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Deciphering Taxa-Function Relationships In Population-Level Studies Of Human Gut Microbiomes, Quang P. Nguyen 2022 Dartmouth College

Deciphering Taxa-Function Relationships In Population-Level Studies Of Human Gut Microbiomes, Quang P. Nguyen

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

The human gut microbiome is a complex and dynamic ecosystem, featuring a multitude of microbes all interacting with their hosts in an elaborate manner. Even though this exchange is often mediated through microbial metabolic and functional outputs, such as the production of certain metabolites, environmental exposures, and host lifestyle are highly influential in shaping the presence of microbial species irrespective of their individual roles. As such, a comprehensive understanding of the microbiome requires researchers to examine the relationship between taxonomic abundance and function simultaneously. Assessing microbial contributions to important ecosystem services can enable identification of robust functions supported by a …


Investigation Of The Urobiome For The Production Of Novel Antimicrobials Against Uropathogenic E. Coli (Upec), Jennifer Jones 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

Investigation Of The Urobiome For The Production Of Novel Antimicrobials Against Uropathogenic E. Coli (Upec), Jennifer Jones

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common bacterial infections globally with antibiotic treatment becoming increasingly less effective. The urobiome remains a relatively understudied niche as a source of potentially novel antimicrobials (e.g., bacteriocins). Improvements to bacterial culturing and sequencing techniques have highlighted the potentially rich source of alternative treatments and control strategies to target uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: (a) BAGEL 4 was used for bioinformatic screening of the genomes of urobiome isolates to identify bacteriocin gene clusters (BGC).

(b) Expanded quantitative urine culture (EQUC) was used to culture mid-stream urine samples to isolate …


Specialized Named Entity Recognition For Breast Cancer Subtyping, Griffith Scheyer Hawblitzel 2022 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Specialized Named Entity Recognition For Breast Cancer Subtyping, Griffith Scheyer Hawblitzel

Master's Theses

The amount of data and analysis being published and archived in the biomedical research community is more than can feasibly be sifted through manually, which limits the information an individual or small group can synthesize and integrate into their own research. This presents an opportunity for using automated methods, including Natural Language Processing (NLP), to extract important information from text on various topics. Named Entity Recognition (NER), is one way to automate knowledge extraction of raw text. NER is defined as the task of identifying named entities from text using labels such as people, dates, locations, diseases, and proteins. There …


Transcriptional Analysis Of Maize Under Drought Stress And The Impact Of Plant Maturity, Oliver J. Oviedo 2022 University of New Mexico - Main Campus

Transcriptional Analysis Of Maize Under Drought Stress And The Impact Of Plant Maturity, Oliver J. Oviedo

Biology ETDs

Climate change related drought is projected to harm maize production. Water use strategies can help mitigate the impact of drought on crop yield. However, little is known about maize metabolic response to drought at different developmental stages. To shed light on this, drought conditions were applied to maize at the six-leaf stage (V6), twelve leaf stage (V12), and tassel stage (VT). V6 and VT took eight days to achieve a low stomatal conductance threshold, but V12 took 16 days. Differential gene expression analysis of the transcriptome indicates that V6 showed the most response with 53 impacted metabolic pathways, many of …


Investigation Into The Genetic Basis Of Capsaicin Production In Peppers Using Next Generation Rna Sequencing And Synthetic Biology Approaches, Ryan Patrick Calhoun 2022 Rowan University

Investigation Into The Genetic Basis Of Capsaicin Production In Peppers Using Next Generation Rna Sequencing And Synthetic Biology Approaches, Ryan Patrick Calhoun

Theses and Dissertations

Capsaicin, a molecule synthesized by plants in the Capsicum genus, is popular for its ability to produce a sensation of burning in any tissue it encounters. The synthesis of capsaicin molecules is achieved through the capsaicin biosynthesis pathway. In this dual study, our goal was to insert two crucial genes, pun1 and pAMT, into a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to allow capsaicin synthesis and perform Illumina RNA sequencing on seven pepper species of increasing pungency to identify other key or novel genes needed or related to capsaicin synthesis. We implemented a golden gate cloning strategy to insert our genes of …


