# Nanotechnology Fabrication Commons™

Articles 1 - 30 of 466

## Full-Text Articles in Nanotechnology Fabrication

Feb 2023

#### Heidelberg Dwl66+ Laser Writer (Lw-01) Standard Operating Procedure, David J. Jones

##### Protocols and Reports

Standard operating procedure (SOP) for Heidelberg DWL66+ laser writer.

Lesker Pvd75 E-Beam/Thermal Evaporator (Pvd-02) Standard Operating Procedure, David S. Barth, Jason A. Röhr Jan 2023

#### Lesker Pvd75 E-Beam/Thermal Evaporator (Pvd-02) Standard Operating Procedure, David S. Barth, Jason A. Röhr

##### Standard Operating Procedures

Standard Operating Procedure for the Lesker PVD75 E-beam/Thermal Evaporator (PVD-02) located at the Quattrone Nanofabrication Facility within the Singh Center for Nanotechnology at the University of Pennsylvania

Dec 2022

#### Carrier Transport Engineering In Wide Bandgap Semiconductors For Photonic And Memory Device Applications, Ravi Teja Velpula

##### Dissertations

Wide bandgap (WBG) semiconductors play a crucial role in the current solid-state lighting technology. The AlGaN compound semiconductor is widely used for ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), however, the efficiency of these LEDs is largely in a single-digit percentage range due to several factors. Until recently, AlInN alloy has been relatively unexplored, though it holds potential for light-emitters operating in the visible and UV regions. In this dissertation, the first axial AlInN core-shell nanowire UV LEDs operating in the UV-A and UV-B regions with an internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of 52% are demonstrated. Moreover, the light extraction efficiency of this …

Wearable Sensors For Plants, Nafize Ishtiaque Hossain Dec 2022

#### Wearable Sensors For Plants, Nafize Ishtiaque Hossain

##### Electrical Engineering Theses

This thesis reports PlantFit: a research and development project that is intended to develop wearable sensors for plants. Plants are responsible for providing food, fiber, fuel, and fodder to the society. To overcome the problem of a limited land base, a more efficient farming approach needs to be developed, and thus precision farming is required. Precision farming would entail personalized healthcare in plants. When the plant is under any stress, the productivity declines. Plants release phytohormones, also known as early responders, in response to these stressors. The key crop phytohormones that respond to environmental stresses include salicylic acid (SA), indole-3-acetic …

#### An Integrated Electronic-Skin Patch For Real-Time And Continuous Monitoring Of A Panel Of Biomarkers Combined With Drug Delivery, Tanzila Noushin

##### Electrical Engineering Theses

Inflammatory biomarkers present in the human body play a vital role in medical field by guiding the clinician in decision-making for many diseases. The levels of these inflammatory biomarkers are associated with the severity and progress of several diseases. Researchers have found that increasing severity of many diseases such as cardiovascular disease, after surgery infection, and adverse clinical outcomes due to infectious diseases, results in the elevation of the level of inflammatory biomarkers in human sweat. Furthermore, the inflammatory cytokines indicate the pathophysiology and prognosis of critically ill SARS‑CoV‑2 patients. In this thesis work, different sensors have been developed for …

Cnt Metamaterial Fabrication 3d Printing Mask Process, Jose J. Rivero Iii Nov 2022

#### Cnt Metamaterial Fabrication 3d Printing Mask Process, Jose J. Rivero Iii

##### 2022 MME Undergraduate Research Symposium

The demand for clean energy is rising with the global population. Renewable energy sources, such as solar, will play a key role in the years ahead. Solar energy has a key problem with energy storage as the energy produced during peak solar hours must be used immediately or stored. Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) have unique electrostatic properties, similar to metals, capable of producing and storing electric energy in the form of a capacitor. The CNTs are to be arranged in a pattern using 3D printing to generate a Split Ring

Resonator (SRR) metamaterial. Past research has shown generating CNT SRR patterns …

Redefining Research In Nanotechnology Simulations: A New Approach To Data Caching And Analysis, Darin Tsai, Alan Zhang, Aloysius Rebeiro Nov 2022

#### Redefining Research In Nanotechnology Simulations: A New Approach To Data Caching And Analysis, Darin Tsai, Alan Zhang, Aloysius Rebeiro

##### The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.

Nov 2022

#### Design Of Arbitrary Planar Optical Devices With Full Phase Control Using Nanoimprinting Of Refractive Index, Matthew Panipinto

