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8,149 full-text articles. Page 7 of 207.

A Multidisciplinary Approach To Investigate Deep-Pelagic Ecosystem Dynamics In The Gulf Of Mexico Following Deepwater Horizon, April Cook, Andrea Bernard, Kevin M. Boswell, Heather Bracken-Grissom Dr., Marta D'Elia, Sergio DeRada, Cole Easson, David English, Ron Eytan, Tamara Frank, Chuanmin Hu, Matt Johnston, Heather Judkins, Chad Lembke, Jose Lopez, Rosanna Milligan, Jon A. Moore, Brad Penta, Nina Pruzinsky, John A. Quinlan, Travis M. Richards, Isabel C. Romero, Mahmood S. Shivji, Michael Vecchione, Max D. Weber, R.J. David Wells, Tracey Sutton 2020 Nova Southeastern University

A Multidisciplinary Approach To Investigate Deep-Pelagic Ecosystem Dynamics In The Gulf Of Mexico Following Deepwater Horizon, April Cook, Andrea Bernard, Kevin M. Boswell, Heather Bracken-Grissom Dr., Marta D'Elia, Sergio Derada, Cole Easson, David English, Ron Eytan, Tamara Frank, Chuanmin Hu, Matt Johnston, Heather Judkins, Chad Lembke, Jose Lopez, Rosanna Milligan, Jon A. Moore, Brad Penta, Nina Pruzinsky, John A. Quinlan, Travis M. Richards, Isabel C. Romero, Mahmood S. Shivji, Michael Vecchione, Max D. Weber, R.J. David Wells, Tracey Sutton

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

The pelagic Gulf of Mexico (GoM) is a complex system of dynamic physical oceanography (western boundary current, mesoscale eddies), high biological diversity, and community integration via diel vertical migration and lateral advection. Humans also heavily utilize this system, including its deep-sea components, for resource extraction, shipping, tourism, and other commercial activity. This utilization has had impacts, some with disastrous consequences. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWHOS) occurred at a depth of ∼1500 m (Macondo wellhead), creating a persistent and toxic mixture of hydrocarbons and dispersant in the deep-pelagic (water column below 200 m depth) habitat. In order to assess the ...


Fish Don't Litter In Your House: Is International Law The Solution To The Plastic Pollution Problem?, Taylor G. Keselica 2020 Elisabeth Haub School of Law, Pace University

Fish Don't Litter In Your House: Is International Law The Solution To The Plastic Pollution Problem?, Taylor G. Keselica

Pace International Law Review

This article addresses the complex issue of plastic pollution—focusing on ocean plastics. Specifically, this article examines the ocean plastics problem, critiques current binding and non-binding international environmental law surrounding ocean plastics, hazardous wastes, and pollution, and proposes a more effective solution to the ocean plastics problem. Section I provides a basic history of the creation of plastics and discusses plastics as they are used today. Section II considers the concerns surrounding ocean plastics, focusing on impacts of plastic on marine ecosystems as well as human health effects. Section III, IV, and V discuss the ongoing attempts to address the ...


Holistic Monitoring Of Maine Sea Lice (Lepeoptheirus Salmonis, Kroyer, 1837) Sensitivities To Therapies: Developing A Novel Assay To Examine Lice Behavior, Kathryn Liberman 2020 University of Maine

Holistic Monitoring Of Maine Sea Lice (Lepeoptheirus Salmonis, Kroyer, 1837) Sensitivities To Therapies: Developing A Novel Assay To Examine Lice Behavior, Kathryn Liberman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Sea lice (Lepeoptheirus salmonis) present significant economic and animal welfare challenges to salmon aquaculture globally. Chemical delousing agents are used in many countries, with each nation eventually reporting sea lice developing reduced sensitivities to treatments. While some countries have in place sea lice sensitivity monitoring programs, that is not the case in Maine, USA. Although chemical delousing agents are not currently used in Maine, they have been used in the past and are currently used in neighboring Canadian salmon farms. Different bay management areas (BMAs) were sampled during different seasons to determine if there is a seasonal or spatial component ...


New England’S Underutilized Seafood Species: Defining And Exploring Marketplace Potential In A Changing Climate, Amanda Davis 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

New England’S Underutilized Seafood Species: Defining And Exploring Marketplace Potential In A Changing Climate, Amanda Davis

Masters Theses

New England’s seafood industry has been searching for opportunities to diversify their landings and build resilience as it faces socio-economic challenges from a changing climate. Developing markets for underutilized species is one way the New England community could help their seafood industry build resilience. This thesis identified New England’s underutilized fish species and explored their marketplace potential by examining their availability in a changing climate, current availability to consumers, and consumers’ responses. In Chapter I, I account how New England’s seafood preferences have changed over time. In Chapter II, I identify New England’s seven underutilized seafood ...


