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Effect Of Group Size On The Activity Budget Of Two Captive Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes), Kaeley Sullins 2019 Central Washington University

Effect Of Group Size On The Activity Budget Of Two Captive Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes), Kaeley Sullins

All Master's Theses

Captive facilities housing chimpanzees are required to provide adequate care and provisions such as dietary, social, and environmental enrichment to promote the psychological well-being of the apes in their care. Chimpanzees are social creatures and changes in groups as well as relocation to a facility with new social partners, can impact each individual chimpanzee’s welfare. By tracking each chimpanzee’s activity budgets, managers can assess welfare and make improvements or adjustments if necessary. I looked at the activity budgets of two captive chimpanzees after the death of a group member and the two chimpanzees’ subsequent relocation to a novel, more socially …


Rationale And Design Of A Remote Web-Based Daily Dairy Study Examining Sexual Minority Stress, Relationship Factors, And Alcohol Use In Same-Sex Female Couples Across The United States: Study Protocol Of Project Relate, Kristin E. Heron, Robin J. Lewis, Alexander T. Shappie, Charlotte A. Dawson, Rachel Amerson, Abby L. Braitman, Barbara A. Winstead, Michelle L. Kelley 2019 Old Dominion University

Rationale And Design Of A Remote Web-Based Daily Dairy Study Examining Sexual Minority Stress, Relationship Factors, And Alcohol Use In Same-Sex Female Couples Across The United States: Study Protocol Of Project Relate, Kristin E. Heron, Robin J. Lewis, Alexander T. Shappie, Charlotte A. Dawson, Rachel Amerson, Abby L. Braitman, Barbara A. Winstead, Michelle L. Kelley

Psychology Faculty Publications

Background: The Healthy People 2020 initiative aims to reduce health disparities, including alcohol use, among sexual minority women (SMW; eg, lesbian, bisexual, queer, and pansexual). Compared with heterosexual women, SMW engage in more hazardous drinking and report more alcohol-related problems. Sexual minority stress (ie, the unique experiences associated with stigmatization and marginalization) has been associated with alcohol use among SMW. Among heterosexuals, relationship factors (eg, partner violence and drinking apart vs together) have also been associated with alcohol use. Negative affect has also been identified as a contributor to alcohol use. To date, most studies examining alcohol use among SMW …


Using Personality Traits To Predict Pectoral Fin Contact Initiation Role In Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus), Riley Paige Macgregor 2018 University of Southern Mississippi

Using Personality Traits To Predict Pectoral Fin Contact Initiation Role In Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus), Riley Paige Macgregor

Master's Theses

Contact with the pectoral fin facilitates formation and maintenance of social relationships between dolphins (Dudzinski & Ribic, 2017). Additionally, several studies have shown that bottlenose dolphins have distinct personalities that are consistent across time and situation (e.g., Highfill & Kuczaj, 2007; Kuczaj, Highfill, & Byerly, 2012), and it has been suggested that these individual differences (i.e., personality) may influence tactile behavior exchanges. The current study therefore aimed to determine if bottlenose dolphin personality traits predict whether and how dolphins initiate contact as a rubber or rubbee during pectoral fin contact exchanges, and to identify whether the effects of personality traits …


The Mediating Role Of Health Consciousness In The Relation Between Emotional Intelligence And Health Behaviors, Adriana Espinosa, Selma Kadic-Maglajlic 2018 CUNY City College

The Mediating Role Of Health Consciousness In The Relation Between Emotional Intelligence And Health Behaviors, Adriana Espinosa, Selma Kadic-Maglajlic

Publications and Research

The goals of this study were to identify groups of health-related behaviors among young adults (N = 314, Mage = 21.94, SD = 6.53), gauge the relation between emotional intelligence and health behaviors in this population, and assess health consciousness as mediator of said relation. Latent class analysis identified two mutually exclusive health behavior groups, which according to response patterns were labeled as Healthy and Unhealthy.The Healthy group(56%)was composed of individuals who had a healthy diet (i.e.,low fat and high fiber),exercised regularly,and who frequently engaged in behaviors that prevent oral and skin-related diseases. In contrast, the Unhealthy group (44%) rarely …