##### All Theses

Planar optical devices offer a lightweight solution to the constraints found in traditional optical devices. While subwavelength patterning of optics offers attractive performance and size, traditional fabrication methods demand a trade-off between resolution and throughput that presents a significant hurdle for the widespread use of subwavelength devices. Nanoimprinting of refractive index (NIRI) is a novel fabrication method pioneered in previous work that offers promise in mitigating the throughput issues that hamstring traditional fabrication methods. However, NIRI has not been shown to impart full $2\pi$ phase control in planar optical devices, nor has a method for fabricating arbitrary designs using the …

Electrical Characterization Of Solar Cell Using Arduino And Polarization Film, Mark Lancaster, Ahana Jhamb, Xilai Song, Marissa Youderian, Gabriel Unger, Gyuseok L. Kim Aug 2022

#### Electrical Characterization Of Solar Cell Using Arduino And Polarization Film, Mark Lancaster, Ahana Jhamb, Xilai Song, Marissa Youderian, Gabriel Unger, Gyuseok L. Kim

##### Educational Materials

A solar cell laboratory course for high school and college undergraduate students is proposed. The electrical characterization of the solar cell is performed to confirm the functionality of the device as both a diode and a power source. The efficiency of the solar cell in the illuminated condition is found to be 13.1 %. We find the efficiency of the solar cell slightly decreases as the intensity of light decreases. However, there is no significant difference in efficiency except for in the opaque condition. A calibrated solar cell, multimeter, current sensor, Arduino, coding and polarization are used to perform the …

A Statistical Method To Optimize The Chemical Etching Process Of Zinc Oxide Thin Films, David D. Lynes, Hengky Chandrahalim, Justin M. Brown, Karanvir Singh, Kyle T. Bodily, Kevin D. Leedy Aug 2022

#### A Statistical Method To Optimize The Chemical Etching Process Of Zinc Oxide Thin Films, David D. Lynes, Hengky Chandrahalim, Justin M. Brown, Karanvir Singh, Kyle T. Bodily, Kevin D. Leedy

##### Faculty Publications

Zinc oxide (ZnO) is an attractive material for microscale and nanoscale devices. Its desirable semiconductor, piezoelectric and optical properties make it useful in applications ranging from microphones to missile warning systems to biometric sensors. This work introduces a demonstration of blending statistics and chemical etching of thin films to identify the dominant factors and interaction between factors, and develop statistically enhanced models on etch rate and selectivity of c-axis-oriented nanocrystalline ZnO thin films. Over other mineral acids, ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) solutions have commonly been used to wet etch microscale ZnO devices because of their controllable etch rate and …

Raman Thermometry Of Graphene Based Thermal Materials, Pengcheng Xu Aug 2022

#### Raman Thermometry Of Graphene Based Thermal Materials, Pengcheng Xu

##### Electrical Engineering Theses and Dissertations

With the growing demand for high performance computing, we are pushing for higher performance integrated circuits at an ever faster rate. Recent advances in semiconductor production technology sees transistors with a 5 nm process devices being produced for consumer use. This enabled engineers to pack tens of billions of transistors in a package no larger than a fingernail. However, that brings up a problem that we have been long battling against. How can we get rid of the heat produced by these billions of transistors. The current electronic performance is bottle-necked by the ability of the package taking heat away …

Subwavelength Engineering Of Silicon Photonic Waveguides, Farhan Bin Tarik Aug 2022

#### Subwavelength Engineering Of Silicon Photonic Waveguides, Farhan Bin Tarik

##### All Dissertations

The dissertation demonstrates subwavelength engineering of silicon photonic waveguides in the form of two different structures or avenues: (i) a novel ultra-low mode area v-groove waveguide to enhance light-matter interaction; and (ii) a nanoscale sidewall crystalline grating performed as physical unclonable function to achieve hardware and information security. With the advancement of modern technology and modern supply chain throughout the globe, silicon photonics is set to lead the global semiconductor foundries, thanks to its abundance in nature and a mature and well-established industry. Since, the silicon waveguide is the heart of silicon photonics, it can be considered as the core …

Aug 2022

#### Digital And Gradient Refractive Index Planar Optics By Nanoimprinting Porous Silicon, Anna Hardison

##### All Theses

Due to the drawbacks of traditional refractive optics, the implementation of planar or nearly planar optical devices has been of research interest for over a century. Subwavelength gratings are a particularly promising option for creating flat optical devices; however, the implementation of subwavelength grating-based optics is limited by fabrication constraints. Recently, we implemented flat optical devices using the nanoimprinting of refractive index (NIRI) process, a process which was pioneered in a previous study but remained largely unproven in terms of device fabrication. The planar, gradient index microlenses we fabricated were found to possess an effective medium similar to a subwavelength …

#### Characterization Of Electrophoretic Deposited Zinc Oxide Nanopartices For The Fabrication Of Next-Generation Nanoscale Electronic Applications, Fawwaz Abduh A. Hazzazi

##### LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Several reports state that it is crucial to analyze nanoscale semiconductor materials and devices with potential benefits to meet the need for next-generation nanoelectronics, bio, and nanosensors. The progress in the electronics field is as significant now, with modern technology constantly evolving and a greater focus on more efficient robust optoelectronic applications. This dissertation focuses on the study and examination of the practicality of Electrophoretic Deposition (EPD) of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) for use in semiconductor applications.

