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African Penguins Follow The Gaze Direction Of Conspecifics, Christian Nawroth, Egle Trincas, Livio Favaro 2018 Queen Mary University of London

African Penguins Follow The Gaze Direction Of Conspecifics, Christian Nawroth, Egle Trincas, Livio Favaro

Christian Nawroth, PhD

Gaze following is widespread among animals. However, the corresponding ultimate functions may vary substantially. Thus, it is important to study previously understudied (or less studied) species to develop a better understanding of the ecological contexts that foster certain cognitive traits. Penguins (Family Spheniscidae), despite their wide interspecies ecological variation, have previously not been considered for cross-species comparisons. Penguin behaviour and communication have been investigated over the last decades, but less is known on how groups are structured, social hierarchies are established, and coordination for hunting and predator avoidance may occur. In this article, we investigated how African penguins (Spheniscus demersus ...


A Note On Pigs’ Knowledge Of Hidden Objects, Christian Nawroth, Mirjam Ebersbach, Eberhard von Borell 2018 Martin Luther University

A Note On Pigs’ Knowledge Of Hidden Objects, Christian Nawroth, Mirjam Ebersbach, Eberhard Von Borell

Christian Nawroth, PhD

Object permanence is the notion that objects continue to exist even when they are out of observer’s sight. This ability is adaptive for free ranging animals who have to cope with a dangerous and highly changeable environment and allows them to be aware of predators sneaking in their proximity or to keep track of conspecifics or food sources, even when out of sight. Farm animals might also benefit from object permanence because the ability to follow the trajectory of hidden food or objects may lead to a higher predictability of subjects’ environment, which in turn might affect the level ...


Individual Personality Differences In Goats Predict Their Performance In Visual Learning And Non-Associative Cognitive Tasks, Christian Nawroth, Pamela M. Prentice, Alan G. McElligott 2018 Queen Mary University of London

Individual Personality Differences In Goats Predict Their Performance In Visual Learning And Non-Associative Cognitive Tasks, Christian Nawroth, Pamela M. Prentice, Alan G. Mcelligott

Christian Nawroth, PhD

Variation in common personality traits, such as boldness or exploration, is often associated with risk–reward trade–offs and behavioural flexibility. To date, only a few studies have examined the effects of consistent behavioural traits on both learning and cognition. We investigated whether certain personality traits (‘exploration’ and ‘sociability’) of individuals were related to cognitive performance, learning flexibility and learning style in a social ungulate species, the goat (Capra hircus). We also investigated whether a preference for feature cues rather than impaired learning abilities can explain performance variation in a visual discrimination task. We found that personality scores were consistent ...


Individual Personality Differences In Goats Predict Their Performance In Visual Learning And Non-Associative Cognitive Tasks, Christian Nawroth, Pamela M. Prentice, Alan G. McElligott 2018 Queen Mary University of London

Individual Personality Differences In Goats Predict Their Performance In Visual Learning And Non-Associative Cognitive Tasks, Christian Nawroth, Pamela M. Prentice, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, PhD

Variation in common personality traits, such as boldness or exploration, is often associated with risk–reward trade–offs and behavioural flexibility. To date, only a few studies have examined the effects of consistent behavioural traits on both learning and cognition. We investigated whether certain personality traits (‘exploration’ and ‘sociability’) of individuals were related to cognitive performance, learning flexibility and learning style in a social ungulate species, the goat (Capra hircus). We also investigated whether a preference for feature cues rather than impaired learning abilities can explain performance variation in a visual discrimination task. We found that personality scores were consistent ...


Chickens Play To The Crowd, Cinzia Chiandetti 2018 University of Trieste, Department of Life Sciences

Chickens Play To The Crowd, Cinzia Chiandetti

Animal Sentience

The time was ripe for Marino’s review of chickens’ cognitive capacities. The research community, apart from expressing gratitude for Marino’s work, should now use it to increase public awareness of chickens’ abilities. People’s views on many animals are ill-informed. Scientists need to communicate and engage with the public about the relevance and societal implications of their findings.


Displaying Jealous Behavior Versus Experiencing Jealousy, Judit Abdai, Ádám Miklósi 2018 MTA-ELTE Comparative Ethology Research Group

Displaying Jealous Behavior Versus Experiencing Jealousy, Judit Abdai, Ádám Miklósi

Animal Sentience

Jealous behavior is the manifestation of complex behavioral interactions initiated by an individual who aims to maintain an important social relationship that is threatened by a rival. Researchers prefer to focus on the emotion thought to control this behavior, “jealousy,” before understanding the mechanisms of the behavior. Researchers conducting recent behavioral studies on jealous behavior in dogs are still struggling to find strong experimental evidence. Thus, the positive correlation between amygdala activation and reported aggression in dogs described in Cook et al.’s target article is far from constituting evidence for “jealousy” in dogs.


Conceptualization And Measurement Of Adolescent Prosocial Behavior: A Two-Study Mixed Methods Investigation, Shereen El Mallah 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Conceptualization And Measurement Of Adolescent Prosocial Behavior: A Two-Study Mixed Methods Investigation, Shereen El Mallah

Doctoral Dissertations

Prosocial behavior is a multifaceted construct that may be expressed and received in a myriad of ways, thereby posing several challenges in measurement. Undoubtedly, significant advancements in the measurement of prosocial behavior have been made since the construct first found its way onto the research stage; however, a few fundamental problems persist with regard to: 1) the absence of a universally employed definition, 2) substantial variation in operationalization and measurement of the construct, and 3) inconsistent reports regarding the nature of prosocial development during the transition between adolescence and young adulthood. These issues are further compounded under conditions of adversity ...


