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Computational Study On The Effectiveness Of Flavonoids From Marsilea Crenata C. Presl As Potent Sirt1 Activators And Nfκb Inhibitors, Sri Rahayu, Sasangka Prasetyawan, Sri Widyarti, Mochammad Fitri Atho’illah, Gatot Ciptadi 2022 Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Brawijaya University,

Computational Study On The Effectiveness Of Flavonoids From Marsilea Crenata C. Presl As Potent Sirt1 Activators And Nfκb Inhibitors, Sri Rahayu, Sasangka Prasetyawan, Sri Widyarti, Mochammad Fitri Atho’Illah, Gatot Ciptadi

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

Ovarian aging is a natural process in females, and it occurs due to an elevated ROS-induced inflammation caused by oxidative stress. SIRT-1 is a metabolic sensor that tightly regulates oxidative and inflammatory responses. However, this regulative function is antagonized by NFκB. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore the pathways involved in aging and identify the flavonoid compounds from Marsilea crenata that might be useful as SIRT1 activators and NFκB inhibitors. The screening began with exploring the protein-protein interaction in the experimental process using BioGrid, and the role of the flavonoid was evaluated using STITCH. The interaction between …


A Bacterial Microbiome Analysis Of Solarized Ginseng Garden Soils, Anka Colo 2022 Western University

A Bacterial Microbiome Analysis Of Solarized Ginseng Garden Soils, Anka Colo

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is a highly valued perennial crop grown for its roots during a four-year cultivation cycle. American ginseng is subject to ginseng replant disease (GRD) in which severe root rot develops in newly planted ginseng grown in a former ginseng garden. A common strategy to mitigating GRD is not available and techniques such as fumigation, fungicides, and biocontrol are ineffective, banned, or are slowly being phased out. Alternatively, soil solarization is a pre-plant technique used to treat soil to reduce disease inoculum and alter soil microbiomes. In summer 2019, a six-week soil solarization experiment was …


Multigene Phylogeny Of Mushroom Genus Hohenbuehelia (Fungi = Pleurotaceae), Beau Claude Daigneault 2022 Western University

Multigene Phylogeny Of Mushroom Genus Hohenbuehelia (Fungi = Pleurotaceae), Beau Claude Daigneault

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

A multigene phylogenetic study of mushroom genus Hohenbuehelia. Four gene loci (ITS, LSU, Tef1, RPB2) were examined, sequence data collected and available Genbank data was concatenated into a supermatrix alignment, with a RAxML phylogenetic tree as output.


Identification And Characterization Of Genetic Elements That Regulate A C-Di-Gmp Mediated Multicellular Trait In Pseudomonas Fluorescens, Collin Kessler 2022 Duquesne University

Identification And Characterization Of Genetic Elements That Regulate A C-Di-Gmp Mediated Multicellular Trait In Pseudomonas Fluorescens, Collin Kessler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Microbial communities contain densely packed cells where competition for space and resources are fierce. These communities are generally referred to as biofilms and provide advantages to individual cells against immunological and antimicrobial intervention, dehydration, and predation. High intracellular pools of cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP) cause cells to aggregate during biofilm formation through the production of diverse extracellular polymers. Genes that encode c-di-GMP catalytic enzymes are commonly mutated during chronic infections where opportunists display enhanced resistance to phagocytosis and antibiotics. Our lab uses an emergent multicellular trait in the model organism Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 to study the emergence of c-di-GMP mutations …


Methods And Tools To Improve Performance Of Plant Genome Analysis, Drew Ferrell 2022 Mississippi State University

Methods And Tools To Improve Performance Of Plant Genome Analysis, Drew Ferrell

Theses and Dissertations

Multi -omics data analysis and integration facilitates hypothesis building toward an understanding of genes and pathway responses driven by environments. Methods designed to estimate and analyze gene expression, with regard to treatments or conditions, can be leveraged to understand gene-level responses in the cell. However, genes often interact and signal within larger structures such as pathways and networks. Complex studies guided toward describing dynamic genetic pathways and networks require algorithms or methods designed for inference based on gene interactions and related topologies. Classes of algorithms and methods may be integrated into generalized workflows for comparative genomics studies, as multi -omics …


Effect Of Cover Crops, Grazing And Tillage Practices On Soil Microbial Community Composition, Function, And Soil Health In East Central Mississippi Soybean Production System., Namita Sinha 2022 Mississippi State University

