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Biogeographic Variation In Resistance Of The Invasive Plant, Alliaria Petiolata, To A Powdery Mildew Fungus And Effect Of Resistance On Competitive Dynamics, Don Cipollini, Sam Davisd, Deah Lieurance, Kendra Cipollini, Volker Bahn 2020 Wright State University - Main Campus

Biogeographic Variation In Resistance Of The Invasive Plant, Alliaria Petiolata, To A Powdery Mildew Fungus And Effect Of Resistance On Competitive Dynamics, Don Cipollini, Sam Davisd, Deah Lieurance, Kendra Cipollini, Volker Bahn

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Garlic mustard is an invasive Eurasian biennial that has spread throughout the eastern United States and southern Canada. Populations of this plant vary in their susceptibility to Erysiphe cruciferarum, a causal agent of powdery mildew disease in Brassicaceous plants. We examined whether there were biogeographic patterns in the distribution of resistance in invasive North American and native European populations of this plant. We grew plants from 78 invasive and 20 native populations and screened them for powdery mildew resistance in the greenhouse. We found that populations were mostly monomorphic for either resistance or susceptibility but that some polymorphic populations …


Larval Performance Of A Major Forest Pest On Novel Hosts And The Effect Of Stressors, Donnie Lee Peterson, Don Cipollini 2020 Wright State University - Main Campus

Larval Performance Of A Major Forest Pest On Novel Hosts And The Effect Of Stressors, Donnie Lee Peterson, Don Cipollini

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Novel hosts lacking a coevolutionary history with herbivores can often support improved larval performance over historic hosts; e.g., emerald ash borer [Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) Coleoptera: Buprestidae] on North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees. Whether trees are novel or ancestral, stress on plants increases emerald ash borer preference and performance. White fringetree [Chionanthus virginicus (L.) Lamiales: Oleaceae] and olive [Olea europaea (L.) Lamiales: Oleaceae] are closely related non-ash hosts that support development of emerald ash borer to adulthood, but their relative suitability as hosts and the impact of plant stress on larval success has not been well …


The Role Of Manganese In Streptococcus Sanguinis, Tanya M. Puccio 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

The Role Of Manganese In Streptococcus Sanguinis, Tanya M. Puccio

Theses and Dissertations

Streptococcus sanguinis is primarily associated with oral health as a commensal bacterium. As an opportunistic pathogen, S. sanguinis is capable of colonizing heart valve vegetations, leading to the disease infective endocarditis. Previous studies from our lab have identified the high-affinity manganese transporter SsaACB as important for endocarditis virulence. The impact that manganese depletion has on S. sanguinis had never been evaluated and a secondary manganese transporter has not been identified. Thus, we employed the use of a fermentor to control large-scale growth over time and depleted manganese in an ΔssaACB mutant using a metal chelator, EDTA. The changes in …


Computational Analysis Of Oxidative Stress In Endothelial Dysfunction: Insights On The Role Of Tetrahydrobiopterin, Ascorbate And Glutathione, Sheetal Kedar Panday 2020 Wayne State University

Computational Analysis Of Oxidative Stress In Endothelial Dysfunction: Insights On The Role Of Tetrahydrobiopterin, Ascorbate And Glutathione, Sheetal Kedar Panday

Wayne State University Dissertations

Oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction are reported in the cardiovascular and neurovascular diseases. Oxidative stress is caused due to an increase in the generation of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) and incapacity of antioxidant systems to eliminate ROS and RNS. Endothelial dysfunction is characterized by a reduction in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. NO is constitutively produced by enzyme endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). A reduction in tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), which is an essential cofactor of eNOS, can lead to eNOS uncoupling. There is complex interplay between the ROS/RNS and antioxidant system underlying pathophysiologies of vascular diseases, however our quantitative …


Food Web Effects Of Lake Trout (Salvelinus Namaycush) Invasion In Northwestern Montana, Charles Wainright 2020 University of Montana

Food Web Effects Of Lake Trout (Salvelinus Namaycush) Invasion In Northwestern Montana, Charles Wainright