Integrating Local Ecology And Human Dimensions To Understand A Tidally Dynamic Ecosystem In Downeast Maine, Gabriella Marafino 2020 University of Maine

Integrating Local Ecology And Human Dimensions To Understand A Tidally Dynamic Ecosystem In Downeast Maine, Gabriella Marafino

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Coastal community resilience requires connecting people with useful information that reflects their needs and interests and empowers them to make informed marine resource decisions. In this thesis, I explore how to effectively integrate disparate data from different disciplines and sources to make information more useful and usable at federal, state, tribal, and local levels in order to support more holistic and integrated management. To accomplish this, I draw on different types of knowledge and approaches, including Western science, local ecological knowledge, traditional ecological knowledge, and citizen science, to incorporate the social perspective and community values for holistic marine resource management ...


Size And Population Dynamics Of Native Ghost Crabs, Ocypode Spp. In Response To An Invasive Ant Population In A Native Wildlife Refuge, OʻAhu, HawaiʻI, Haley Norma Anne Chasin 2020 University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa

Size And Population Dynamics Of Native Ghost Crabs, Ocypode Spp. In Response To An Invasive Ant Population In A Native Wildlife Refuge, OʻAhu, HawaiʻI, Haley Norma Anne Chasin

Horizons

Invasive species are harmful to ocean environments especially fragile ecosystems, like intertidal island environments. Ant populations are among the most aggressive invaders. Ants have been known to cause individual harm to endangered birds, plants and other arthropods in Hawai‘i. The yellow crazy ant (YCA), Anoplolepis gracilipes, is one of the worst invasive ants as it can form supercolonies and spew out formic acid. This study investigates the effect of YCA on the abundance, sizes and distribution of ghost crabs, Ocypode spp., at James Campbell National Wildlife Refuge (JCNWF), a native wildlife restoration area. Ghost crab’s burrows were counted ...


The Impact Of Invasive Ant Species On Ghost Crab (Ocypode Spp.) Population Dynamics At The James Campbell National Wildlife Refuge On The North Shore Of OʻAhu, Sophia Rahnke 2020 University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa

The Impact Of Invasive Ant Species On Ghost Crab (Ocypode Spp.) Population Dynamics At The James Campbell National Wildlife Refuge On The North Shore Of OʻAhu, Sophia Rahnke

Horizons

Invasive species pose a persistent danger to the endemic marine fauna found in the Hawaiian archipelago, threatening the ecological and economic values associated with these fragile ecosystems. This study focuses on the impact invasive ant species have on the population dynamics of ghost crabs (Ocypode spp.) along the northern coast of Oahu. Through in situ sampling techniques, ant density as well as crab location and size were determined at a total of 22 transects. Through statistical analysis, it was found that there is a significant difference in the size distribution of the ghost crab population between the sand and the ...


Catastrophe And Environmental Restoration: Analyzing The Frames And Sources Of Oyster Restoration News Stories, Hannah O. Brown, Susan K. Jacobson, Glenn Israel 2020 University of Florida

Catastrophe And Environmental Restoration: Analyzing The Frames And Sources Of Oyster Restoration News Stories, Hannah O. Brown, Susan K. Jacobson, Glenn Israel

Journal of Applied Communications

Restoration of oyster habitats is a critical solution to halt the decline of one of the world’s most threatened resources. News coverage about environmental topics, like oyster restoration, is important to local communities that are directly impacted. However, little research has assessed how restoration topics are framed by journalists, nor how environmental disasters may affect framing of news stories for the public. This study employed a longitudinal framing analysis, using the quantity of coverage and social responsibility theories, to examine how coverage of the restoration of oyster ecosystems shifted before, during, and after the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill ...


The Case Of The ‘Missing’ Arctic Bivalves And The Walrus: The Biggest [Overlooked] Clam Fishery On The Planet, Roger L. Mann, Eric N. Powell, Daphne M. Munroe 2020 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

The Case Of The ‘Missing’ Arctic Bivalves And The Walrus: The Biggest [Overlooked] Clam Fishery On The Planet, Roger L. Mann, Eric N. Powell, Daphne M. Munroe

VIMS Articles

Bivalve molluscs represent a significant proportion of the diet of both Atlantic and Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus and Odobenus rosmarus divergens, respectively) and are pivotal to benthic–pelagic coupling and carbonate cycling in the Arctic oceans. The latter is of particular relevance in a period of seasonal ice retreat, freshwater release into associated surface waters, decreasing water pH, and possible undersaturation of Arctic waters with respect to aragonite. Using population estimates and predation rates for the walruses on bivalve molluscs, a conservative estimate of bivalve consumption in the regions of active walruses foraging is 2.0–3.0 3 ...


