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Investigation Of Proliferation Suppressors In Genetic Fitness Screens, Walter Frank Lenoir IV 2020 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Investigation Of Proliferation Suppressors In Genetic Fitness Screens, Walter Frank Lenoir Iv

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Innovation of CRISPR gene-editing technology has provided scientists genome manipulation tools that allowed rapid advancement of scientific capabilities and thus improved our ability to systematically study mammalian genetic functional profiles. Genome-wide CRISPR knockout screens conducted in collections of human cell lines can knock out genes at multiple loci, and have provided new insights into functional roles for independent genes. This method has launched massive efforts in looking across genetic backgrounds for context specific genetic vulnerabilities within cancer. Much of the research effort thus far has been spent on optimizing phenotype distinctions between essential, genes required for cell fitness, and non-essential, …


Molecular Mechanisms Of Boron Toxicity Tolerance In Plants, Guannan Wang 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Molecular Mechanisms Of Boron Toxicity Tolerance In Plants, Guannan Wang

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Boron toxicity is a worldwide agricultural problem that limits crop productivity and quality. However, our understanding on the genetic responses and adaption mechanisms to boron toxicity in plants is very limited. To address this gap in our knowledge, I compared boron stress-sensitive model, Arabidopsis thaliana and its stress-adapted relative Schrenkiella parvula to study how plants respond and adapt to excess boron at physiological, genomic, transcriptomic, and metabolic levels.

The overall project goal involved integration of multi-omics datasets to develop genome to phenome interpretations. To achieve this, I developed a python package, GOMCL, to facilitate the extraction of biologically meaningful information …


Estimating The Number Of Discrete Models Of Biological Networks, Brandilyn Stigler 2020 Southern Methodist University

Estimating The Number Of Discrete Models Of Biological Networks, Brandilyn Stigler

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Mathematical Modelling And In Silico Experimentation To Estimate The Quantity Of Covid-19 Infected Individuals In Tijuana, México, Karla A. Encinas, Luis N. Coria, Paul A. Valle 2020 Tijuana Institute of Technology, México

Mathematical Modelling And In Silico Experimentation To Estimate The Quantity Of Covid-19 Infected Individuals In Tijuana, México, Karla A. Encinas, Luis N. Coria, Paul A. Valle

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Wnt Signaling Determines Body Axis Polarity In Regenerating Hydra Tissue Fragments, R. Wang, R. E. Steele, Eva-Maria S. Collins 2020 Swarthmore College

Wnt Signaling Determines Body Axis Polarity In Regenerating Hydra Tissue Fragments, R. Wang, R. E. Steele, Eva-Maria S. Collins

Biology Faculty Works

How an animal establishes its body axis is a fundamental question in developmental biology. The freshwater cnidarian Hydra is an attractive model for studying axis formation because it is radially symmetric, with a single oral-aboral axis. It was recently proposed that the orientation of the new body axis in a regenerating Hydra polyp is determined by the oral-aboral orientation of the actin-myosin contractile processes (myonemes) in the animal’s outer epithelial layer. However, it remained unclear how the oral-aboral polarity of the body axis would be defined. As Wnt signaling is known to control axis polarity in Hydra and bilaterians, we …


Molecular Identification And Characterization Of Viral Pathogens Infecting Sweet Cherry, Aaron J. Simkovich 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Molecular Identification And Characterization Of Viral Pathogens Infecting Sweet Cherry, Aaron J. Simkovich

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Stone fruits are a valuable crop grown worldwide, however pathogens such as viruses threaten fruit production by reducing tree health and fruit yield. In an orchard within the Niagara region of Ontario, symptoms typical of viral infection such as chlorosis and leaf deformation were seen on sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) trees. Next generation sequencing was performed on symptomatic and asymptomatic leaves and four viruses were identified. On the tree displaying the most severe symptoms, Prune dwarf virus (PDV), was the only virus detected. A survey conducted during this work showed 42% of cherry trees on a single …


