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Utilizing Ai Integrated Neuroimaging Technology To Expand Upon Machine Learning In Positron Emission Tomography Technology With The Aim Of Detecting Amyloid Beta Biomarkers Early In The Onset Of Alzheimer's., Ethan S. Terman 2024 Virginia Commonwealth University

Utilizing Ai Integrated Neuroimaging Technology To Expand Upon Machine Learning In Positron Emission Tomography Technology With The Aim Of Detecting Amyloid Beta Biomarkers Early In The Onset Of Alzheimer's., Ethan S. Terman

Undergraduate Research Posters

Early intervention in Alzheimer's is vital for treatment. The earlier a professional can detect symptoms and make a diagnosis the earlier a prognosis can be implemented. With the prevalence of data in our day-to-day world combined with Artificial intelligence (AI), utilizing both for machine learning can pave the way for more accurate and efficient detection of Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases. AI combined with Machine learning (ML) increases diagnostic efficiency and reduces human errors, making it a valuable resource for physicians and clinicians alike. With the increasing amount of data processing and image interpretation required, the ability to use AI …


Whole Genome Sequencing For The Millipede Cherokia Georgiana, Elena Cruz, Will Wittstock, Daniel Hastings, Arnab Sengupta, Bruce A. Snyder 2024 Georgia College & State University

Whole Genome Sequencing For The Millipede Cherokia Georgiana, Elena Cruz, Will Wittstock, Daniel Hastings, Arnab Sengupta, Bruce A. Snyder

Graduate Research Showcase

Out of thousands of known millipede species, only five sequenced genomes of species (in four of sixteen orders) are publicly available. No whole genomes and limited genetic information are available for incredibly diverse families such as Xystodesmidae. Our research goal is to sequence the whole genome of the millipede Cherokia georgiana. A de novo sequence of the complete genome of a North American species will facilitate future research in understanding gene expression under a variety of conditions. Many interesting biological processes in millipedes are poorly described, such as the production of a defensive hydrogen cyanide secretion found in the …


Using Single Cell Genomics To Explore The Impact Of Marine Viruses On Microbial Respiration., Paxton Tomko 2024 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Using Single Cell Genomics To Explore The Impact Of Marine Viruses On Microbial Respiration., Paxton Tomko

MCB Articles

Viral metabolic reprograming of marine prokaryotes, through the use of virally encoded auxiliary metabolic genes (AMGs), plays a critical role in marine ecosystem function by influencing biochemical cycles and genetic diversity in these environments. Despite the fundamental role viruses play in global environmental ecosystems, they remain an understudied aspect of microbial ecology and evolution, in part due to the methods available for studying virus host interactions in natural systems. Thus far, metagenomic analyses have been used to study the interactions of virus host pairs, but these types of analyses have their limitations in accurately linking viruses to hosts, or culture-based …


Model-Based Deep Autoencoders For Clustering Single-Cell Rna Sequencing Data With Side Information, Xiang Lin 2023 New Jersey Institute of Technology

Model-Based Deep Autoencoders For Clustering Single-Cell Rna Sequencing Data With Side Information, Xiang Lin

Dissertations

Clustering analysis has been conducted extensively in single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) studies. scRNA-seq can profile tens of thousands of genes' activities within a single cell. Thousands or tens of thousands of cells can be captured simultaneously in a typical scRNA-seq experiment. Biologists would like to cluster these cells for exploring and elucidating cell types or subtypes. Numerous methods have been designed for clustering scRNA-seq data. Yet, single-cell technologies develop so fast in the past few years that those existing methods do not catch up with these rapid changes and fail to fully fulfil their potential. For instance, besides profiling transcription …


Reducing Food Scarcity: The Benefits Of Urban Farming, S.A. Claudell, Emilio Mejia 2023 Brigham Young University

Reducing Food Scarcity: The Benefits Of Urban Farming, S.A. Claudell, Emilio Mejia

Journal of Nonprofit Innovation

Urban farming can enhance the lives of communities and help reduce food scarcity. This paper presents a conceptual prototype of an efficient urban farming community that can be scaled for a single apartment building or an entire community across all global geoeconomics regions, including densely populated cities and rural, developing towns and communities. When deployed in coordination with smart crop choices, local farm support, and efficient transportation then the result isn’t just sustainability, but also increasing fresh produce accessibility, optimizing nutritional value, eliminating the use of ‘forever chemicals’, reducing transportation costs, and fostering global environmental benefits.