The feasibility of several synthesized electrolytes, with and without surfactants and APTES surface functionalization, is discussed. The primary objective of this study …

Noncontact Liquid Crystalline Broadband Optoacoustic Sensors [U.S. Patent Us11366054b2], Hengky Chandrahalim, Michael T. Dela Cruz Jun 2022

#### Noncontact Liquid Crystalline Broadband Optoacoustic Sensors [U.S. Patent Us11366054b2], Hengky Chandrahalim, Michael T. Dela Cruz

##### Faculty Publications

An optoacoustic sensor includes a liquid crystal (LC) cell formed between top and bottom plates of transparent material. A transverse grating formed across the LC cell that forms an optical transmission bandgap. A CL is aligned to form a spring-like, tunable Bragg grating that is naturally responsive to external agitations providing a spectral transition regime, or edge, in the optical transmission bandgap of the transverse grating that respond to broadband acoustic waves. The optoacoustic sensor includes a narrowband light source that is oriented to transmit light through the top plate, the LC cell, and the bottom plate. The optoacoustic sensor …

Hinged Temperature-Immune Self-Referencing Fabry–Pérot Cavity Sensors [Us Patent Us11320596b2], Jeremiah C. Williams, Hengky Chandrahalim May 2022

#### Hinged Temperature-Immune Self-Referencing Fabry–Pérot Cavity Sensors [Us Patent Us11320596b2], Jeremiah C. Williams, Hengky Chandrahalim

##### Faculty Publications

A passive microscopic Fabry-Pérot Interferometer (FPI) sensor includes a three-dimensional microscopic optical structure formed on a cleaved tip of the optical fighter using a two-photon polymerization process on a photosensitive polymer by a three-dimensional micromachining device. The three-dimensional microscopic optical structure having a hinged optical layer pivotally connected to a distal portion of a suspended structure. A reflective layer is deposited on a mirror surface of the hinged optical layer while in an open position. The hinged optical layer is subsequently positioned in the closed position to align the mirror surface to at least partially reflect a light signal back …

Porous Silicon Photonics For Label-Free Interferometric Biosensing And Flat Optics, Tahmid Hassan Talukdar May 2022

#### Porous Silicon Photonics For Label-Free Interferometric Biosensing And Flat Optics, Tahmid Hassan Talukdar

##### All Dissertations

This dissertation uses porous silicon as a material platform to explore novel optical effects in three domains: (i) It studies dispersion engineering in integrated waveguides to achieve high performance group index sensing. With proper design parameters, the sensor waveguides can theoretically achieve 6 times larger group index shift compared to the actual bulk effective refractive index shift. We demonstrate the guided mode confinement factor to be a key parameter in design and implementation of these waveguides. (ii) It explores multicolor laser illumination to experimentally demonstrate perceptually enhanced colorimetric sensing, overcoming the limitations faced by many contemporary colorimetric sensors. Our technique …

Photoassisted Nanoscale Memory Resistors, Amir Shariffar May 2022

#### Photoassisted Nanoscale Memory Resistors, Amir Shariffar

Memristors or memory resistors are promising two-terminal devices, which have the potential to revolutionize current electronic memory technologies. Memristors have been extensively investigated and reported to be practical devices, although they still suffer from poor stability, low retention time, and laborious fabrication processes.

The primary aim of this project was to achieve a device structure of quantum dots or thin films to address a fundamental challenge of unstable resistive switching behavior in memristors. Moreover, we aimed to investigate the effects of light illumination in terms of intensity and wavelength on the performance of the fabricated memristor. The parameters such as …

Jan 2022

#### Dielectrophoretic Trapping Of Carbon Nanotubes For Temperature Sensing, Kaylee Burdette

##### Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Conventional sensors are rapidly approaching efficiency limitations at their current size. In designing more efficient sensors, low dimensional materials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), quantum dots, and DNA origami can be used to enable higher degrees of sensitivity. Because of the high atomic surface to core ratio, these materials can be used to detect slight changes in chemical composition, strain, and temperature. CNTs offer unique advantages in different types of sensors due to their electromechanical properties. In temperature sensing, the high responsiveness to temperature and durability can be used to produce an accurate, reliable sensor in even extreme temperatures. This …