Effect Of Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Humanistic And Interpersonal Training Vs Internet-Based General Health Education On Adolescent Depression In Primary Care, Tracy R. G. Gladstone, Daniela A. Terrizzi, Allison Paulson, Jennifer Nidetz, Jason Canel, Eumene Ching, Anita D. Berry, James Cantorna, Joshua Fogel, Milton Eder, Megan Bolotin, Lauren O. Thomann, Kathy Griffiths, Patrick Ip, David A. Aaby, C. Hendricks Brown, William Beardslee, Carl Bell, Theodore J. Crawford, Marian Fitzgibbon, Linda Schiffer, Nina Liu, Monika Marko-Holguin, Benjamin W. Van Voorhees 2018 Wellesley College

Effect Of Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Humanistic And Interpersonal Training Vs Internet-Based General Health Education On Adolescent Depression In Primary Care, Tracy R. G. Gladstone, Daniela A. Terrizzi, Allison Paulson, Jennifer Nidetz, Jason Canel, Eumene Ching, Anita D. Berry, James Cantorna, Joshua Fogel, Milton Eder, Megan Bolotin, Lauren O. Thomann, Kathy Griffiths, Patrick Ip, David A. Aaby, C. Hendricks Brown, William Beardslee, Carl Bell, Theodore J. Crawford, Marian Fitzgibbon, Linda Schiffer, Nina Liu, Monika Marko-Holguin, Benjamin W. Van Voorhees

Publications and Research

Importance: Although 13% to 20% of American adolescents experience a depressive episode annually, no scalable primary care model for adolescent depression prevention is currently available.

Objective: To study whether competent adulthood transition with cognitive behavioral humanistic and interpersonal training (CATCH-IT) lowers the hazard for depression in at-risk adolescents identified in primary care, as compared with a general health education (HE) attention control.

Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter, randomized clinical trial, a phase 3 single-blind study, compares CATCH-IT with HE. Participants were enrolled from 2012 to 2016 and assessed at 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postrandomization in …


Conceptualization And Measurement Of Adolescent Prosocial Behavior: A Two-Study Mixed Methods Investigation, Shereen El Mallah 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Conceptualization And Measurement Of Adolescent Prosocial Behavior: A Two-Study Mixed Methods Investigation, Shereen El Mallah

Doctoral Dissertations

Prosocial behavior is a multifaceted construct that may be expressed and received in a myriad of ways, thereby posing several challenges in measurement. Undoubtedly, significant advancements in the measurement of prosocial behavior have been made since the construct first found its way onto the research stage; however, a few fundamental problems persist with regard to: 1) the absence of a universally employed definition, 2) substantial variation in operationalization and measurement of the construct, and 3) inconsistent reports regarding the nature of prosocial development during the transition between adolescence and young adulthood. These issues are further compounded under conditions of adversity …


Spatio-Temporal Distribution Of Negative Emotions In New York City After A Natural Disaster As Seen In Social Media, Oliver Gruebner, Sarah R. Lowe, Martin Sykora, Ketan Shankardass, SV Subramanian, Sandro Galea 2018 University of Zurich

Spatio-Temporal Distribution Of Negative Emotions In New York City After A Natural Disaster As Seen In Social Media, Oliver Gruebner, Sarah R. Lowe, Martin Sykora, Ketan Shankardass, Sv Subramanian, Sandro Galea