Homicide And Drug Trafficking In Impoverished Communities In Brazil, Elenice De Souza De Souza Oliveira, Braulio Figueiredo Alves da Silva, Flavio Luiz Sapori, Gabriela Gomes Cardoso 2020 Montclair State University

Homicide And Drug Trafficking In Impoverished Communities In Brazil, Elenice De Souza De Souza Oliveira, Braulio Figueiredo Alves Da Silva, Flavio Luiz Sapori, Gabriela Gomes Cardoso

Department of Justice Studies Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

Many studies demonstrate that homicides are heavily concentrated in impoverished neighborhoods, but not all socially disadvantaged neighborhoods are hotbeds of violence. Conducted in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, this study hypothesizes that the association between high rates of homicide and impoverished areas is influenced by the emergence of a specific type of street drug-dealing common to favelas (slums). The study applies econometric techniques to police data on homicides and drug arrests from 2008 to 2011, as well as 2010 Census data, to test its hypothesis. The findings provide insight into the development of crime prevention policies in areas of high social vulnerability.


Machine Learning Applications For Drug Repurposing, Hansaim Lim 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Machine Learning Applications For Drug Repurposing, Hansaim Lim

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The cost of bringing a drug to market is astounding and the failure rate is intimidating. Drug discovery has been of limited success under the conventional reductionist model of one-drug-one-gene-one-disease paradigm, where a single disease-associated gene is identified and a molecular binder to the specific target is subsequently designed. Under the simplistic paradigm of drug discovery, a drug molecule is assumed to interact only with the intended on-target. However, small molecular drugs often interact with multiple targets, and those off-target interactions are not considered under the conventional paradigm. As a result, drug-induced side effects and adverse reactions are often neglected …


Preliminary Evidence Of The Role Of Medial Prefrontal Cortex In Self-Enhancement: A Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study, Birgitta Taylor-Lillquist, Vivek Kanpa, Maya Crawford, Mehdi El Filali, Julia Oakes, Alex Jonasz, Amanda Disney, Julian Keenan 2020 University of Virginia

Preliminary Evidence Of The Role Of Medial Prefrontal Cortex In Self-Enhancement: A Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study, Birgitta Taylor-Lillquist, Vivek Kanpa, Maya Crawford, Mehdi El Filali, Julia Oakes, Alex Jonasz, Amanda Disney, Julian Keenan

Department of Biology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

Humans employ a number of strategies to improve their position in their given social hierarchy. Overclaiming involves presenting oneself as having more knowledge than one actually possesses, and it is typically invoked to increase one’s social standing. If increased expectations to possess knowledge is a perceived social pressure, such expectations should increase bouts of overclaiming. As the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) is sensitive to social pressure and disruption of the MPFC leads to decreases in overclaiming, we predicted that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied to the MPFC would reduce overclaiming and the effects would be enhanced in the presence of …


Prioritizing The Largest, Oldest Corals For Disease Intervention In A Coral Disease-Ravaged Area: Southeast Florida Coral Reef Ecosystem Conservation Area., Alysha Brunelle 2020 Nova Southeastern University

Prioritizing The Largest, Oldest Corals For Disease Intervention In A Coral Disease-Ravaged Area: Southeast Florida Coral Reef Ecosystem Conservation Area., Alysha Brunelle

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Coral diseases appear to be more devastating than ever before. When a virulent disease ravages a coral ecosystem, it can significantly change the population’s demographics and cause local extinctions. Disease intervention response during such an event is impossible at a landscape scale, therefore priorities must be considered. Saving the largest, oldest colonies of reef-building species is a good choice due to their high fecundity and ecological function. Their size, as a proxy for age, is an indicator of their resistance to previous perturbations which may indicate higher fitness. Their size also provides habitat to many organisms and wave resistance in …


Adapting Biotoxin Monitoring For The Future: An Opportunity For A Harmful Algae Bloom (Hab) Network In Casco Bay, Maine, Zachary B. Gordon 2020 University of New England