Grand Challenges In Low Temperature Plasmas, Xinpei Lu, Peter J. Bruggeman, Stephan Reuter, George Naidis, Annemie Bogaerts, Mounir Laroussi, Michael Keidar, Eric Robert, Jean-Michel Pouvesle, Dawei Liu, Kostya (Ken) Ostrikov Jan 2022

#### Grand Challenges In Low Temperature Plasmas, Xinpei Lu, Peter J. Bruggeman, Stephan Reuter, George Naidis, Annemie Bogaerts, Mounir Laroussi, Michael Keidar, Eric Robert, Jean-Michel Pouvesle, Dawei Liu, Kostya (Ken) Ostrikov

##### Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

Low temperature plasmas (LTPs) enable to create a highly reactive environment at near ambient temperatures due to the energetic electrons with typical kinetic energies in the range of 1 to 10 eV (1 eV = 11600K), which are being used in applications ranging from plasma etching of electronic chips and additive manufacturing to plasma-assisted combustion. LTPs are at the core of many advanced technologies. Without LTPs, many of the conveniences of modern society would simply not exist. New applications of LTPs are continuously being proposed. Researchers are facing many grand challenges before these new applications can be translated to practice. …

Low Loss Plasmon-Assisted Integrated Photonics, Dhruv Fomra Jan 2022

#### Low Loss Plasmon-Assisted Integrated Photonics, Dhruv Fomra

##### Theses and Dissertations

Photonic integrated circuits (PICs), semiconductor chips with both photonic and electronic elements, are seeing rapid development and have the potential to transform several industries, such as autonomous driving, computing, telecommunication and quantum networks. However, realization and wide adoption of PICs across the various fields faces a key challenge – soze disparity between electronic (~0.01 um) and photonic components (~100’s of um). Plasmonics, a technology which confines light to the interface of metals and dielectrics, has a potential to address challenges. In particular, it has been shown to led to smaller devices (~10 um or less), enabling higher density optical circuits …

Dec 2021

#### Iii-Nitride Nanostructures: Photonics And Memory Device Applications, Barsha Jain

##### Dissertations

III-nitride materials are extensively studied for various applications. Particularly, III-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have become the major component of the current solid-state lighting (SSL) technology. Current III-nitride-based phosphor-free white color LEDs (White LEDs) require an electron blocking layer (EBL) between the device active region and p-GaN to control the electron overflow from the active region, which has been identified as one of the primary reasons to adversely affect the hole injection process. In this dissertation, the effect of electronically coupled quantum well (QW) is investigated to reduce electron overflow in the InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire phosphor-free white LEDs and to improve the …

Dec 2021

#### Synthetic Aperture Optical Imaging Interferometric Microscopy With Improved Image Quality, Preyom K. Dey

##### Electrical and Computer Engineering ETDs

The resolution limit of optical microscopy can be extended by using Imaging Interferometric Microscopy (IIM), which uses a low numerical aperture (NA) objective lens to achieve resolution equivalent to that of a high-NA objective lens with multiple sub-images. Along with the resolution enhancement challenge, IIM often suffers from poor image quality. In this dissertation, several image quality improvement methods are proposed and verified with simulation and experimental results. Next, techniques to extend the resolution limit of IIM to ≤ 100nm using a low-NA objective lens are demonstrated. An experimental technique of using a grating coupler on …

Machine Learning Approach To Stability Analysis Of Semiconductor Memory Element, Ravindra Thanniru, Gautam Kapila, Nibhrat Lohia Dec 2021

#### Machine Learning Approach To Stability Analysis Of Semiconductor Memory Element, Ravindra Thanniru, Gautam Kapila, Nibhrat Lohia

##### SMU Data Science Review

Memory stability analysis traditionally relied heavily on circuit simulation-based approaches that run Monte Carlo (MC) analysis over various manufacturing and use condition parameters. This paper researches application of Machine Learning approaches for memory element failure analysis which could mimic simulation-like accuracy and minimize the need for engineers to rely heavily on simulators for their validations. Both regressor and classifier algorithms are benchmarked for accuracy and recall scores. A high recall score implies fewer escapes of fails to field and is the metric of choice for comparing algorithm. The paper identifies that recall score in excess of 0.97 can be achieved …

Incorporation Of Zinc In Pre-Alloyed Cuin[Zn]S2/Zns Quantum Dots, Jean Carlos Morales Orocu Dec 2021