Algal Wrack Community Composition And Succession On A Sandy Beach In San Diego, Ca, Marisol Palomares 2020 University of San Diego

Algal Wrack Community Composition And Succession On A Sandy Beach In San Diego, Ca, Marisol Palomares

Theses

Sandy beaches are high-energy impact zones that produce little to no organic material. Much of the organic matter on beaches is washed up on shore in the form of algal wrack, providing a vital source of nutrients, food, and habitat for a variety of organisms on the sandy beach. Over time wrack will decay and decompose, releasing nutrients including nitrogen and phosphorus, which are consumed by benthic microalgae and bacteria. The type of wrack and geomorphology of the beach environments affect decomposition, which in turn supports a variety of different wrack associated macrofaunal communities. Different species of algal wrack will ...


Tunel Apoptotic Cell Detection In Stony Coral Tissue Loss Disease (Sctld): Evaluation Of Potential And Improvements, E. Murphy McDonald 2020 Nova Southeastern University

Tunel Apoptotic Cell Detection In Stony Coral Tissue Loss Disease (Sctld): Evaluation Of Potential And Improvements, E. Murphy Mcdonald

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Stony coral tissue loss disease (SCTLD) is a highly lethal coral disease that has caused a dramatic loss of coral tissue along the Florida Reef Tract and throughout the Wider Caribbean. This study seeks to understand whether programmed cell death (apoptosis) is involved in the pathology of the highly virulent SCTLD tissue loss lesion. Tissues from diseased colonies of Pseudodiploria strigosa collected in 2018 and 2020 were stained using the terminal deoxyribonucleotidyltransferase (TdT) mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay to visualize areas of programmed cell death. The archived tissue samples collected in 2018 exhibited a significantly higher degree of ...


A Hydrodynamics Assessment Of The Hammerhead Shark Cephalofoil, Matthew K. Gaylord, Eric L. Blades, Glenn Parsons 2020 University of Mississippi

A Hydrodynamics Assessment Of The Hammerhead Shark Cephalofoil, Matthew K. Gaylord, Eric L. Blades, Glenn Parsons

Faculty and Student Publications

© 2020, The Author(s). Hammerhead sharks are characterized by a conspicuous lateral expansion of the head forming a structure known as a cephalofoil. Two theories regarding the function of this structure suggest that it may increase maneuverability as well as produce dynamic lift similar to a cambered airplane wing. Here we report on a family-wide computational fluid dynamics analysis of all eight hammerhead shark species and three sharks with typical head shape. Models cast of the heads of fresh and museum specimens of hammerhead and typical sharks were used to produce pressure surface maps and lift and drag polar diagrams ...


Assessing Predator Risk To Diadromous Fish Conservation In The Penobscot River Estuary, Lauri Leach 2020 University of Maine

Assessing Predator Risk To Diadromous Fish Conservation In The Penobscot River Estuary, Lauri Leach

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Successful conservation of pinnipeds in the northwest Atlantic has led to increasing populations of harbor (Phoca vitulina) and gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) in the Gulf of Maine. Seals are often perceived as predators and competitors for fish, and as a result, come into conflict with fisheries and fish conservation. Increasing numbers of seals have become a recent concern in the Penobscot River Estuary in Maine, as habitat restoration and diadromous fish conservation have been top priorities in this region for the past decade.

To understand how pinnipeds are responding to these efforts, as well as the risks they pose to ...


An Economic Analysis Of Using Retired Vessels To Create Artificial Reefs In Costa Rica, Josué González 2020 Stephen F. Austin State University

An Economic Analysis Of Using Retired Vessels To Create Artificial Reefs In Costa Rica, Josué González

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

The Republic of Costa Rica is a Central American country with only 0.03% of the world’s landmass, but 5% of the world’s biodiversity, making it a leading ecotourism destination. Ecotourism is one of the main sources of revenue for the country, but the degradation of coastal reefs has resulted in a significant loss of financial income for developing areas. As a result, many of these areas are searching for methods to revert the degradation of coral reefs.

Artificial reefs play an important ecological role in marine ecosystems due to their complexity and size. They help in ...


Breaking Down "Harassment" To Characterize Trends In Human Interaction Cases In Maine's Pinnipeds, Emma Newcomb 2020 University of Maine - Main

Breaking Down "Harassment" To Characterize Trends In Human Interaction Cases In Maine's Pinnipeds, Emma Newcomb

Honors College

For hundreds of years the state of Maine has been home to pinniped populations. While these populations experienced heavy pressure from humans, they became federally protected under the Marine Mammal Protection Actin 1972. The Act ultimately included language to create the Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program. This program has allowed for stranding networks to form to respond to stranded animals and collect data from these animals. Long term datasets have been produced by these stranding networks, providing a valuable resource for studying patterns and trends in marine mammal health. I utilized these datasets for my analysis of stranding ...