Unraveling Population Heterogeneity Using Single-Cell Analysis, Wenjun Kong 2022 Washington University in St. Louis

Unraveling Population Heterogeneity Using Single-Cell Analysis, Wenjun Kong

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The human body contains approximately 100 trillion cells, encompassing distinct cell types that serve diverse functions. Understanding cell population heterogeneity is vital for uncovering different biological functions and mechanisms. In addition, cells at transition during continual processes, such as development, reprogramming, and disease, are essential for painting the entire blueprint and highlighting critical stages of the progression trajectory. For instance, cell fate engineering holds much promise for generating clinically valuable cell types from mature somatic cells. Nonetheless, current reprogramming protocols are inefficient, and charting the changes in cell identity during such processes can help design strategies to mitigate the off-target …


Evaluating Soil Health Changes Following Cover Crop And No-Till Integration Into A Soybean (Glycine Max) Cropping System In The Mississippi Alluvial Valley, Alexandra Gwin Firth 2022 Mississippi State University

Evaluating Soil Health Changes Following Cover Crop And No-Till Integration Into A Soybean (Glycine Max) Cropping System In The Mississippi Alluvial Valley, Alexandra Gwin Firth

Theses and Dissertations

The transition of natural landscapes to intensive agricultural uses has resulted in severe loss of soil organic carbon (SOC), increased CO₂ emissions, river depletion, and groundwater overdraft. Despite negative documented effects of agricultural land use (i.e., soil erosion, nutrient runoff) on critical natural resources (i.e., water, soil), food production must increase to meet the demands of a rising human population. Given the environmental and agricultural productivity concerns of intensely managed soils, it is critical to implement conservation practices that mitigate the negative effects of crop production and enhance environmental integrity. In the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV) region of Mississippi, USA, …


Gene Expression Analysis Revealed The Activation Of Immune Responses During The Postnatal Development Of The Cerebellum In A Mouse Model Of Niemann-Pick Type C, Sierra Elizabeth Melli 2022 Rowan University

Gene Expression Analysis Revealed The Activation Of Immune Responses During The Postnatal Development Of The Cerebellum In A Mouse Model Of Niemann-Pick Type C, Sierra Elizabeth Melli

Theses and Dissertations

Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC) is a recessive neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder that is caused by autosomal recessive mutations. The mutations result in the inactivation of NPC1 and NPC2 proteins. Inactivation of the NPC1 protein results in the accumulation of cholesterol within the endosomal and lysosomal compartments of cells including Cerebellar Purkinje cells. This accumulation of cholesterol leads to symptoms of dementia, neurodegeneration and potential of early childhood death in cases of early onset. In this study, we analyze the gene expression levels using the RNAseq technique in order to determine whether there is a significant difference between the expression of …


Retro-Structural Analysis Of The Four Helix Bundle Motif In Binuclear Proteins, Walker Pedigo, Maggie Smith 2022 University of Mississippi

Retro-Structural Analysis Of The Four Helix Bundle Motif In Binuclear Proteins, Walker Pedigo, Maggie Smith

Honors Theses

Protein structure is directly related to protein function. There are four levels of protein structure: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary. The interactions amongst the structural components of a protein give rise to its unique characteristics. The four helix bundle motif is a common structural trait in a variety of binuclear proteins. In this study, PyMOL, a molecular visualization system, was used to analyze binuclear proteins that possess a four helix bundle. Images of proteins containing dicopper, diiron, and dimanganese sites were captured. The images were compiled into figures for each individual protein. After creating the figures, each protein was further …


Metagenome-Wide Associations And Metabolic Modeling To Predict The Biomarkers For Colorectal Cancer, Nagavardhini Avuthu 2022 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Metagenome-Wide Associations And Metabolic Modeling To Predict The Biomarkers For Colorectal Cancer, Nagavardhini Avuthu

Theses & Dissertations

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. It is a multifactorial disease mediated by genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Over time, the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes results in the activation of oncogenes and deactivation of tumor suppressor genes in the colon and rectal region which finally leads to tumor development. The gut microbiome is the main factor linking the effects of diet and environmental factors to host metabolism. Several studies showed the dysbiosis of gut microbiota in CRC patients with an increased proportion of pathogenic …