Department of Psychology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

Disasters have substantial consequences for population mental health. We used Twitter to (1) extract negative emotions indicating discomfort in New York City (NYC) before, during, and after Superstorm Sandy in 2012. We further aimed to (2) identify whether pre- or peri-disaster discomfort were associated with peri- or post-disaster discomfort, respectively, and to (3) assess geographic variation in discomfort across NYC census tracts over time. Our sample consisted of 1,018,140 geo-located tweets that were analyzed with an advanced sentiment analysis called ”Extracting the Meaning Of Terse Information in a Visualization of Emotion” (EMOTIVE). We calculated discomfort rates for 2137 NYC census …


Demographics Regarding Belief In Non-Human Animal Sentience And Emotional Empathy With Animals: A Pilot Study Among Attendees Of An Animal Welfare Symposium, Amelia Cornish, Bethany Wilson, David Raubenheimer, Paul McGreevy 2018 University of Sydney

Demographics Regarding Belief In Non-Human Animal Sentience And Emotional Empathy With Animals: A Pilot Study Among Attendees Of An Animal Welfare Symposium, Amelia Cornish, Bethany Wilson, David Raubenheimer, Paul Mcgreevy

Societal Attitudes Toward Animals Collection

Attitudes to animals are linked to beliefs about their ability to experience pain and suffering, their cognition, and their sentience. Education and awareness-raising play a pivotal role in increasing society’s consideration of non-human animal welfare. The current pilot study explores the attitudes towards animal welfare among a unique population of people who attended an animal welfare symposium at the University of Sydney. It involved administration of a validated questionnaire that assessed attitudes to animals; specifically exploring participants’ (n = 41) beliefs about the sentience of animals and their emotional empathy with animals. The resultant data revealed significant associations between participants’ …


Prison-Based Dog Training Programs: Standard Protocol, Tyler M. Han, Erin Flynn, Joseph Winchell, Emily Gould, Jaci Gandenberger, Dana Barattin, Philip Tedeschi, Kevin N. Morris 2018 University of Denver

Prison-Based Dog Training Programs: Standard Protocol, Tyler M. Han, Erin Flynn, Joseph Winchell, Emily Gould, Jaci Gandenberger, Dana Barattin, Philip Tedeschi, Kevin N. Morris

Animal Training and Obedience Collection

Across the United States, the number of prison-based dog training programs (PDPs) has increased substantially over the past several years. Currently, there are approximately 255 PDPs across 47 states that operate in a variety of correctional settings; however, there is little information available on how to successfully develop and implement a PDP. As a result, the research team from the Institute for Human-Animal Connection (IHAC) has developed a standard protocol to help guide PDP development and implementation.

This report identifies common practices of PDPs and incorporates both general and context-specific recommendations that were gathered from interviews with PDP staff, relevant …


Looking On The Bright Side Of Livestock Emotions—The Potential Of Their Transmission To Promote Positive Welfare, Luigi Baciadonna, Sandra Duepjan, Elodie Briefer, Mónica Padilla de la Torre, Christian Nawroth 2018 Queen Mary University of London

Looking On The Bright Side Of Livestock Emotions—The Potential Of Their Transmission To Promote Positive Welfare, Luigi Baciadonna, Sandra Duepjan, Elodie Briefer, Mónica Padilla De La Torre, Christian Nawroth

Emotion Collection

Emotions can be defined as an individual’s affective reaction to an external and/or internal event that, in turn, generates a simultaneous cascade of behavioral, physiological, and cognitive changes. Those changes that can be perceived by conspecifics have the potential to also affect other’s emotional states, a process labeled as “emotional contagion.” Especially in the case of gregarious species, such as livestock, emotional contagion can have an impact on the whole group by, for instance, improving group coordination and strengthening social bonds. We noticed that the current trend of research on emotions in livestock, i.e., investigating affective states as a tool …


Human-Directed Behaviour In Goats Is Not Affected By Short-Term Positive Handling, Jan Langbein, Annika Krause, Christian Nawroth 2018 Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology

Human-Directed Behaviour In Goats Is Not Affected By Short-Term Positive Handling, Jan Langbein, Annika Krause, Christian Nawroth