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Around the turn of the 20th century, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were widely introduced in several lakes and reservoirs outside their native range in western North America. Since then, lake trout have become problematic in many lakes where they were introduced, causing significant declines in popular sport fishes and native species, most notably federally protected bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). Despite evidence that invasive fish can cause cascading trophic effects in aquatic communities, the impacts of lake trout introduction / invasion on aquatic food webs remain poorly understood. Moreover, native fish restoration programs tend to focus on suppression …


Characterizing The Requirements For The Matricellular Protein, Dccn, In Nervous System Function, Elizabeth L. Catudio Garrett 2020 University of Montana

Characterizing The Requirements For The Matricellular Protein, Dccn, In Nervous System Function, Elizabeth L. Catudio Garrett

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

The brain is organized as a complex network of specialized neurons that communicate via a combination of electrical and chemical signals. Our brains function to generate movement, control organ function, or direct complex behaviors; all of which requires the ability to regulate the flow of communication between circuits and networks. Work in this thesis addresses two areas of neuron communication: first, how does the release of more than one neurotransmitter from a single neuron impact behavior, and second, are matricellular proteins (MCPs) key contributors to synaptic transmission and neuron function? The conserved CCN family of MCPs have a …


Pharmacological Or Genetic Targeting Of Transient Receptor Potential (Trp) Channels Can Disrupt The Planarian Escape Response, Ziad Sabry , '21, A. Ho, D. Ireland, C. Rabeler, O. Cochet-Escartin, Eva-Maria S. Collins 2019 Swarthmore College

Pharmacological Or Genetic Targeting Of Transient Receptor Potential (Trp) Channels Can Disrupt The Planarian Escape Response, Ziad Sabry , '21, A. Ho, D. Ireland, C. Rabeler, O. Cochet-Escartin, Eva-Maria S. Collins

Biology Faculty Works

In response to noxious stimuli, planarians cease their typical ciliary gliding and exhibit an oscillatory type of locomotion called scrunching. We have previously characterized the biomechanics of scrunching and shown that it is induced by specific stimuli, such as amputation, noxious heat, and extreme pH. Because these specific inducers are known to activate Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels in other systems, we hypothesized that TRP channels control scrunching. We found that chemicals known to activate TRPA1 (allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and hydrogen peroxide) and TRPV (capsaicin and anandamide) in other systems induce scrunching in the planarian species Dugesia japonica and, except …


Bats Of The Loess Hills Ecoregion Of Southeast Nebraska, Virgil Brack Jr, Dale W. Sparks, Darwin C. Brack 2019 Environmental Solutions & Innovations, Inc., Cincinnati, OH

Bats Of The Loess Hills Ecoregion Of Southeast Nebraska, Virgil Brack Jr, Dale W. Sparks, Darwin C. Brack

The Prairie Naturalist

We surveyed bats at 49 sites in the Loess Hills Ecoregion of southeastern Nebraska, along the western edge of the eastern forest biome in eastern Richardson, Nemaha, and Otoe counties. We completed this study shortly before the northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) was listed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service under the Endangered Species Act. The expectation of listing, along with potential presence of the endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis), motivated the study. We captured 183 bats of five species: eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis) (n = 103; 56 %), big brown …


Review Of Sky Dance Of The Woodcock: The Habits And Habitats Of A Strange Little Bird, By Greg Hoch, David E. Andersen 2019 USGS Minnesota Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit

Review Of Sky Dance Of The Woodcock: The Habits And Habitats Of A Strange Little Bird, By Greg Hoch, David E. Andersen

The Prairie Naturalist

American Woodcock (Scolopax minor) have enthralled conservationists (including Aldo Leopold), bird watchers, wildlife enthusiasts, hunters, and others interested in the natural world for centuries. No doubt, woodcock also have enthralled humans in North America for millennia prior to written descriptions of the woodcock’s courtship displays, habitat preferences, and curious behavior and anatomy. As perhaps the most extensively studied species of shorebird in the world, there is a rich and extensive literature, both scientific and popular, focused on woodcock ecology, behavior, and hunting. To that extensive body of literature, Sky Dance of the Woodcock provides an updated summary of …


Serological Survey And Pathogen Exposure Of Adult Female White-Tailed Deer In The Western Dakotas, Katherine L. Moratz, Bailey S. Gullikson, Eric S. Michel, Daniel M. Grove, Jonathan A. Jenks, William Jensen 2019 South Dakota State University

