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Novel Complement Blocking Antibodies Against Serogroup B N. Meningitidis: A Dissertation, Tathagat Dutta Ray 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Novel Complement Blocking Antibodies Against Serogroup B N. Meningitidis: A Dissertation, Tathagat Dutta Ray

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

N. meningitidis is a common commensal of the human upper respiratory tract and a leading cause of bacterial meningitis and septicemia worldwide. The classical pathway of complement (C) is essential for both naturally acquired and vaccine induced immunity against N. meningitidis. Qualitative and/or quantitative differences in anti-meningococcal antibodies (Abs) in serum is one reason for variations in C-dependent bactericidal Ab activity among individuals. I showed that IgG isolated from select individuals could block killing of group B meningococci by Abs that were otherwise bactericidal. Ligand overlay immunoblots revealed that these blocking IgG Abs were directed against a meningococcal antigen ...


Is There An Association Of Giardiasis With Beta-Thalassemia Minor?, Javed Yakoob, Wasim Jafri, Hizbullah Shaikh 2010 Aga Khan University

Is There An Association Of Giardiasis With Beta-Thalassemia Minor?, Javed Yakoob, Wasim Jafri, Hizbullah Shaikh

Section of Gastroenterology

Beta–thalassemia minor is a symptomless carrier state of a hemoglobinopathy which predisposes to bacterial infections. We report three cases presenting with giardiasis, a parasitic infection of gastrointestinal tract caused by Giardia lamblia. Patients presented with recurrent diarrhea and abdominal pain for over a year. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy finding varied from normal to acute duodenitis. Duodenal biopsy demonstrated changes consistent with mild chronic non-specific inflammation with G. lamblia trophozoites. All three patients were diagnosed as β -thalassemia minor hemoglobin electrophoresis. They were treated with Diloxanide furoate 500 mg and Metronidazole 400mg three times daily for five days. Their symptoms resolved and ...


Pathogenesis Of The Helicobacter Induced Mucosal Disease: A Dissertation, Calin Stoicov 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Pathogenesis Of The Helicobacter Induced Mucosal Disease: A Dissertation, Calin Stoicov

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Helicobacter pylori causes chronic gastritis, peptic ulceration and gastric cancer. This bacterium is one of the most prevalent in the world, but affects mostly the populations with a lower socioeconomical status. While it causes gastric and duodenal ulcers in only 20% of infected patients, less then 1% will develop gastric adenocarcinoma. In fact, H. pylori is the most important risk factor in developing gastric cancer. Epidemiological studies have shown that 80% of gastric cancer patients are H. pylori positive. The outcome of the infection with this bacterium depends on bacterial factors, diet, genetic background of the host, and coinfection with ...


T Cells Aid In Limiting Pathogen Burden And In Enhancing B1 And B2 Cell Antibody Responses To Membrane Glycolipid And The Surface Lipoprotein Decorin-Binding Protein A During Borrelia Burgdorferi Infection: A Dissertation, Robyn Lynn Marty-Roix 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

T Cells Aid In Limiting Pathogen Burden And In Enhancing B1 And B2 Cell Antibody Responses To Membrane Glycolipid And The Surface Lipoprotein Decorin-Binding Protein A During Borrelia Burgdorferi Infection: A Dissertation, Robyn Lynn Marty-Roix

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Murine infection by the Lyme disease spirochete, B. burgdorferi, results in the generation of pathogen-specific antibody that can provide protection against Lyme disease, but the cells involved in this response are poorly characterized. T cells are not required for generating a protective antibody response to B. burgdorferi infection, but their exact role in providing protection against tissue colonization had not been previously determined. We found that TCRβxδ;-/- mice were susceptible to high pathogen loads and decreased antibody titers, but inhibition of CD40L-dependent interactions resulted in partial protection suggesting that a portion of the help provided by T cells was not ...


Transcriptional Regulation Of Azole Antifungal Resistance And Tolerance In Candida Glabrata, Kelly E. Caudle 2010 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Transcriptional Regulation Of Azole Antifungal Resistance And Tolerance In Candida Glabrata, Kelly E. Caudle

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Azole antifungal resistance has emerged as a significant problem in the management of infections caused by fungi including Candida species. In recent years, Candida glabrata has become the second most common cause of mucosal and invasive fungal infections in humans second to Candida albicans. Not only are systemic C. glabrata infections characterized by high mortality rates, treatment failures to the azole class of antifungals, the most widely used antifungal for treatment of Candida infections, have been reported. Contributing to this problem, C. glabrata exhibits intrinsic reduced susceptibility to the azole antifungals, and the development of high-level azole resistance during ...