Social Cognition Collection

In addition to domestication, interactions with humans or task-specific training during ontogeny have been proposed to play a key role in explaining differences in human–animal communication across species. In livestock, even short-term positive interactions with caretakers or other reference persons can influence human–animal interaction at different levels and over different periods of time. In this study, we investigated human-directed behaviour in the ‘unsolvable task’ paradigm in two groups of domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus). One group was positively handled and habituated to a plastic box by the experimenter to retrieve a food reward, while the other group only received standard …


Episodic-Like Memory In Dogs: Solving What-Where-When Tasks, Ka Ho Lo 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Episodic-Like Memory In Dogs: Solving What-Where-When Tasks, Ka Ho Lo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Episodic memory is a unique, personal memory that contains what happened, where it happened, and when it happened. Although episodic-like memory (ELM) in non-human animals has been shown using ­­what-where-when (WWW) memory paradigms, it has not previously been shown in dogs. Dogs are an excellent candidate for developing translational models of neurodegenerative disorders related to episodic memory, including Alzheimer’s disease. Dogs were tested on experiments that involved spatially and temporally unique odour sequences. Dogs were tested to see if they remembered the odours, their locations, and their time of presentation by choosing the earlier-exposed odour at the test. Findings suggest …


Examining The Different Learning Strategies Between Extroverts And Introverts Among Flight Students At Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, John R. Brooks 2018 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Examining The Different Learning Strategies Between Extroverts And Introverts Among Flight Students At Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, John R. Brooks

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

Extroverts and introverts have unique approaches to new materials that make learning more efficient. In fields like aviation, where quick learning and responses are required, students struggle because preferred comprehension strategies are not utilized. The research question is whether introverts/extroverts learn better when given the option to approach materials using strategies that match their personality type. A total of twenty-four participants from the Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Flight Program will be chosen and placed into one of two different groups (extrovert/introvert) using a median split. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire – Revised (EPQ-R) will determine personality trait (introvert or extrovert). All participants …


Development Of Semantic Reference For Location Symbols By Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus) Using A Two-Way Communication Keyboard, Alyssa Taylor 2018 University of Southern Mississippi

Development Of Semantic Reference For Location Symbols By Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus) Using A Two-Way Communication Keyboard, Alyssa Taylor

Master's Theses

The ability for humans to communicate with another species has been an aspiration and well documented. One example is through training animals to make associations between a designated cue and conditioned response (Pryor, 1986). Two-way communication, however, in which both species can express wants/needs has been predominantly pursued with apes and dolphins. Studies conducted by Louis Herman demonstrated the capabilities of dolphins to comprehend complex semantic and syntactic commands in an artificial language system (Herman, Richards, & Wolz, 1984). Researchers working with primates have used American Sign Language, a computer keyboard system with discrete lexigrams, and a portable lexigram keyboard …


It's Not Just A Dog: The Role Of Companion Animals In The Family's Emotional System, Cassandra Leow 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

It's Not Just A Dog: The Role Of Companion Animals In The Family's Emotional System, Cassandra Leow

Public Access Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research from the College of Education and Human Sciences

Past studies have looked into the role of companion animals in families. This study intended to explore the role of companion animals in the family’s emotional system through the lens of Bowen Family Systems Theory. Data from a study on companion animal loss and grief were used. A qualitative phenomenological approach was adopted to analyze the data from interviews. Three primary themes emerged from the data: balanced family emotional system, response to relational anxiety and role of the absence companion animal. The first theme suggested that human family members and companion animals developed a balanced family emotional system through companion …


Goats Prefer Positive Human Emotional Facial Expressions, Christian Nawroth, Natalia Albuquerque, Carine Savalli, Marie-Sophie Single, Alan G. McElligott 2018 Queen Mary University of London

Goats Prefer Positive Human Emotional Facial Expressions, Christian Nawroth, Natalia Albuquerque, Carine Savalli, Marie-Sophie Single, Alan G. Mcelligott