Serological Survey And Pathogen Exposure Of Adult Female White-Tailed Deer In The Western Dakotas, Katherine L. Moratz, Bailey S. Gullikson, Eric S. Michel, Daniel M. Grove, Jonathan A. Jenks, William Jensen

The Prairie Naturalist

Establishing baseline values for pathogen exposure and nutritional indices is necessary to monitor population health. However, little is known about white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) pathogen exposure and nutritional condition in the Northern Great Plains. Our objective was to assess pathogen exposure and establish nutritional indices for female white-tailed deer in Dunn and Grant counties, North Dakota and Perkins County, South Dakota. During 2014, we collected blood serum from 150 adult female white-tailed deer. Pathogens with the highest antibody prevalence included West Nile Virus (WNV; 85%), epizootic hemorrhagic disease (48%), and malignant catarrhal fever (32%). Serum values for creatine …


Factors Limiting Reintroduced Plains Topminnow, Fundulus Sciadicus, Populations In Central Great Plains Streams, Joseph Thiessen, Keith D. Koupal, Casey W. Schoenebeck 2019 University of Nebraska at Kearney

Factors Limiting Reintroduced Plains Topminnow, Fundulus Sciadicus, Populations In Central Great Plains Streams, Joseph Thiessen, Keith D. Koupal, Casey W. Schoenebeck

The Prairie Naturalist

The plains topminnow (Fundulus sciadicus) is an endemic Great Plains stream fish that has experienced declines in geographic range and local abundance. Due to these declines, the species has been considered for federal protection and designated with conservation status in states throughout its historic range. The reasons for declines are likely similar to hypothesized factors for other endemic stream fish declines in the Great Plains. To investigate potential limiting factors a suite of 17 historic sites with reintroduced plains topminnow populations across Nebraska were evaluated for current populations and if plains topminnow were absent, additional fish were introduced. …


Recent Observations Of Water Shrews In Northeastern South Dakota, Dennis Skadsen, Robert M. Timm 2019 Northeast Glacial Lakes Day Conservation District, Webster, SD

Recent Observations Of Water Shrews In Northeastern South Dakota, Dennis Skadsen, Robert M. Timm

The Prairie Naturalist

North American water shrews in the genus Sorex are a complex of at least five species, three of which were recognized historically, Sorex alasksans, S. bendirii, and S. palustris (Hall 1981). Within what was previously considered the single, widespread northern species, S. palustris, two additional species are now recognized, S. albibarbis in the eastern US and Canada and S. navigator in the western United States and Canada (Hope et al. 2014; Nagorsen et al. 2017; Woodman 2018). The American water shrew (Sorex palustris) originally was documented in South Dakota by three females, two were collected 1876 and …


Review Of Grasslands And Climate Change By David J. Gibson And Jonathan A. Newman, Neal D. Noemuth 2019 US FWS

Review Of Grasslands And Climate Change By David J. Gibson And Jonathan A. Newman, Neal D. Noemuth

The Prairie Naturalist

The last decade has seen an explosion of information about climate change, some of which is contradictory, much of which is confusing, and the entirety of which is too much for the typical biologist or scientist to assemble and comprehend. This is why reviews such as Grasslands and Climate Change, edited by David Gibson and Jonathan Newman, are so valuable. To produce this review of climate change issues and influences relative to grasslands, Gibson and Newman recruited 30 scientists—predominantly from Europe and North America—who wrote 19 chapters dealing with various aspects of grasslands and climate change. The chapters are grouped …


The Prairie Naturalist, Vol. 51, Issue 2, December 2019, 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Prairie Naturalist, Vol. 51, Issue 2, December 2019

The Prairie Naturalist

45 EDITOR’S NOTE: Final Thoughts as Editor-in-Chief, by Christopher N. Jacques

RESEARCH ARTICLES

47 Bats of the Loess Hills Ecoregion of Southeast Nebraska, by Virgil Brack, Jr., Dale W. Sparks, and Darwin C. Brack

58 Serological Survey and Pathogen Exposure of Adult Female White-tailed Deer in the Western Dakotas, by Katherine L. Moratz, Bailey S. Gullikson, Eric S. Michel, Daniel M. Grove, Jonathan A. Jenks, and William F. Jensen

