Sedimentological, Architectural, And Paleoenvironmental Analysis Of The Fluvial Upper Devonian Catskill Formation, North-Central Pennsylvania, Usa, Matylda Zaklicki

Honors Theses

During the Late Devonian time period, sediments eroded from the Acadian mountains were transported westward and deposited in fluvial environments, but the morphology of the rivers, avulsion style, and controls on basin infilling remain unclear. This study assesses the sedimentology, channel geometry, stratigraphic architecture, and avulsion style of the paleochannels and floodplains of the uppermost 80 meters of the Catskill Formation near Blossburg, Pennsylvania, using field-based lithofacies observations, high-resolution panoramic photographs, and terrestrial lidar scanning.

Upper Catskill Formation strata at Blossburg Middle consist of sandy channel and muddy floodplain deposits. Floodplain deposits were categorized into either proximal floodplain deposits or ...


Late Jurassic Dinosaurs On The Move, Gastroliths And Long-Distance Migration, Josh Malone 2019 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Late Jurassic Dinosaurs On The Move, Gastroliths And Long-Distance Migration, Josh Malone

Geography: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

The Jurassic Morrison Formation of the Rocky Mountain and Colorado Plateau regions is famous for its dinosaur fossils. The Morrison Formation (150-157 Ma) is comprised mostly of sandstone and mudstone that was deposited in a terrestrial deposition system that included fluvial, paludal, and lacustrine environments. Paleocurrent data indicates that Morrison sediment was transported to the north and east. Within the Morrison Formation, we find exotic pebble and cobble-size durable clasts of quartzite, chert and vein quartz weathering out of the mudstone paleosols. We interpret these exotic clasts as gastroliths, carried within the gastric mills of dinosaurs. For this study, we ...


Improving Aquifer Characterization Through Integration Of Airborne Electromagnetics (Aem) And Well Hydrographs, Jacqueline Polashek 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Improving Aquifer Characterization Through Integration Of Airborne Electromagnetics (Aem) And Well Hydrographs, Jacqueline Polashek

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

The objective of this study is to evaluate methods of hydrostratigraphic modeling using geophysics and well hydrographs at the eastern edge of the High Plains aquifer (HPA) in Platte and Colfax counties within Nebraska, USA. The HPA is very heterogeneous in the study area, being hosted by architecturally complex glacial sediments and having many irregular hydraulic boundaries. Further, the HPA exhibits local variations between unconfined and confined conditions. Pumping in such bounded aquifers can be unsustainable because of cost increases and lost agricultural productivity. Moreover, the large drawdowns typical of confined aquifers can contribute to well interference during heavy pumping ...


The Shelf To Basin Transition And Tectonostratigraphy Of The Atoka Formation (Lower Pennsylvanian) In The Arkoma Basin, Northwest Arkansas, Travis Gibson White 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Shelf To Basin Transition And Tectonostratigraphy Of The Atoka Formation (Lower Pennsylvanian) In The Arkoma Basin, Northwest Arkansas, Travis Gibson White

Theses and Dissertations

The east-to-west oriented Arkoma Basin is a peripheral foreland basin or depositional trough that developed during the Carboniferous Period. This formation covers an aerial extent of approximately 33,800 square miles and spans from west-central Arkansas into southeastern Oklahoma (McGilvery, Manger, and Zachry, 2016; Perry, 1995). The Atoka Formation, deposited during the early Pennsylvanian, is the largest Paleozoic formation by aerial extent in the state of Arkansas and is located within and comprises the bulk of Arkoma Basin sediments (McFarland, 2004; Nance, 2018). This formation has been informally divided into three divisions, the lower, middle, and upper, based on their ...


Streambed Flux Measurement Informed By Distributed Temperature Sensing Leads To A Significantly Different Characterization Of Groundwater Discharge, Troy E. Gilmore, Mason Johnson, Jesse T. Korus Dr., Aaron R. Mittelstet, Marty A. Briggs, Vitaly A. Zlotnik, Sydney Corcoran 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Streambed Flux Measurement Informed By Distributed Temperature Sensing Leads To A Significantly Different Characterization Of Groundwater Discharge, Troy E. Gilmore, Mason Johnson, Jesse T. Korus Dr., Aaron R. Mittelstet, Marty A. Briggs, Vitaly A. Zlotnik, Sydney Corcoran

Conservation and Survey Division

Groundwater discharge though streambeds is often focused toward discrete zones, indicating that preliminary reconnaissance may be useful for capturing the full spectrum of groundwater discharge rates using point-scale quantitative methods. However, many direct-contact reconnaissance techniques can be time-consuming, and remote sensing (e.g., thermal infrared) typically does not penetrate the water column to locate submerged seepages. In this study, we tested whether dozens of groundwater discharge measurements made at “uninformed” (i.e., selected without knowledge on high-resolution temperature variations at the streambed) point locations along a reach would yield significantly dierent Darcy-based groundwater discharge rates when compared with “informed” measurements ...


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