Adapting Biotoxin Monitoring For The Future: An Opportunity For A Harmful Algae Bloom (Hab) Network In Casco Bay, Maine, Zachary B. Gordon

All Theses And Dissertations

Harmful Algae Blooms (HABs) related to marine biotoxins have considerable impacts on coastal communities and have been increasing in size and frequency globally. Maine is recognized as a leader in biotoxin management as it relates to bivalve shellfish, but it has been unclear how current management practices effect the growth of shellfish aquaculture and how they will adapt to future conditions. This research uses a collaborative approach to analyze the current state of biotoxin management in Maine. First, the current management practices in Maine were compared and contrasted with five other states dealing with similar issues. Then, the perspectives of …


The Mayfly Newsletter, Donna Giberson 2020 Southwestern Oklahoma State University

The Mayfly Newsletter, Donna Giberson

The Mayfly Newsletter

The Mayfly Newsletter is the official newsletter of the Permanent Committee of the International Conferences on Ephemeroptera.


Advancing Human Health In The Decade Ahead: Pregnancy As A Key Window For Discovery: A Burroughs Wellcome Fund Pregnancy Think Tank., Yoel Sadovsky, Sam Mesiano, Graham J Burton, Michelle Lampl, Jeffrey C Murray, Rachel M Freathy, Anita Mahadevan-Jansen, Ashley Moffett, Nathan D Price, Paul H Wise, Derek E Wildman, Ralph Snyderman, Nigel Paneth, John Anthony Capra, Marcelo A Nobrega, Yaacov Barak, Louis J Muglia 2020 Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, WA

Advancing Human Health In The Decade Ahead: Pregnancy As A Key Window For Discovery: A Burroughs Wellcome Fund Pregnancy Think Tank., Yoel Sadovsky, Sam Mesiano, Graham J Burton, Michelle Lampl, Jeffrey C Murray, Rachel M Freathy, Anita Mahadevan-Jansen, Ashley Moffett, Nathan D Price, Paul H Wise, Derek E Wildman, Ralph Snyderman, Nigel Paneth, John Anthony Capra, Marcelo A Nobrega, Yaacov Barak, Louis J Muglia

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

Recent revolutionary advances at the intersection of medicine, omics, data sciences, computing, epidemiology, and related technologies inspire us to ponder their impact on health. Their potential impact is particularly germane to the biology of pregnancy and perinatal medicine, where limited improvement in health outcomes for women and children has remained a global challenge. We assembled a group of experts to establish a Pregnancy Think Tank to discuss a broad spectrum of major gestational disorders and adverse pregnancy outcomes that affect maternal-infant lifelong health and should serve as targets for leveraging the many recent advances. This report reflects avenues for future …


Regulators Of Ectopic Calcification In A Mouse Model Of Dish: A Multi-Omics Perspective, Matthew A. Veras 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Regulators Of Ectopic Calcification In A Mouse Model Of Dish: A Multi-Omics Perspective, Matthew A. Veras

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a non-inflammatory spondyloarthropathy and the second most common form of arthritis characterized by formation of ectopic mineral along the spine. Pathological findings in DISH include regional calcification of the anterior longitudinal ligament, paraspinal connective tissues, and annulus fibrosus (AF) of the intervertebral disc (IVD). Clinical symptoms of DISH include increased spine stiffness, decreased spinal range of motion, and in severe cases dysphagia and spinal cord/nerve root compression. The molecular pathways responsible for DISH have not been delineated and as such, there are no disease-modifying treatments. Clinical treatment for DISH is limited to surgical resection …


Metabolic Network Analysis Of Filamentous Cyanobacteria, Daniel Alexis Norena-Caro 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Metabolic Network Analysis Of Filamentous Cyanobacteria, Daniel Alexis Norena-Caro