Effect Of Cover Crops, Grazing And Tillage Practices On Soil Microbial Community Composition, Function, And Soil Health In East Central Mississippi Soybean Production System., Namita Sinha

Theses and Dissertations

Integrating crop and livestock is being considered to improve soil health by carbon sequestration. A two-year study (2019-2021) at CPBES in Newton, MS was aimed to evaluate soil microbial diversity in the warm, humid regions, specifically southeastern USA. Amplicons targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes and fungal ITS2 regions were sequenced. Taxonomic assignment and microbial diversity characterization were performed using QIIME2®. Soil fungal diversity showed significant differences (alpha diversity, p = 0.031 in yr. 2020 and beta diversity, p = 0.037 in yr. 2021). Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) and Mantel test showed significant influence on fungal diversity due to …


A Genomic Investigation Of Divergence Between Tuna Species, Pavel V. Dimens 2022 University of Southern Mississippi

A Genomic Investigation Of Divergence Between Tuna Species, Pavel V. Dimens

Dissertations

Effective management and conservation of marine pelagic fishes is heavily dependent on a robust understanding of their population structure, their evolutionary history, and the delineation of appropriate management units. The Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and the Blackfin tuna (Thunnus atlanticus) are two exploited epipelagic marine species with overlapping ranges in the tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean. This work analyzed genome-wide genetic variation of both species in the Atlantic basin to investigate the occurrence of population subdivision and adaptive variation. A de novo assembly of the Blackfin tuna genome was generated using Illumina paired-end sequencing data and …


Population Genetics Of Populus Trichocarpa For Targeted Breeding As A Biofuel Crop, Cai John 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Population Genetics Of Populus Trichocarpa For Targeted Breeding As A Biofuel Crop, Cai John

Doctoral Dissertations

Populus trichocarpa (poplar) is a woody species native to the western U.S. and Canada. As a fast-growing crop, it has been under investigation by the Department of Energy as a resource for liquid biofuel production. Having recently expanded the collection of poplar whole-genome sequences so that it spans the entire natural species range, we have the novel opportunity to study adaptive responses across this range. This work starts with an initial proof of concept study in a well-studied portion of the species range that has complete whole-genome sequences and RNA expression. The completeness of these data allow robust validation of …


Efficient Network Domination For Life Science Applications, Stephen K. Grady 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Efficient Network Domination For Life Science Applications, Stephen K. Grady

Doctoral Dissertations

With the ever-increasing size of data available to researchers, traditional methods of analysis often cannot scale to match problems being studied. Often only a subset of variables may be utilized or studied further, motivating the need of techniques that can prioritize variable selection. This dissertation describes the development and application of graph theoretic techniques, particularly the notion of domination, for this purpose. In the first part of this dissertation, algorithms for vertex prioritization in the field of network controllability are studied. Here, the number of solutions to which a vertex belongs is used to classify said vertex and determine its …


Genome Evolution In The Salicaceae: Genetic Novelty, Horizontal Gene Transfer, And Comparative Genomics, Timothy Yates 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Genome Evolution In The Salicaceae: Genetic Novelty, Horizontal Gene Transfer, And Comparative Genomics, Timothy Yates

Doctoral Dissertations

Genome evolution is a powerful force which shapes genomes over time through processes like mutation, horizontal transfer, and sexual reproduction. Although questions which aim to explore genome evolution are broad, they are all understood through the discovery and comparison of genetic variation. For example, genetic diversity may explain differences in phenotypes, etiology of disease, and is essential for phylogenomic analysis. Recently, the democratization of next generation and third generation DNA sequencing technologies have allowed for genomics to produce large amounts of sequence data. This has facilitated the capture of genetic variation at species and population scales.

Populus and Salix are …


What I Talk About When I Talk About Integration Of Single-Cell Data, Yang Xu 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

What I Talk About When I Talk About Integration Of Single-Cell Data, Yang Xu

Doctoral Dissertations

Over the past decade, single-cell technologies evolved from profiling hundreds of cells to millions of cells, and emerged from a single modality of data to cover multiple views at single-cell resolution, including genome, epigenome, transcriptome, and so on. With advance of these single-cell technologies, the booming of multimodal single-cell data creates a valuable resource for us to understand cellular heterogeneity and molecular mechanism at a comprehensive level. However, the large-scale multimodal single-cell data also presents a huge computational challenge for insightful integrative analysis. Here, I will lay out problems in data integration that single-cell research community is interested in and …


Decoding Copy Number Substructure And Evolution From Single Cell Genomics, Darlan Conterno Minussi 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