Imagine Doris, who is …


A Computational Exploration: Docking Analysis Of Compounds From Foeniculum Vulgare As Potential Aromatase Inhibitors For Endometriosis Candidate Therapy, Dwi Anita Suryandari, Puji Sari, Hadi Sunaryo, Khaerunissa Anbar Istiadi 2023 Department of Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia

A Computational Exploration: Docking Analysis Of Compounds From Foeniculum Vulgare As Potential Aromatase Inhibitors For Endometriosis Candidate Therapy, Dwi Anita Suryandari, Puji Sari, Hadi Sunaryo, Khaerunissa Anbar Istiadi

Indonesian Journal of Medical Chemistry and Bioinformatics

Aromatase inhibitors (AI) have controlling symptoms and size of endometriotic implants, making them a promising second-line therapy for endometriosis treatment.pretreatment with letrozole, an AI, combined with leuprolide acetate and resveratrol has been found to improve in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes in women mild endometriosis.in this study we screening and analysis of ten phenolic compounds from Foeniculum vulgare using molecular docking with Mcole server.from this results showed that three phenolic trans resveratrol (TR), caempherol coumaril (CC) have low gibbs energy compare with resveratrol (R). The binding modalities of compound TR and compound R were hydrogen-bonding between the hydroxyl and oxygen atom …


Dna Methylation-Based Epigenetic Biomarkers In Cell-Type Deconvolution And Tumor Tissue Of Origin Identification, Ze Zhang 2023 Dartmouth College

Dna Methylation-Based Epigenetic Biomarkers In Cell-Type Deconvolution And Tumor Tissue Of Origin Identification, Ze Zhang

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that regulates gene expression and is essential to establishing and preserving cellular identity. Genome-wide DNA methylation arrays provide a standardized and cost-effective approach to measuring DNA methylation. When combined with a cell-type reference library, DNA methylation measures allow the assessment of underlying cell-type proportions in heterogeneous mixtures. This approach, known as DNA methylation deconvolution or methylation cytometry, offers a standardized and cost-effective method for evaluating cell-type proportions. While this approach has succeeded in discerning cell types in various human tissues like blood, brain, tumors, skin, breast, and buccal swabs, the existing methods have major …


Using In Silico Tools To Analyze The 5ʹ Untranslated Regions Of The Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene From Arabidopsis Thaliana And Omega Sequence, Reza Mohammadhassan, Tina Asadishad 2023 Plant Science Department, Amino Techno Gene Private Virtual Institute, Tehran 1495845983, Iran

Using In Silico Tools To Analyze The 5ʹ Untranslated Regions Of The Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene From Arabidopsis Thaliana And Omega Sequence, Reza Mohammadhassan, Tina Asadishad

Makara Journal of Science

The 5ʹ ends of protein-encoding genes contain 5ʹ untranslated regions (5ʹUTRs), which can effectively participate in regulating gene expression. The 5ʹUTRs of Arabidospis thaliana–derived alcohol dehydrogenase gene (AtADH) and omega (Ω) sequence from tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) are the most effective enhancers in biotechnology. In this study, bioinformatics techniques were employed to analyze the characteristics of the above sequences. After 5ʹUTR sequence collection, the inner ribosome entrance sites; small RNA (sRNA) target sequences; nucleotide contents; and upstream start and stop codons, ORFs, and coding DNA sequences of the Ω sequence and AtADH 5ʹUTR were identified. Moreover, the …


Investigating The Impact Of Transcription On Mutation Rates, Sarah Patterson 2023 Mississippi State University

Investigating The Impact Of Transcription On Mutation Rates, Sarah Patterson

Theses and Dissertations

tRNA genes are highly transcribed and perform one of the most fundamental cellular functions. Although a universal pattern observed across all three domains of life is that highly transcribed genes tend to evolve slowly, tRNA genes have been shown previously to evolve rapidly. This rapid sequence evolution could result from relaxed selection, increased mutation rate, or a combination of both. Here, we use mutation-accumulation line sequencing data to show that tRNA genes accumulate more mutations than other gene types. Our results indicate that this elevated mutation rate is a consequence of both elevated transcription-associated mutagenesis and a lack of transcription-coupled …


Convolutional Neural Network-Based Gene Prediction Using Buffalograss As A Model System, Michael Morikone 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Convolutional Neural Network-Based Gene Prediction Using Buffalograss As A Model System, Michael Morikone

Dissertations and Doctoral Documents from University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 2023–

The task of gene prediction has been largely stagnant in algorithmic improvements compared to when algorithms were first developed for predicting genes thirty years ago. Rather than iteratively improving the underlying algorithms in gene prediction tools by utilizing better performing models, most current approaches update existing tools through incorporating increasing amounts of extrinsic data to improve gene prediction performance. The traditional method of predicting genes is done using Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). These HMMs are constrained by having strict assumptions made about the independence of genes that do not always hold true. To address this, a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) …


