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Dugesia Japonica Is The Best Suited Of Three Planarian Species For High-Throughput Toxicology Screening, D. Ireland, Veronica Bochenek , '22, Daniel Chaiken , '20, C. Rabeler, Sumi Onoe , '21, Ameet Soni, Eva-Maria S. Collins 2020 Swarthmore College

Dugesia Japonica Is The Best Suited Of Three Planarian Species For High-Throughput Toxicology Screening, D. Ireland, Veronica Bochenek , '22, Daniel Chaiken , '20, C. Rabeler, Sumi Onoe , '21, Ameet Soni, Eva-Maria S. Collins

Biology Faculty Works

High-throughput screening (HTS) using new approach methods is revolutionizing toxicology. Asexual freshwater planarians are a promising invertebrate model for neurotoxicity HTS because their diverse behaviors can be used as quantitative readouts of neuronal function. Currently, three planarian species are commonly used in toxicology research: Dugesia japonica, Schmidtea mediterranea, and Girardia tigrina. However, only D. japonica has been demonstrated to be suitable for HTS. Here, we assess the two other species for HTS suitability by direct comparison with D. japonica. Through quantitative assessments of morphology and multiple behaviors, we assayed the effects of 4 common solvents (DMSO, ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate) …


Metabolic Modeling Of Multispecies Microbial Biofilms, Poonam Phalak 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Metabolic Modeling Of Multispecies Microbial Biofilms, Poonam Phalak

Doctoral Dissertations

Biofilms are ubiquitous in medical, environmental, and engineered microbial systems. The majority of naturally occurring microbes grow as mixed species biofilms. These complicated biofilm consortia are comprised of many cell phenotypes with complex interactions and self-organized into three-dimensional structures. Approximately 2% of the US population suffers from non-healing chronic wounds infected by a combination of commensal and pathogenic bacteria whereas about 500,000 cases of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are reported annually. These polymicrobial infections are often resilient to antibiotic treatment due to the nutrient-rich environments and species interactions that promote community stability and robustness. This thesis focusses on developing metabolic …


Yeast Copper Proteins And Reactive Oxygen Species In Effecting Lifespan, Megan Bestwick 2020 Linfield College

Yeast Copper Proteins And Reactive Oxygen Species In Effecting Lifespan, Megan Bestwick

Post-Grant Reports

Mitochondria are essential organelles in most eukaryotic cells because of their role in metabolism and the production of ATP by the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) pathway, as well as other key cellular processes. Metal cofactors, such as copper (Cu) and iron (Fe), are incorporated into OXPHOS protein complexes of yeast located within the inner membrane of the mitochondria. Misincorporation or modulation of these available metals in mitochondrial enzymes leads to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS are reactive molecules containing oxygen such as peroxides, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals. Yeast are a good model for studying aging and the effect …


Micom: Metagenome-Scale Modeling To Infer Metabolic Interactions In The Gut Microbiota., Christian Diener, Sean M Gibbons, Osbaldo Resendis-Antonio 2020 Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Micom: Metagenome-Scale Modeling To Infer Metabolic Interactions In The Gut Microbiota., Christian Diener, Sean M Gibbons, Osbaldo Resendis-Antonio

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

Compositional changes in the gut microbiota have been associated with a variety of medical conditions such as obesity, Crohn's disease, and diabetes. However, connecting microbial community composition to ecosystem function remains a challenge. Here, we introduce MICOM, a customizable metabolic model of the human gut microbiome. By using a heuristic optimization approach based on L2 regularization, we were able to obtain a unique set of realistic growth rates that corresponded well with observed replication rates. We integrated adjustable dietary and taxon abundance constraints to generate personalized metabolic models for individual metagenomic samples. We applied MICOM to a balanced cohort of …


The Bioethical Significance Of “The Origin Of Man’S Ethical Behavior” (October 1941, Unpublished) By Ernest Everett Just And Hedwig Anna Schnetzler Just, Theodore Walker Jr. 2020 Southern Methodist University

The Bioethical Significance Of “The Origin Of Man’S Ethical Behavior” (October 1941, Unpublished) By Ernest Everett Just And Hedwig Anna Schnetzler Just, Theodore Walker Jr.

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Abstract –

E. E. Just (1883-1941) is an acknowledged “pioneer” in cell biology, and he is perhaps the pioneer in study of egg cell fertilization. Here we discover that Just also made pioneering contributions to general biology and evolutionary bioethics.