Clostridium Difficile Associated Disease (Cdad), Rivka H. Borger 2010 Touro College

Clostridium Difficile Associated Disease (Cdad), Rivka H. Borger

The Science Journal of the Lander College of Arts and Sciences

Clostridium difficile bacteria (C. difficile) are a spore-forming species of bacteria that lies dormant in the colon, in the presence of normal intestinal flora. Due to overuse of certain antibiotics, normal intestinal bacteria may be depleted, and combined with other possible risk factors, allow C. difficile bacterial spores to develop into active, infectious, and extremely resistant toxin-producing bacteria. The toxins cause severe damage and inflammation to the intestinal wall that can result in gastrointestinal discomfort and severe pseudomembranous enterocolitis that must be treated with a low-risk C. difficile targeting defense.


Cholera: An Overview Of A Disease, Ezriel Leifer 2010 Touro College

Cholera: An Overview Of A Disease, Ezriel Leifer

The Science Journal of the Lander College of Arts and Sciences

Although the disease, cholera, has been recognized since antiquity, the bacteria responsible for causing it was only discovered in the mid-19th century. Since 1817, cholera has spread on a global basis to cause seven pandemics. According to information reported to the World Health Organization in 1999, almost 8,500 people died and another 223,000 became sick with cholera worldwide. During the period between full outbreaks, the cholera organism, Vibrio cholerae, thrives in brackish waters, in harmless as well as disease-causing forms. Vibrio cholerae is just one of a variety of ocean-borne microbes that can sicken humans via seafood, drinking ...


Program Evaluation For Tdap Immunization Standing Orders In A Birthing Hospital, Helen Crean Taugher DNP 2010 UMass Amherst School of Nursing

Program Evaluation For Tdap Immunization Standing Orders In A Birthing Hospital, Helen Crean Taugher Dnp

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) Projects

Newborn infants are vulnerable to pertussis infections. Although the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that babies begin their diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis (DTaP) immunization series at two months of age, the minimum age for administration of the vaccine is six weeks of age (Centers for Disease Control [CDC], 2008). Young infants are at risk for whooping cough infection transmitted from parents, siblings and care-givers during the pre-vaccination period in the first two months of life, particularly pertussis transmitted from their mothers. Since the licensure of adult/adolescent formulations of tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine in ...


Evaluating Children With Otitis Media For Bacteremia Or Urinary Tract Infection., Daniel Yawman, Patrick Mahar, Aaron Blumkin, Gregory P. Conners 2010 Children's Mercy Hospital

Evaluating Children With Otitis Media For Bacteremia Or Urinary Tract Infection., Daniel Yawman, Patrick Mahar, Aaron Blumkin, Gregory P. Conners

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

Background. It is unclear if clinicians evaluate for concurrent bacteremia or UTI in young patients diagnosed with acute otitis media (AOM). Objectives. To describe how often, and under which circumstances, emergency providers investigate for bacteremia or UTI in 2-36 month olds with AOM. Methods. Cases of AOM were analyzed from the 2001-2004 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS)-Emergency Department dataset. Results. AOM was diagnosed in 17% of the 10,847 recorded visits of 2-36 month olds. Of these visits, laboratory testing included: CBC: 7%, Blood culture: 4%, urinalysis or urine culture: 5%, and any of these tests: 9 ...


Rapid Emergence Of Co-Colonization With Community-Acquired And Hospital-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Strains In The Hospital Setting, Joanna R. Wares, Erika M.C. D'Agata, Glenn F. Webb 2010 University of Richmond

Rapid Emergence Of Co-Colonization With Community-Acquired And Hospital-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Strains In The Hospital Setting, Joanna R. Wares, Erika M.C. D'Agata, Glenn F. Webb

Math and Computer Science Faculty Publications

Background: Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CAMRSA), a novel strain of MRSA, has recently emerged and rapidly spread in the community. Invasion into the hospital setting with replacement of the hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) has also been documented. Co-colonization with both CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA would have important clinical implications given differences in antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and the potential for exchange of genetic information.

Methods: A deterministic mathematical model was developed to characterize the transmission dynamics of HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA in the hospital setting and to quantify the emergence of co-colonization with both strains Results: The model analysis shows that the state of ...


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