Flavonol Glucosylation: A Structural Investigation Of The Flavonol Specific 3-O Glucosyltransferase Cp3gt, Aaron S. Birchfield 2023 East Tennessee State University

Flavonol Glucosylation: A Structural Investigation Of The Flavonol Specific 3-O Glucosyltransferase Cp3gt, Aaron S. Birchfield

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Flavonoid glycosyltransferases (GTs), enzymes integral to plant ecological responses and human pharmacology, necessitate rigorous structural elucidation to decipher their mechanistic function and substrate specificity, particularly given their role in the biotransformation of diverse pharmacological agents and natural products. This investigation delved into a comprehensive exploration of the flavonol 3-O GT from Citrus paradisi (Cp3GT), scrutinizing the impact of a c-terminal c-myc/6x histidine tag on its enzymatic activity and substrate specificity, and successfully achieving its purification to apparent homogeneity. This established a strong foundation for potential future crystallographic and other structure/function analyses. Through the strategic implementation of site-directed mutagenesis, a thrombin …


Exploring Soil Microbial Dynamics In Southern Appalachian Forests: A Systems Biology Approach To Prescribed Fire Impacts, Saad Abd Ar Rafie 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Exploring Soil Microbial Dynamics In Southern Appalachian Forests: A Systems Biology Approach To Prescribed Fire Impacts, Saad Abd Ar Rafie

Doctoral Dissertations

Prescribed fires in Southern Appalachian forests are vital in ecosystem management and wildfire risk mitigation. However, understanding the intricate dynamics between these fires, soil microbial communities, and overall ecosystem health remains challenging. This dissertation addresses this knowledge gap by exploring selected aspects of this complex relationship across three interconnected chapters.

The first chapter investigates the immediate effects of prescribed fires on soil microbial communities. It reveals subtle shifts in porewater chemistry and significant increases in microbial species richness. These findings offer valuable insights into the interplay between soil properties and microbial responses during the early stages following a prescribed fire. …


Regulation Of Protein Synthesis In Arabidopsis Thaliana Through A Bioinformatic And Mathematical Lens, Ricardo Andres Urquidi Camacho 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Regulation Of Protein Synthesis In Arabidopsis Thaliana Through A Bioinformatic And Mathematical Lens, Ricardo Andres Urquidi Camacho

Doctoral Dissertations

Organisms exist under constantly varying environmental and internal conditions, which necessitate the differential regulation of gene expression. To synthesize proteins, the ribosome translates the information encoded in the nucleotide sequence of an mRNA into the final, functional amino acid sequence. Knockouts of ribosomal proteins lead to lethality. One such protein is the ribosomal protein 6 of the small subunit (eS6/RPS6). We confirmed that the knockout of either one of two eS6 paralogs in Arabidopsis leads to stunted growth and chlorosis. Here, these phenotypes have been further characterized in seedlings by precisely quantifying the ribosome loading of mRNAs as well as …


A Cancer-Specific Study On The Differentially Expressed Protein-Protein Interactions Of Fumarate Hydratase, Sydney Lac 2023 The Texas Medical Center Library

A Cancer-Specific Study On The Differentially Expressed Protein-Protein Interactions Of Fumarate Hydratase, Sydney Lac

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Fumarate hydratase (FH) is an enzyme used in the Krebs Cycle to convert fumarate to malate, and it is controlled by the FH gene. In this paper, we will investigate its role in Uterine Corpus Endometrial Carcinoma (UCEC) and how FH-deficient cells affect tumorigenesis. It is well-established that FH has been extensively studied in connection with renal cell carcinoma, skin and uterine leiomyomas, pheochromocytoma, and paraganglioma. However, we aim to construct an interaction network of significant genes related to the FH gene under conditions of FH deficiency in the Kreb Cycle. Creating an interactive network that illustrates the interconnectedness of …


Genomic Characterization Of Adolescent And Young Adult Cancers: Investigation Of Ewing Sarcoma Susceptibility And Chornobyl Thyroid Tumors, Olivia Lee 2023 The Texas Medical Center Library

Genomic Characterization Of Adolescent And Young Adult Cancers: Investigation Of Ewing Sarcoma Susceptibility And Chornobyl Thyroid Tumors, Olivia Lee