#### Incorporation Of Zinc In Pre-Alloyed Cuin[Zn]S2/Zns Quantum Dots, Jean Carlos Morales Orocu

Since the early 2000s heavy-metal-free quantum dots (QDs) such as CuInS2/ZnS have attempted to replace CdSe, their heavy-metal-containing counterparts. CuInS2/ZnS is synthesized in a two-step process that involves the fabrication of CuInS2 (CIS) nanocrystals (NCs) followed by the addition of zinc precursors. Instead of the usual core/shell architecture often exhibited by binary QDs, coating CIS QDs results in alloyed and/or partially alloyed cation-exchange (CATEX) QDs. The effect that zinc has on the properties of CIS NCs was studied by incorporating zinc during the first step of the synthesis. Different In:Cu:Zn ratios were employed in this study, maintaining a constant 4:1 …

Dec 2021

#### Additive Manufacturing Using Robotic Manipulators, Fdm, And Aerosol Jet Printers., Alexander Curry

##### Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Additive manufacturing has created countless new opportunities for fabrication of devices in the past few years. Advances in additive manufacturing continue to change the way that many devices are fabricated by simplifying processes and often lowering cost. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is the most common form of 3D printing. It is a well-developed process that can print various plastic materials into three-dimensional structures. This technology is used in a lot of industries for rapid prototyping and sometimes small batch manufacturing. It is very inexpensive, and a prototype can be created in a few hours, rather than days. This is useful …

Dec 2021

#### Multifunctional Programmable Self-Assembled Nanoparticles In Nanomedicine, Yoshie Sakamaki

Developing methodologies to control the architecture of nanoparticles (NPs) at the atomic level prevents their inhomogeneity and leads to a variety of expected functions. Rationally designed nanoparticles can either be programmed or crystallized structures into pre-determined structures achieving tunable particle pore size and physiochemistry. In this dissertation, two broad classes of multifunctional nanoparticles are developed, metal-organic frameworks and DNA-NP aggregates.

Metal-organic frameworks are a novel class of highly porous crystalline materials built from organic linkers and metal cluster-based secondary building units. However, applications in bioremediation have not been developed very well especially in applications regarding drug delivery systems (DDS). The …

Make And Characterize Microfluidic Devices With Gelatin: Do-It-Yourself (Diy) Laboratory At Home, Marissa Youderian, Xilai Song, Mark Lancaster, Ahana Jhamb, David J. Jones, Gyuseok L. Kim Nov 2021

#### Make And Characterize Microfluidic Devices With Gelatin: Do-It-Yourself (Diy) Laboratory At Home, Marissa Youderian, Xilai Song, Mark Lancaster, Ahana Jhamb, David J. Jones, Gyuseok L. Kim

##### Educational Materials

Microfluidic devices have been fabricated with gelatin and paper clips. Optimization of fabrication and characterization process has been carried out systemically by varying gelatin-to-water ratio, bonding time and connector type. We find that the higher gelatin-to-water ratio and the luer lock syringe tip provide a greater success rate, whereas the influence of bonding time is limited. The Reynolds number was calculated to identify whether the fluid shows laminar or turbulent flow.

Mems Device Demonstration For High School Students Or Nonspecialists, Jeffrey Meng, Gyuseok L. Kim, Gabriel Unger Oct 2021

#### Mems Device Demonstration For High School Students Or Nonspecialists, Jeffrey Meng, Gyuseok L. Kim, Gabriel Unger

##### Educational Materials

Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) devices have many unique advantages, and offer an exciting entrance for students into the field of nanotechnology and nanofabrication. In this article, an educational hands-on laboratory protocol with MEMS devices is proposed. Using a paper airplane, an Arduino, and the MPU 6050 MEMS accelerometer/gyroscope sensor students are able to create a graphical aircraft attitude indicator. The data is then processed on the Arduino, which is connected to a computer. The computer can then run graphics software displaying a digital aircraft attitude indicator showing the roll and pitch of the aircraft live.

Modeling And Characterization Of Optical Metasurfaces, Mahsa Torfeh Oct 2021

#### Modeling And Characterization Of Optical Metasurfaces, Mahsa Torfeh

##### Masters Theses

Metasurfaces are arrays of subwavelength meta-atoms that shape waves in a compact and planar form factor. During recent years, metasurfaces have gained a lot of attention due to their compact form factor, easy integration with other devices, multi functionality and straightforward fabrication using conventional CMOS techniques. To provide and evaluate an efficient metasurface, an optimized design, high resolution fabrication and accurate measurement is required. Analysis and design of metasurfaces require accurate methods for modeling their interactions with waves. Conventional modeling techniques assume that metasurfaces are locally periodic structures excited by plane waves, restricting their applicability to gradually varying metasurfaces that …