Within Just’s published contributions to observational cell biology, there are substantial fragments of his theory of ethical behavior, a theory with roots in cell biology. In addition to such previously available fragments, Just’s fully developed theory is now available. This recently discovered unpublished book-length manuscript argues for the biological origins of ethical behavior (evolving from cells to humans, within a …


Factors Associated With Larval Freshwater Drum Annual Peak Density In A Nebraska Irrigation Reservoir, Brett T. Miller, Brian C. Peterson, Keith D. Koupal, Casey W. Schoenebeck 2020 University of Nebraska at Kearney

Factors Associated With Larval Freshwater Drum Annual Peak Density In A Nebraska Irrigation Reservoir, Brett T. Miller, Brian C. Peterson, Keith D. Koupal, Casey W. Schoenebeck

The Prairie Naturalist

Freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) represent one of the most widely distributed fish species in North America. Identifying biotic and abiotic factors that influence larval freshwater drum densities can improve understanding of early life history. Our objective was to investigate correlations between annual peak density of larval freshwater drum and combinations of five variables (chlorophyll a, growing degree days [GDD], reservoir discharge, turbidity, and cladoceran density) from a longterm (2003–2017) monitoring program in a Nebraska irrigation reservoir. Twenty-eight a priori candidate models were assessed to determine the relative support of explanatory variables associated with annual peak density of larval freshwater drum …


Comparing Native Bee Communities On Reconstructed And Remnant Prairie In Missouri, Joseph LaRose, Elisabeth B. Webb, Deborah Finke 2020 University of Missouri

Comparing Native Bee Communities On Reconstructed And Remnant Prairie In Missouri, Joseph Larose, Elisabeth B. Webb, Deborah Finke

The Prairie Naturalist

The tallgrass prairie of North America is an imperiled ecosystem that has been the subject of considerable restoration effort and research in the past two decades. While native prairie plant species are purposely introduced during restoration, prairie invertebrates, including native bees (Anthophila), are not and must colonize from surrounding remnants. Prairie restorations may not support the same bee communities as remnant prairies because of habitat differences and dispersal limitations. We sampled native bees on reconstructed and remnant prairies in Missouri in the summers of 2016 and 2017 and compared the communities by evaluating species richness, diversity, and community composition. We …


Greater Prairie-Chickens And Sharp-Tailed Grouse Have Similarly High Nest Survival In The Nebraska Sandhills, Larkin Powell, Walter Schacht, Julia P. Ewald, Kathryn R. McCollum 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Greater Prairie-Chickens And Sharp-Tailed Grouse Have Similarly High Nest Survival In The Nebraska Sandhills, Larkin Powell, Walter Schacht, Julia P. Ewald, Kathryn R. Mccollum

The Prairie Naturalist

The ranges of two native galliform species overlap in the Nebraska Sandhills, the largest contiguous grassland in North America. We monitored nests of greater prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus cupido) and sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus) in Cherry County, Nebraska, in 2015 and 2016. Our objectives were to 1) compare daily probability of nest survival between species, 2) evaluate vegetation structure at nests for potential effects on nest survival, 3) compare nest site topography between species, and 4) use a simple model of breeding season success to evaluate the potential for stable populations at our study sites. We captured and radiomarked 87 birds, and …


Trends In A Greater Prairie Chicken Population Established By Translocation In North Dakota, Gary Huschle, John E. Toepfer 2020 Leonard, Minnesota

Trends In A Greater Prairie Chicken Population Established By Translocation In North Dakota, Gary Huschle, John E. Toepfer

The Prairie Naturalist

In 1992, an effort was undertaken by the North Dakota Game and Fish Department (NDGFD), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and North Dakota Chapter of the Wildlife Society to reestablish a viable population of greater prairie chickens (Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus; hereafter prairie chickens) in northeast North Dakota. The release area was centered on the Prairie Chicken Wildlife Management Area located 22.5 km northwest of Grand Forks, North Dakota, in the northern part of Grand Forks County. Topography consists of poorly drained, saline flats and swells separated by poorly drained swales and sloughs in the Red River Valley (Beringer 1995). Permanent …


Captive Ring-Necked Pheasant Response To Very High Experimental Doses Of Lead, Travis J. Runia, Alex J. Solem 2020 South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks

Captive Ring-Necked Pheasant Response To Very High Experimental Doses Of Lead, Travis J. Runia, Alex J. Solem