Comparative Transcriptomic Study Between Cyanobacteria That Contain Chlorophyll D And Those That Lack Chlorophyll D, Fernanda Montoya 2022 Northern Illinois University

Comparative Transcriptomic Study Between Cyanobacteria That Contain Chlorophyll D And Those That Lack Chlorophyll D, Fernanda Montoya

Honors Capstones

All cyanobacteria, which perform oxygenic photosynthesis on Earth, contain the photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll a (Chl a) that absorbs light in the violet and red region of the visible spectrum. Cyanobacteria of the Acaryochloris species, however, contain the rare photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll d (Chl d) that absorbs light in the far-red region. Chl d’s ability to absorb light in this region allows it to avoid competing with other photosynthetic organisms for light. Creating a photosystem that uses Chl d in plants would be of great use for agricultural land optimization, but requires knowledge of the biosynthetic pathways of …


Mechanisms By Which Xenorhabdus Nematophila Interacts With Hosts Using Integrated -Omics Approaches, Nicholas C. Mucci 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Mechanisms By Which Xenorhabdus Nematophila Interacts With Hosts Using Integrated -Omics Approaches, Nicholas C. Mucci

Doctoral Dissertations

Nearly all organisms exist in proximity to microbes. These microbes perform most of the essential metabolic processes necessary for homeostasis, forming the nearly hidden support system of Earth. Microbial symbiosis, which is defined as the long-term physical association between host and microbes, relies on communication between the microbial community and their host organism. These interactions among higher order organisms (such as animals, plants, and fungi) and their bacteria links metabolic processes between interkingdom consortia. Many questions on microbial behavior within a host remain poorly understood, such as the colonization efficiency among different microbial species, or how environmental context changes their …


Multi-Omic Systems Biological Analysis Of Host-Microbe Interactions, Piet Jones 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Multi-Omic Systems Biological Analysis Of Host-Microbe Interactions, Piet Jones

Doctoral Dissertations

Systems biology offers the opportunity to understand the complex mechanisms of various biological phenomena. The wealth of data that is produced, at an increasing rate, provides the potential to meet this opportunity. Here we take an applied approach to integrate multiple omic level data sources in order to generate biologically relevant hypotheses. We apply a novel analysis pipeline to model both, in concert, the microbial and transcriptomic signature from COVID-19 positive patients. We show patients may suffer from an increased microbial burden, with an increased pathogen potential. Gene expression evidence further shows patients may exhibit a compromised barrier immunity, owing …


Native Soil Virus Abundance, Composition, And Mobility Under Natural And Managed Agricultural Conditions, Regan McDearis 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Native Soil Virus Abundance, Composition, And Mobility Under Natural And Managed Agricultural Conditions, Regan Mcdearis

Doctoral Dissertations

Soil viruses are ubiquitous in the environment and important for their influence on host community composition and function. Viral infection influences host evolution, metabolism, function, diversity, community evenness, and more. As host bacteria play critical roles in agricultural systems, including nutrient cycling and soil aggregate formation, the influence which soil viruses have on their hosts makes them key players in these systems. However, many important questions remain regarding virus abundance and distribution under human imposed and natural conditions in agricultural systems. Understanding how these conditions impact virus abundance, transport, and community structure is critical for a broader understanding of soil …


Unraveling The Genetic Architecture Of Somatic Embryogenesis In Upland Cotton, Adam M. Canal 2022 Clemson University

Unraveling The Genetic Architecture Of Somatic Embryogenesis In Upland Cotton, Adam M. Canal

All Theses

Somatic embryogenesis is the de novo development of asexual embryos because of the plasticity of the plant cell. In tissue culture, the biochemical and genetic mechanisms of dedifferentiated callus tissues can be reprogrammed to transdifferentiate into developed, polarized embryos, which can ultimately regenerate into whole plants. Although this rarely occurs in nature, scientists have exploited this process for decades to regenerate whole plants following gene transformation or for micropropagation. While some species are amenable to in vitro regeneration, upland cotton is particularly recalcitrant, with regenerative potential being confined to only several genotypes. The lack of elite, regenerable genotypes greatly restricts …