Investigation Of Sulfur Cycling In Marine Sponge Cinachyrella Spp. From A South Florida Reef, Shelby K. Cain 2020 Nova Southeastern University

Investigation Of Sulfur Cycling In Marine Sponge Cinachyrella Spp. From A South Florida Reef, Shelby K. Cain

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Symbionts within marine sponges are actively participating in the biogeochemical cycles. Among them, the role of symbiont microbes in the sulfur cycle remains a mystery. This study measured the abundance of microbes within the genus Cinachyrella before and after exposure to hydrogen sulfide. A four-part study was conducted: a) five-hour drop experiments, b) vertical distribution experiments, c) five-hour uptake experiments, and d) long-term exposure experiments. The five-hour drop experiment utilized a microsensor to measure sulfide levels, which was lowered 1.0 mm every thirty minutes for a total of 5 hours. Three trials were performed, each with one sponge and ...


Not All Nitrogen Is Created Equal: Differential Effects Of Nitrate And Ammonium Enrichment In Coastal Wetlands, Jennifer L. Bowen, Anne E. Giblin, Anna E. Murphy, Ashley N. Bulseco, Linda A. Deegan, David S. Johnson, et al 2020 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Not All Nitrogen Is Created Equal: Differential Effects Of Nitrate And Ammonium Enrichment In Coastal Wetlands, Jennifer L. Bowen, Anne E. Giblin, Anna E. Murphy, Ashley N. Bulseco, Linda A. Deegan, David S. Johnson, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Excess reactive nitrogen (N) flows from agricultural, suburban, and urban systems to coasts, where it causes eutrophication. Coastal wetlands take up some of this N, thereby ameliorating the impacts on nearshore waters. Although the consequences of N on coastal wetlands have been extensively studied, the effect of the specific form of N is not often considered. Both oxidized N forms (nitrate, NO3−) and reduced forms (ammonium, NH4+) can relieve nutrient limitation and increase primary production. However, unlike NH4+, NO3− can also be used as an electron acceptor for microbial respiration. We present results demonstrating that, in salt marshes, microbes use ...


Compost And Biochar To Promote Soil Biological Activities Under Sweet Potatoes Cultivation In A Subtropical Semiarid Region, Josabeth Navarro, Jahdiel Salazar, James Jihonn Kang, Jason Parsons, Chu-Lin Cheng, Alexandria Castillo, Engil Isadora Pujol Pereira 2020 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Compost And Biochar To Promote Soil Biological Activities Under Sweet Potatoes Cultivation In A Subtropical Semiarid Region, Josabeth Navarro, Jahdiel Salazar, James Jihonn Kang, Jason Parsons, Chu-Lin Cheng, Alexandria Castillo, Engil Isadora Pujol Pereira

Earth, Environmental, and Marine Sciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

South Texas is located in a subtropical semiarid climate, and due to high temperature and irregular precipitation, farmers opt to leave their fields fallow during the summer months jeopardizing overall soil health. We evaluated whether sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivation coupled with drip irrigation could restore soil biological activities compared with bare fallow. Additionally, because sweet potatoes have high demand of soil nutrients, especially potassium (K), we evaluated the nutrient supply of locally sourced soil amendments. Sweet potato was cultivated during summer 2018 in McAllen, Texas, under control (no fertilizer), NPK (synthetic fertilizer), RC (yard-waste compost), and AC (compost produced ...


Characterization Of Pathogen Airborne Inoculum Density By Information Theoretic Analysis Of Spore Trap Time Series Data, Robin A. Choudhury, Neil McRoberts 2020 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Characterization Of Pathogen Airborne Inoculum Density By Information Theoretic Analysis Of Spore Trap Time Series Data, Robin A. Choudhury, Neil Mcroberts

Earth, Environmental, and Marine Sciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

In a previous study, air sampling using vortex air samplers combined with species-specific amplification of pathogen DNA was carried out over two years in four or five locations in the Salinas Valley of California. The resulting time series data for the abundance of pathogen DNA trapped per day displayed complex dynamics with features of both deterministic (chaotic) and stochastic uncertainty. Methods of nonlinear time series analysis developed for the reconstruction of low dimensional attractors provided new insights into the complexity of pathogen abundance data. In particular, the analyses suggested that the length of time series data that it is practical ...


Conserving Critical Seagrass Habitat For Dugong. Seagrass Network Monitoring Data Summary, Kathryn M. Mcmahon, Paul Lavery, Nicole Said 2020 Edith Cowan University

Conserving Critical Seagrass Habitat For Dugong. Seagrass Network Monitoring Data Summary, Kathryn M. Mcmahon, Paul Lavery, Nicole Said

Research Datasets

This is the summary dataset of the seagrass monitoring data containing benthic habitat, seagrass meadow characteristics, seed density and environmental variables from three locations in the Pilbara over 3-4 time periods in 2018-2019.


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