The Prairie Naturalist

Ingestion of spent lead pellets is a well-documented source of lead exposure in free-ranging birds, although the consequence of lead ingestion varies widely among avian guilds. Ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) appear to be less susceptible to lead poisoning than other game birds. Our objectives were to determine survival, liver lead accumulation, and body mass change of 129 captive-raised pheasants in response to being gavage-fed 5, 10, 20, or 40 lead pellets. All pheasants survived the 21-day experiment. Liver-lead levels were positively correlated with the number of lead pellets retained and negatively correlated with beginning body mass. Change in percent body …


Gene Regulation Displays An Enrichment Of Both Additive And Multiplicative Outcomes When Combining The Effects Of Two Cell Signals, Eric Michael Sanford 2020 University of Pennsylvania

Gene Regulation Displays An Enrichment Of Both Additive And Multiplicative Outcomes When Combining The Effects Of Two Cell Signals, Eric Michael Sanford

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Cell signals often act to ultimately affect the transcription of genes, and it is common for twodifferent signals to affect the transcription of the same gene. In such cases, it is natural to ask how the combined transcriptional response compares to the individual responses. Mechanistic models can predict a range of combined responses, with the most commonly applied models predicting additive or multiplicative responses, but systematic genome-wide evaluation of these predictions have not been available. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the transcriptional response of human MCF-7 cells to two different signals (retinoic acid and TGF-β), applied individually and …


Small Mammal Communities In Grasslands At The Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota, Usa, Lynda R. LaFond, Elizabeth H. Rave, Kathryn A. Yurkonis 2020 University of North Dakota

Small Mammal Communities In Grasslands At The Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota, Usa, Lynda R. Lafond, Elizabeth H. Rave, Kathryn A. Yurkonis

The Prairie Naturalist

Small mammals are important in grasslands but are often overlooked in management and reconstruction efforts. We sampled small mammals in three sites on the Grand Forks Air Force Base (GFAFB) located in central Grand Forks County, North Dakota, USA. The study sites varied in their management history and represented the three major types of grasslands (reconstructed prairie, old field, and hay field) within Grand Forks County. We captured 463 individuals of six species with Sherman live traps in summer (June, July, August) 2014 and 2015. We captured the most individuals and species (295 individuals of 5 species), including all shrews …


Wood Frogs (Rana Sylvatica) In Southwestern Roberts County And Western Grant County, South Dakota, Dennis R. Skadsen, Drew R. Davis 2020 Northeast Glacial Lakes Watershed Project

Wood Frogs (Rana Sylvatica) In Southwestern Roberts County And Western Grant County, South Dakota, Dennis R. Skadsen, Drew R. Davis

The Prairie Naturalist

Historically, only six records of Wood Frogs (Rana sylvatica) existed from South Dakota, all represented by museum specimens. A single specimen was collected from Hartford Beach on Big Stone Lake, Roberts County in 1922 (National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution [USNM] 65452) and five Wood Frogs were collected near the outlet of Blue Dog Lake, Day County in 1929 (USNM 312618– 312622; Fig. 1). After the 1920s, no other Wood Frogs were reported in South Dakota for the next six decades, and the species was presumed extirpated. Over (1923, 1943) reported the species was common in the wooded coulees …


Patterns And Potential Causes Of Changing Winter Bird Distributions In South Dakota, David L. Swanson, Reza Goljani Amirkhiz, Mark D. Dixon 2020 University of South Dakota

Patterns And Potential Causes Of Changing Winter Bird Distributions In South Dakota, David L. Swanson, Reza Goljani Amirkhiz, Mark D. Dixon

The Prairie Naturalist

Average winter temperatures in the north-central United States have been increasing since the 1970s, and this warming might influence winter distributions of birds in the region. Species potentially influenced by such winter warming include short-distance migrants for which the northern boundary of the winter range is influenced by temperature, such as hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus), yellow-rumped warbler (Setophaga coronata), and fox sparrow (Passerella iliaca). We examined winter records during 1974–2017 from a citizen-science bird observation database for South Dakota to determine recent trends in winter records for these three species. We compared their occurrence patterns with those for three benchmark …


Evaluation Of Four Larval Fish Sampling Methods In A Large Midwestern River, Nathan J. Lederman, Anthony R. Sindt, Douglas J. Dieterman, John D. Krenz, Shannon J. Fisher 2020 Illinois Department of Natural Resources

Evaluation Of Four Larval Fish Sampling Methods In A Large Midwestern River, Nathan J. Lederman, Anthony R. Sindt, Douglas J. Dieterman, John D. Krenz, Shannon J. Fisher