Exploiting Chemogenetic And Genetic Interactions In Human Cells As An Avenue For New Therapeutic Opportunities, Medina Colic 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

Exploiting Chemogenetic And Genetic Interactions In Human Cells As An Avenue For New Therapeutic Opportunities, Medina Colic

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The advent of CRISPR technology and its adaptation to the mammalian genome made whole-genome knockout screens possible directly in human cells. Gene knockout answers how essential that gene is for cell fitness and proliferation. Genes showing moderate to severe fitness defects are called essential genes and provide insights into disease-specific candidate therapeutic targets. Additionally, CRISPR offers other applications for genome editing. Two applications this dissertation is based on are 1) combination of gene knockout and drug treatment, which enables the identification of chemogenetic interactions, or gene mutations that enhance or suppress the activity of a drug, and 2) combinatorial editing, …


Alterations Of The Gut Mycobiome In Patients With Ms - A Bioinformatic Approach, Saumya Shah 2022 University of Connecticut

Alterations Of The Gut Mycobiome In Patients With Ms - A Bioinformatic Approach, Saumya Shah

Honors Scholar Theses

The mycobiome is the fungal component of the gut microbiome and is implicated in several autoimmune diseases. However, its role in multiple sclerosis (MS) has not been studied. We performed descriptive and formal statistical tests using the R language to characterize the gut mycobiome in people with MS (pwMS) and healthy controls. We found that the microbiome composition of multiple sclerosis patients is different from healthy people. The mycobiome had significantly higher alpha diversity and inter-subject variation in pwMS than controls. Additionally, Saccharomyces and Aspergillus were over-represented in pwMS. Different mycobiome profiles, defined as mycotypes, were associated with different bacterial …


Identification Of Synonymous Genes And Pathways Implicated In Irritable Bowel Disease And Pancreatic Duct Adenocarcinoma, Lavanya Uppala 2022 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Identification Of Synonymous Genes And Pathways Implicated In Irritable Bowel Disease And Pancreatic Duct Adenocarcinoma, Lavanya Uppala

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

Better understanding and genetic characterization of the gut microbiome will allow for the identification of clinically distinct gastrointestinal diseases. Facilitated by high throughput technologies, intestinal flora analyses have elucidated a broad spectrum of neuropsychiatric, immunological, and allergic disorders linked with this organ system. Microbiome research especially has shed light on underlying factors of intestinal disorders. This interplay of environmental bacteria versus host tissue gene expression may have implications for disease pathogenicity and etiological determination. For instance, pancreatic disorders are common symptoms of irritable bowel disease (IBD), which is thought to affect approximately 7% to 21% of the population [1]. However, …


Investigation Of Microbe And Host Tissue Interactions Contributing To The Pathogenesis Of Colorectal Cancer, Ryan Chapman, Dhundy Bastola 2022 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Investigation Of Microbe And Host Tissue Interactions Contributing To The Pathogenesis Of Colorectal Cancer, Ryan Chapman, Dhundy Bastola

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. The pathogenesis of this disease can fall under broad categories; however, the specific precursory mechanism of CRC pathogenesis is still unknown. Dysregulations of the gut microbiome have been identified in the CRC tissue environment. Additionally, CRC tissue gene expression has been observed to differ from that of healthy tissue. Despite these noticeable changes, few studies have directly compared the microorganism composition to the gene expression of CRC tissue. Doing so may identify whether the differentially abundant microorganisms influence the changes in gene expression. The goal of this …


Scalable Software Infrastructure For The Lab And A Specific Investigation Of The Yeast Transcription Factor Eds1, Chase Mateusiak 2022 Washington University in St. Louis

Scalable Software Infrastructure For The Lab And A Specific Investigation Of The Yeast Transcription Factor Eds1, Chase Mateusiak

McKelvey School of Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Individual biology labs handle increasingly large data sets. Ensuring accurate data entry, consistent sample metadata, and ease of access to the data once it is stored, are critical for both the integrity of analysis as well as productivity of the lab. Chapter 1 one of this thesis describes three implementations of software meant to facilitate handling data and metadata in the lab as the size of the data and complexity of analysis scale. The first piece of software is a database and entry interface for storing a large and varied amount of data on biological samples. The second is a …


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