68 Factors Limting Reintroduced Plains Topminnow, Fundulus sciadicus, Populations in Central Great Plains Streams, by Joseph D. Thiessen, Keith D. Koupal, and Casey W. Schoenebeck

NOTES

77 Recent Observations of Water …


Final Thoughts As Editor-In-Chief, Christopher N. Jacques 2019 Western Illinois University

Final Thoughts As Editor-In-Chief, Christopher N. Jacques

The Prairie Naturalist

Greetings GPNSS members! I write this editorial during a time of reflection as Editor-in-Chief of The Prairie Naturalist (TPN), and during unprecedented times as the global COVID-19 pandemic continues. In full disclosure, I do not have a particular topic for this editorial, other than to offer a few final thoughts as my time serving the Great Plains Natural Science Society and TPN.


The Mayfly Newsletter, Donna Giberson 2019 The Permanent Committee of the International Conferences on Ephemeroptera

The Mayfly Newsletter, Donna Giberson

The Mayfly Newsletter

The Mayfly Newsletter is the official newsletter of the Permanent Committee of the International Conferences on Ephemeroptera


The Missing Metric: An Evaluation Of Fungal Importance In Wetland Assessments, Megan A. Rúa 2019 Wright State University - Main Campus

The Missing Metric: An Evaluation Of Fungal Importance In Wetland Assessments, Megan A. Rúa

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

To preserve wetland ecosystem function, federal and state agencies have developed assessment procedures to better manage remaining wetland areas. Currently, wetland assessments do not consider microorganisms when determining wetland quality. This is notable, because fungi are often the primary decomposers of organic material and thus important players in nutrient cycling. The objective of this study is to quantify how wetland quality, as measured using the Ohio Rapid Assessment Method (ORAM), relates to fungal community composition. We sampled soils from six depressional emergent marshes in Ohio belonging to each of the three ORAM quality categories, assessed soil physicochemical properties, and recovered …


Review Of Great Plains Birds, By Larkin Powell, William E. Jensen 2019 Emporia State University

Review Of Great Plains Birds, By Larkin Powell, William E. Jensen

The Prairie Naturalist

Biologists who live in the Great Plains of North America know well the general aspersion cast toward our regional home by those unfamiliar with the region and its natural treasures. Larkin Powell alludes to this all-too-common aspersion and diplomatically dispels it in his ornithological showcase of the Great Plains, simply titled Great Plains Birds. The book is a nice, quick read and a well-composed profile of the region’s avian biogeographical history, its disruptions, conservation remedies, examples of basic bird biology, and tips on how to enjoy the bird life on display in this dynamic region. Having been an ornithologist …


Review Of Birds Of Prey Of The East: A Field Guide By Brian K. Wheeler, Janet W. Ng 2019 University of Alberta

Review Of Birds Of Prey Of The East: A Field Guide By Brian K. Wheeler, Janet W. Ng

The Prairie Naturalist

Brian Wheeler’s new field guide, Birds of Prey of the East, is a well-researched, comprehensive field guide to birds of prey found in eastern Canada and United States. This 13- year labor of love reflects a life spent studying the nuances of North American birds of prey, as well as partnerships with fellow enthusiasts who provided detailed range maps and other valuable inputs. Birds of Prey of the East features 72 color plates of 27 species, including 14 plates for the Redtailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), which can be one of the most challenging species to identify in …


Drivers And Consequences Of Carbon Use Efficiency - And Its Measurement In Soil, Grace Pold 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Drivers And Consequences Of Carbon Use Efficiency - And Its Measurement In Soil, Grace Pold

Doctoral Dissertations

Soils serve as massive carbon sinks, but their ability to continue this ecological service is contingent on how the resident soil microbial community will respond to the ongoing climate crisis. One key dimension of the microbial response to warming is its carbon use efficiency (CUE), or the fraction of carbon taken up by an organism which is allocated to growth rather than respiration. However, the scientific community is still in the early stages of understanding the drivers, consequences - and even accurate measurements of - CUE. In this dissertation, I first quantified the variability of CUE and its responsiveness to …


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