The Prairie Naturalist

Understanding limitations of larval fish capture gears is critical for developing appropriate sampling protocols and interpreting catch data. We evaluated genera richness, genera diversity, assemblage similarities, abundance indices (i.e., density or catch per unit effort [CPUE]), and sample size requirements between a surface slednet and glow-stick light traps used in 2014 and 2015 and a benthic slednet and light-emitting diode light (LED) traps used in 2015 in the Minnesota River. The surface slednet captured the greatest number of larval fish genera (15) while the LED light trap captured the fewest (1). Similarities of assemblages sampled was highest between surface and …


The Exploration Of Nanotoxicological Copper And Interspecific Saccharomyces Hybrids, Matthew Joseph Winans PhD 2020 West Virginia University

The Exploration Of Nanotoxicological Copper And Interspecific Saccharomyces Hybrids, Matthew Joseph Winans Phd

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Nanotechnology takes advantage of cellular biology’s natural nanoscale operations by interacting with biomolecules differently than soluble or bulk materials, often altering normal cellular processes such as metabolism or growth. To gain a better understanding of how copper nanoparticles hybridized on cellulose fibers called carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) affected growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mechanisms of toxicity were explored. Multiple methodologies covering genetics, proteomics, metallomics, and metabolomics were used during this investigation. The work that lead to this dissertation discovered that these cellulosic copper nanoparticles had a unique toxicity compared to copper. Further investigation suggested a possible ionic or molecular mimicry …


The Host Gatekeeper: Using The Flagellar Pathway To Understand Symbiont Host Adaptation, Adam R. Pollio 2020 West Virginia University

The Host Gatekeeper: Using The Flagellar Pathway To Understand Symbiont Host Adaptation, Adam R. Pollio

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The acquisition of microbial partners is a strategy used by a diverse group of arthropods to overcome ecological barriers that might normally make certain niches uninhabitable. The unique phylogenetic opportunities attainable from the natural experiment of the Sodalis-allied clade allow for better understanding of how molecular structures evolve through time. Here, we focus on the evolution of the flagellar synthesis pathway, due to its complexity and ability to diverge in response to ecological pressures. We used this molecular pathway and natural experiment to show that normal evolutionary outcomes associated with symbiosis (i.e., genome reduction) do not explain the predicted conservation …


On The Potential For Saturated Buffers In Northwest Ohio To Remediate Nutrients From Agricultural Runoff, Stephen J. Jacquemin, Gregory J. McGlinch, Theresa Dirksen, Angela Clayton 2020 Wright State University - Lake Campus

On The Potential For Saturated Buffers In Northwest Ohio To Remediate Nutrients From Agricultural Runoff, Stephen J. Jacquemin, Gregory J. Mcglinch, Theresa Dirksen, Angela Clayton

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Nutrient loading from nonpoint source runoff in the Midwest has emerged as one of the largest threats to water quality as the frequency of harmful algal blooms, hypoxic zones, and issues associated with human-resource interactions have risen abruptly over the past several decades. In this study, a saturated buffer ~500 m in length located in the western basin of the Lake Erie watershed was evaluated for its potential to reduce edge of field runoff and nutrient loading. Saturated buffers reduce runoff by routing subsurface tile drainage water into the riparian zone, providing an opportunity for drainage volume as well as …


Non-Invasive Method For Leptin Supplementation In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Regan McNamara 2020 The University of Akron

Non-Invasive Method For Leptin Supplementation In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Regan Mcnamara

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

I tested the hypothesis that recombinant leptin protein can be introduced to zebrafish in vivo through non-invasive soaking in a solution containing the protein. One way to study various molecules’ effects in vivo is through intraperitoneal or intracerebroventricular injections during the embryonic or larval stage, which is invasive, difficult to administer, and can have a high mortality rate. 48 hours post fertilization (hpf) zebrafish were soaked in a His-tagged recombinant leptin protein solution at 10 nM and 100 nM concentrations (produced by Genscript). After soaking, zebrafish larvae were washed extensively to remove all recombinant protein on their exterior before homogenization. …


Using Dendrochronology To Create A Timescale Of Succession On Nurse Logs In The Olympic Temperate Rainforest, Sean Grealish 2020 University of Puget Sound

Using Dendrochronology To Create A Timescale Of Succession On Nurse Logs In The Olympic Temperate Rainforest, Sean Grealish

Summer Research

Previous work on the Olympic peninsula in Washington State has shown that recently fallen trees provide a germination location for seeds that cannot do so on the forest floor due to thick moss mats. My field work over two summers dating and surveying nurse logs yielded a crossover at ~70 years where ground mosses start to dominate over tree mosses and seedling abundance begins to decrease.


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