Decoding Copy Number Substructure And Evolution From Single Cell Genomics, Darlan Conterno Minussi

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Aneuploidy is a prominent feature in Triple-Negative Breast Cancers (TNBC), however, the evolution of genotypes during tumor expansion remains poorly understood. The prevalent model of TNBC evolution is the Punctuated Copy Number Evolution (PCNE), in which tumors undergo a period of elevated genomic instability, acquiring complex genomic rearrangements within a short timeframe followed by clonal stasis. However, these observations rely on limited cell numbers and inherent experimental bias from first-generation single cell technologies. Therefore, the evolutionary trajectory after the punctuated burst remains unknown. To address this question, we sequenced 9,765 cells from 8 primary TNBCs and 6,413 cells from 4 …


The Role Of The Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2 In Pancreatic Cancer: Mechanisms Of Tumor Immunosuppression And Intestinal Radioprotection, Carolina Garcia Garcia 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

The Role Of The Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2 In Pancreatic Cancer: Mechanisms Of Tumor Immunosuppression And Intestinal Radioprotection, Carolina Garcia Garcia

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a devastating disease with dismal prognosis. The only curative option for patients is surgery, but over 80% of patients are not surgical candidates. Unfortunately, PDAC is resistant to the three remaining options. PDAC is characterized by a profoundly hypoxic and immunosuppressive stroma, which contributes to its therapeutic recalcitrance. Alpha-smooth muscle actin+ (αSMA+) cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the most abundant stromal component, as well as mediators of stromal deposition. The hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF1 and HIF2) coordinate responses to hypoxia, yet, despite their known association to poor patient outcomes, their functions within the PDAC tumor microenvironment (TME) …


Modeling Electrostatics In Molecular Biology And Its Relevance With Molecular Mechanisms Of Diseases, Mahesh Koirala 2022 Clemson University

Modeling Electrostatics In Molecular Biology And Its Relevance With Molecular Mechanisms Of Diseases, Mahesh Koirala

All Dissertations

Electrostatics plays an essential role in molecular biology. Modeling electrostatics in molecular biology is complicated due to the water phase, mobile ions, and irregularly shaped inhomogeneous biological macromolecules. This dissertation presents the popular DelPhi package that solves PBE and delivers the electrostatic potential distribution of biomolecules. We used the newly developed DelPhiForce steered Molecular Dynamics (DFMD) approach to model the binding of barstar to barnase and demonstrated that the first-principles method could also model the binding. This dissertation also reflects the use of existing computational approaches to model the effects of Single Amino Acid Variations (SAVs) to reveal molecular mechanisms …


A Bioinformatics Analysis Of Microbial Diversity And Its Correlation With Human Lifestyle, Diet, And Health Variables, Alivia Ankrum, Kate Cooper 2022 University of Nebraska at Omaha

A Bioinformatics Analysis Of Microbial Diversity And Its Correlation With Human Lifestyle, Diet, And Health Variables, Alivia Ankrum, Kate Cooper

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

The abundant impact of microbiota on human physiology suggests a need for exploration into their impact on human health and disease. The American Gut Project (AGP) was established to aggregate microbiome sequencing data as well as health, diet, and lifestyle metadata. This study proposes to identify taxonomic species and build a phylogenetic tree representation from the AGP participant sample collection as well as find their respective alpha and beta diversity of all metadata variables based on patient questionnaire data. Additionally, this study will involve a chimeric sequence extraction from the 16S rRNA sequences of the AGP. The expected results are …


The Effects Of Host-Like Environmental Signals And Gene Expression On Capsule Growth In Cryptococcus Neoformans, Yu Min Jung 2022 Washington University in St. Louis

The Effects Of Host-Like Environmental Signals And Gene Expression On Capsule Growth In Cryptococcus Neoformans, Yu Min Jung

McKelvey School of Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungal pathogen that causes cryptococcosis, a disease that kills almost 200,000 people worldwide each year. A unique feature of this deadly yeast is its polysaccharide capsule, which is known to be associated with its virulence. Here, we systematically explore the effects of all possible combinations of 4 capsule-inducing signals on gene expression, cell size, and capsule size. These signals are medium (YPD, DMEM or RPMI), temperature (30°C or 37°C), CO2 (room air or 5%), cAMP (0 mM or 20 mM), and pH buffer (HEPES/no HEPES). We explore the effects of exogenous cAMP at a range …