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancers, diagnosed between the ages of 15 and 39, can exhibit distinctive genetic and molecular characteristics. Reported epidemiologic findings and treatment outcomes based on pediatric and adult cancer studies are often not suitable for application to the AYA population, underscoring the need for more thorough genomic research. Advances in sequencing technologies have enabled comprehensive analyses of complex genomic characteristics of AYA cancers, crucial for understanding the underlying biology of these malignancies. Here, I have utilized advanced sequencing techniques and integrated analytic approaches to describe important genomic features in two different AYA cancer types: Ewing Sarcoma …


Computational Molecular Docking Studies Of Small Molecule Inhibitors With The Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein Variants: In-Silico Drug Discovery Using Virtual Screening And Drug Repurposing Approaches, Grace Gupta 2023 Chapman University

Computational Molecular Docking Studies Of Small Molecule Inhibitors With The Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein Variants: In-Silico Drug Discovery Using Virtual Screening And Drug Repurposing Approaches, Grace Gupta

Computational and Data Sciences (MS) Theses

The pandemic caused by the emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 2019 has caused a global public health crisis of nearly unprecedented scale. In the years following the outbreak, the scientific community has mobilized to develop several vaccines and treatments. Drug repurposing as a strategy for drug development has produced many of the current therapeutic options. The greatest challenge to designing a therapeutic inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 is the shifting mutational landscape of the virus as it evolves. In this study, we focus on the spike protein as a target for potential inhibitors. We explore two …


Interpretable Mechanistic And Machine Learning Models For Pre-Dicting Cardiac Remodeling From Biochemical And Biomechanical Features, Anamul Haque 2023 Clemson University

Interpretable Mechanistic And Machine Learning Models For Pre-Dicting Cardiac Remodeling From Biochemical And Biomechanical Features, Anamul Haque

All Dissertations

Biochemical and biomechanical signals drive cardiac remodeling, resulting in altered heart physiology and the precursor for several cardiac diseases, the leading cause of death for most racial groups in the USA. Reversing cardiac remodeling requires medication and device-assisted treatment such as Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT), but current interventions produce highly variable responses from patient to patient. Mechanistic modeling and Machine learning (ML) approaches have the functionality to aid diagnosis and therapy selection using various input features. Moreover, 'Interpretable' machine learning methods have helped make machine learning models fairer and more suited for clinical application. The overarching objective of this doctoral …


Novel Microbial Guilds Implicated In N2o Reduction, Guang He 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Novel Microbial Guilds Implicated In N2o Reduction, Guang He

Doctoral Dissertations

N2O is a long-recognized greenhouse gas (GHG) with potential in global warming and ozone depletion. Terrestrial ecosystems are a major source of N2O due to imbalanced N2O production and consumption. Soil pH is a chief modulating factor controlling net N2O emissions, and N2O consumption has been considered negligible under acidic conditions (pH <6). In this dissertation, we obtained solids-free cultures reducing N2O at pH 4.5. Furthermore, a co-culture (designated culture EV) comprising two interacting bacterial population was acquired via consecutive transfer in mineral salt medium. Integrated phenotypic, metagenomic and metabolomic analysis dictated that the Serratia population excreted certain …


A Review Of Threat Vectors To Dna Sequencing Pipelines, Tyler Rector 2023 Old Dominion University

A Review Of Threat Vectors To Dna Sequencing Pipelines, Tyler Rector

Cybersecurity Undergraduate Research Showcase

Bioinformatics is a steadily growing field that focuses on the intersection of biology with computer science. Tools and techniques developed within this field are quickly becoming fixtures in genomics, forensics, epidemiology, and bioengineering. The development and analysis of DNA sequencing and synthesis have enabled this significant rise in demand for bioinformatic tools. Notwithstanding, these bioinformatic tools have developed in a research context free of significant cybersecurity threats. With the significant growth of the field and the commercialization of genetic information, this is no longer the case. This paper examines the bioinformatic landscape through reviewing the biological and cybersecurity threats within …


Determining The Effects Of Glycocalyx Modifications On The Electrophysical Properties Of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Rominna E. Valentine Ico 2023 California State University - San Bernardino

Determining The Effects Of Glycocalyx Modifications On The Electrophysical Properties Of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Rominna E. Valentine Ico

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have gained popularity in clinical trials due to their multipotent differentiation characteristics, ability to secrete bioactive molecules, migrate into diseased or damaged tissues, and their immunosuppressive properties. HMSC cultures are heterogeneous, containing stem cells, partially differentiated progenitor cells, and fully differentiated cells. One of the major challenges with hMSCs therapeutic potential is the inability to select specific cell subpopulations due to an insufficient number of biomarkers. Often the biomarkers used, like those for fluorescence-activated cell sorting, are not sufficient to define hMSCs because they overlap with other cell types. Consequently, there is a need to …


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