Social Cognition Collection

Domestication has shaped the physiology and the behaviour of animals to better adapt to human environments. Therefore, human facial expressions may be highly informative for animals domesticated for working closely with people, such as dogs and horses. However, it is not known whether other animals, and particularly those domesticated primarily for production, such as goats, are capable of perceiving human emotional cues. In this study, we investigated whether goats can distinguish human facial expressions when simultaneously shown two images of an unfamiliar human with different emotional valences (positive/ happy or negative/angry). Both images were vertically attached to a wall on …


An Analysis Of Innovate Training With Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus), Raymond John Van Steyn 2018 CUNY Hunter College

An Analysis Of Innovate Training With Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus), Raymond John Van Steyn

Theses and Dissertations

The National Aquarium in Baltimore, Maryland conducted a training program in 2014 to develop a gestural command for their dolphins called “innovate”. This training paradigm was developed to resemble the seminal research by Pryor, Haag and O’Reilly (1969), as well as more recent efforts of Braslau-Schneck (1993) and Kuczaj and Eskelinen (2014) of training dolphins to offer “creative” behaviors not developed through conventional methods of behavioral modification, such as shaping. The goal of the present study was to observe records taken during the National Aquarium’s training procedure as well as data collected ~3 years after said training in order to …


Human Demonstration Does Not Facilitate The Performance Of Horses (Equus Caballus) In A Spatial Problem-Solving Task, Joan-Bryce Burla, Janina Siegwart, Christian Nawroth 2018 Agroscope Tänikon

Human Demonstration Does Not Facilitate The Performance Of Horses (Equus Caballus) In A Spatial Problem-Solving Task, Joan-Bryce Burla, Janina Siegwart, Christian Nawroth

Spatial Cognition Collection

Horses’ ability to adapt to new environments and to acquire new information plays an important role in handling and training. Social learning in particular would be very adaptive for horses as it enables them to flexibly adjust to new environments. In the context of horse handling, social learning from humans has been rarely investigated but could help to facilitate management practices. We assessed the impact of human demonstration on the spatial problem-solving abilities of horses during a detour task. In this task, a bucket with a food reward was placed behind a double-detour barrier and 16 horses were allocated to …


Cephalopod Complex Cognition, Jennifer Mather 2018 University of Lethbridge

Cephalopod Complex Cognition, Jennifer Mather

Jennifer Mather, PhD

Cephalopods, especially octopuses, offer a different model for the development of complex cognitive operations. They are phylogenetically distant from the mammals and birds that we normally think of as ‘intelligent’ and without the pervasive social interactions and long lives that we associate with this capacity. Additionally, they have a distributed nervous system — central brain, peripheral coordination of arm actions and a completely separate skin appearance system based on muscle-controlled chromatophores. Recent research has begun to show how these apparently separate systems are coordinated. Learning and cognition are used toward prey, in antipredator actions and in courtship. These examples show …


Mating Games Squid Play: Reproductive Behaviour And Sexual Skin Displays In Caribbean Reef Squid Sepioteuthis Sepioidea, Jennifer Mather 2018 University of Lethbridge

Mating Games Squid Play: Reproductive Behaviour And Sexual Skin Displays In Caribbean Reef Squid Sepioteuthis Sepioidea, Jennifer Mather

Jennifer Mather, PhD

Observation of the sexual interactions of Sepioteuthis sepioidea squid during the short reproductive stage of their lives showed a scramble competition system, with both male and female polygyny. Mature females were faithful to a specific location in the daytime, whereas males moved from group to group and formed short-term consortships with females. Males defended females from other males, particularly with an agonistic Zebra display. Male–female pairs exchanged Saddle-Stripe displays, after which males might display an on–off Flicker. There was considerable female choice. Only if a female responded to this display with a parallel Rocking action would she pair and would …


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