The Roles Of Epithelial–Mesenchymal Plasticity In Tumor Heterogeneity, Metastasis, And Patient Survival In Breast Cancer, Meredith Septer Brown 2022 Dartmouth College

The Roles Of Epithelial–Mesenchymal Plasticity In Tumor Heterogeneity, Metastasis, And Patient Survival In Breast Cancer, Meredith Septer Brown

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

The Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal transition, a critical cellular process in development, is frequently co-opted by solid tumors to promote invasion and metastasis. In particular, the hybrid or intermediate EMT state, possessing both epithelial and mesenchymal characteristics, is associated with increased cancer stemness and plasticity. Similarly, intra-tumoral heterogeneity in solid tumors, in particular breast cancer, is associated with poor prognosis, tumor growth, proliferation, drug resistance, and metastasis. We sought to understand the link between the generation of intra-tumoral heterogeneity and the intermediate EMT state and their impact on tumor progression and patient prognosis. As part of my thesis work, I developed a model …


Analysis Of Geographic Variability Of Fecal Microbiomes Of Fratercula Arctica And Cross-Comparison Of Fecal Microbiomes Of Different Avian Feeding Types, Eric Jose Ramon Martinez 2022 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Analysis Of Geographic Variability Of Fecal Microbiomes Of Fratercula Arctica And Cross-Comparison Of Fecal Microbiomes Of Different Avian Feeding Types, Eric Jose Ramon Martinez

LSU Master's Theses

Gastrointestinal (gut) microbiota have a multitude of effects on their host, from aiding in digestion, to facilitating nutrient uptake, detoxification, and interactions with the immune system. Multiple factors have been identified that influence the composition of vertebrate microbiomes; these include host genetics, environmental conditions, diet and age, sex, and geography. However, broad inferences about wild avian gut microbial diversity and function under natural conditions are limited. Most knowledge on avian microbiomes is derived from studies on domestic poultry. Information on non-model taxa may provide important contextual information about vertebrate host-microbiome interactions and aid in future management of vulnerable species. Here, …


Manipulating The Root Mycobiome To Improve Plant Performance And Reduce Pathogen Pressure In Corn (Zea Mays), Noor F. Saeed Cheema 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Manipulating The Root Mycobiome To Improve Plant Performance And Reduce Pathogen Pressure In Corn (Zea Mays), Noor F. Saeed Cheema

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Crop yield often varies within a field of a single genetically uniform crop plant, with the causes presumed to be a mix of both biotic and abiotic factors. Manipulating crop root mycobiomes could potentially increase yield by reducing pathogen impacts and improving access to soil water and nutrients. This study aimed to identify different fungal inoculation treatments that could increase the growth of corn seedlings sown in low productivity soils to that in high productivity soils and shift the root mycobiome composition. Fungal inoculation treatments did not have significantly different root mycobiome composition than seedlings grown in low yield control …


Astronauts Plasma-Derived Exosomes Induced Aberrant Ezh2-Mediated H3k27me3 Epigenetic Regulation Of The Vitamin D Receptor, Malik Bisserier, Agnieszka Brojakowska, Nathaniel Saffran, Amit Kumar Rai, Brooke Lee, Matthew Coleman, Aimy Sebastian, Angela Evans, Paul J Mills, Sankar Addya, Arsen Arakelyan, Venkata Naga Srikanth Garikipati, Lahouaria Hadri, David A Goukassian 2022 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

Astronauts Plasma-Derived Exosomes Induced Aberrant Ezh2-Mediated H3k27me3 Epigenetic Regulation Of The Vitamin D Receptor, Malik Bisserier, Agnieszka Brojakowska, Nathaniel Saffran, Amit Kumar Rai, Brooke Lee, Matthew Coleman, Aimy Sebastian, Angela Evans, Paul J Mills, Sankar Addya, Arsen Arakelyan, Venkata Naga Srikanth Garikipati, Lahouaria Hadri, David A Goukassian

Kimmel Cancer Center Faculty Papers

There are unique stressors in the spaceflight environment. Exposure to such stressors may be associated with adverse effects on astronauts' health, including increased cancer and cardiovascular disease risks. Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs, i.e., exosomes) play a vital role in intercellular communication and regulate various biological processes contributing to their role in disease pathogenesis. To assess whether spaceflight alters sEVs transcriptome profile, sEVs were isolated from the blood plasma of 3 astronauts at two different time points: 10 days before launch (L-10) and 3 days after return (R+3) from the Shuttle mission. AC16 cells (human cardiomyocyte cell line) were treated with …


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