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Cyanobacteria were the first organisms to use oxygenic photosynthesis, converting CO2 into useful organic chemicals. However, the chemical industry has historically relied on fossil raw materials to produce organic precursors, which has contributed to global warming. Thus, cyanobacteria have emerged as sustainable stakeholders for biotechnological production. The filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. UTEX 2576 can metabolize multiple sources of Nitrogen and was studied as a platform for biotechnological production of high-value chemicals (i.e., pigments, antioxidants, vitamins and secondary metabolites). From a Chemical engineering perspective, the biomass generation in this organism was thoroughly studied by interpreting the cell as a microbial …


The Prairie Naturalist, Vol. 52, Issue 1, June 2020, 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Prairie Naturalist, Vol. 52, Issue 1, June 2020

The Prairie Naturalist

EDITOR’S NOTE • Jane E. Austin, Ph.D., Editor-in-Chief

Factors Associated with Larval Freshwater Drum Annual Peak Density in a Nebraska Irrigation Reservoir • Brett T. Miller, Brian C. Peterson, Keith D. Koupal, and Casey W. Schoenbeck

Small mammal communities in grasslands at the Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota, USA • Lynda R. Lafond, Elizabeth H. Rave, and Kathryn A. Yurkonis

Evaluation of Four Larval Fish Sampling Methods in a Large Midwestern River • Nathan J. Lederman, Anthony R. Sindt, Douglas J. Dieterman, John D. Krenz, and Shannon J. Fisher

Wood Frogs (Rana sylvatica) in Southwestern Roberts …


Coping With Stress: The Caulobacter Approach, Bronson R. Weston, Yang Cao, John J. Tyson 2020 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Coping With Stress: The Caulobacter Approach, Bronson R. Weston, Yang Cao, John J. Tyson

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


A Phosphoinositide-Based Model Of Actin Waves In Frustrated Phagocytosis, Marco A. Avila Ponce de Leon 2020 University of Minnesota - Twin Cities

A Phosphoinositide-Based Model Of Actin Waves In Frustrated Phagocytosis, Marco A. Avila Ponce De Leon

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Modeling Hybrid Novel Traits: A Case Study In Complex Petal Pigment Patterning In Hybrid Mimulus, Xingyu Zheng 2020 William & Mary

Modeling Hybrid Novel Traits: A Case Study In Complex Petal Pigment Patterning In Hybrid Mimulus, Xingyu Zheng

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Hybridization between species, by introducing dramatic trait variation into the population and creating viable, transgressive offsprings with novel phenotypes, can have huge evolutionary implications. Some hybrid traits have been studied in the classical genetics or population genetics context, but most complex traits are determined by multiple causes, e.g. the number of loci involved, the rewiring of the genetic circuitries, and the changes in gene expression pattern. Using the hybrid monkeyflower petal pigment patterning as an example, we present a case study to investigate complex hybrid traits in a systematic manner that includes empirical data analysis and quantitative mathematical modeling of …


Dugesia Japonica Is The Best Suited Of Three Planarian Species For High-Throughput Toxicology Screening, D. Ireland, Veronica Bochenek , '22, Daniel Chaiken , '20, C. Rabeler, Sumi Onoe , '21, Ameet Soni, Eva-Maria S. Collins 2020 Swarthmore College

Dugesia Japonica Is The Best Suited Of Three Planarian Species For High-Throughput Toxicology Screening, D. Ireland, Veronica Bochenek , '22, Daniel Chaiken , '20, C. Rabeler, Sumi Onoe , '21, Ameet Soni, Eva-Maria S. Collins

Biology Faculty Works

High-throughput screening (HTS) using new approach methods is revolutionizing toxicology. Asexual freshwater planarians are a promising invertebrate model for neurotoxicity HTS because their diverse behaviors can be used as quantitative readouts of neuronal function. Currently, three planarian species are commonly used in toxicology research: Dugesia japonica, Schmidtea mediterranea, and Girardia tigrina. However, only D. japonica has been demonstrated to be suitable for HTS. Here, we assess the two other species for HTS suitability by direct comparison with D. japonica. Through quantitative assessments of morphology and multiple behaviors, we assayed the effects of 4 common solvents (DMSO, ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate) …


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