Social Relationships And Self-Directed Behavior In Hamadryas Baboons (Papio Hamadryas Hamadryas), Melissa C. Painter 2018 Bucknell University

Social Relationships And Self-Directed Behavior In Hamadryas Baboons (Papio Hamadryas Hamadryas), Melissa C. Painter

Master’s Theses

Self-directed behavior, such as self-scratching and self-grooming, is a behavioral indicator of anxiety in nonhuman primates. Patterns of self-directed behavior are used to identify social and environmental factors related to primate anxiety. This study explored the social context in which individuals in a captive group of hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) exhibited self-directed behavior. Self-directed behavior in a partner’s presence was predicted to increase with relationship insecurity. More than 130 hours of behavioral observations were conducted on 12 baboons. Self-directed and social behavior were recorded with focal sampling to determine each animal’s self-directed behavior rate in the presence ...


The Imprint Of Childhood Abuse On Trauma-Related Shame In Adulthood, Joan A. Reid 2018 University of South Florida St. Petersburg

The Imprint Of Childhood Abuse On Trauma-Related Shame In Adulthood, Joan A. Reid

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

Research has consistently linked residual trauma-related shame among child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors to sexual revictimization, health risk behaviors, and poorer response to mental health treatment. However, questions remain regarding the imprint of childhood maltreatment on trauma-related shame including which CSA characteristics or types of childhood maltreatment contribute to residual shame in adulthood. Using data drawn from a prospective study of 174 primarily African American women with histories of CSA and a matched comparison group, this study explores whether specific characteristics of CSA (familial CSA, CSA with penetration, force used by CSA perpetrator), repeat sexual victimization in adolescence, childhood physical ...


Body Image-Acceptance And Action Questionnaire-5: An Abbreviation Using Genetic Algorithms [Accepted Manuscript], Geetanjali Basarkod, Baljinder Sahdra, Joseph Ciarrochi 2018 Australian Catholic University

Body Image-Acceptance And Action Questionnaire-5: An Abbreviation Using Genetic Algorithms [Accepted Manuscript], Geetanjali Basarkod, Baljinder Sahdra, Joseph Ciarrochi

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Body image concerns are typically linked with negative outcomes such as disordered eating and diminished well-being, but some people can exhibit psychological flexibility and remain committed to their valued goals despite being dissatisfied about their bodies. Such flexibility is most frequently measured by the Body Image–Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (BI-AAQ). This study used a recently validated, fully automated method based on genetic algorithms (GAs) on data from an American community sample (N1 = 538, 71.5% female, Age: M = 40.87, SD = 13.5) to abbreviate the 12-item BI-AAQ to a 5-item short form, BI-AAQ-5. Validation tests were conducted ...


Sentience In Fishes: More On The Evidence, Michael L. Woodruff 2018 East Tennessee State University

Sentience In Fishes: More On The Evidence, Michael L. Woodruff

Animal Sentience

In my target article, I argued that the brains of ray-finned fishes of the teleost subclass (Actinopterygii) are sufficiently complex to support sentience — that these fishes have subjective awareness of interoceptive and exteroceptive sense experience. Extending previous theories centered on the tectum, I focused on the organization of the fish pallium. In this Response to the commentaries, I clarify that I do not propose that the fish pallium is, or must be, homologous to the mammalian neocortex to play a role in sentience. Some form of a functionalist approach to explaining the neural basis of sentience across taxa is probably ...


Does Observational Learning Influence Spatial Pattern Learning?, Matthew Bruster 2018 Georgia Southern University

Does Observational Learning Influence Spatial Pattern Learning?, Matthew Bruster

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Previous studies have indicated both human and non-human animals come under control of a hidden spatial pattern when engaged in an open field search task, and rats appear to exhibit social learning in such tasks through the influence of a conspecific on their search behavior. Although human participants appear to perform similarly in both real-world and virtual environment versions of a spatial pattern search task, evidence from human participants for social learning in such a task remains lacking. The current experiments tested the influence of social learning (observational learning) on human performance in a spatial pattern learning task within a ...


Cultural Consultations In Criminal Forensic Psychology: A Thematic Analysis Of The Literature, Alesya Radosteva 2018 Antioch University Seattle

Cultural Consultations In Criminal Forensic Psychology: A Thematic Analysis Of The Literature, Alesya Radosteva

Dissertations & Theses

The importance of culture as a reference point in clinical practices such as forensic psychology has been considerably valued yet poorly understood, especially in an age where precision and sophistication outlast cultural authenticity and patient-clinician relationship. This paper looks at the gaps and inconsistencies that exist in current forensic psychology research. The topic is introduced by delving into the understanding of the phenomenon of culture and its influences on our everyday conditioning. Aspects such as language, biological development, traditions, rituals, and narratives are emphasized as potent tools that drive individuals to create and mold culture according to needs and requirements ...


Is Pecking Aversive To A Pigeon Or Is It Only The Delay To Reinforcement?, Danielle M. Andrews 2018 University of Kentucky

Is Pecking Aversive To A Pigeon Or Is It Only The Delay To Reinforcement?, Danielle M. Andrews

Theses and Dissertations--Psychology

The principle of least effort suggests that animals should minimize effort to reinforcement. Thus, not pecking should be preferred over pecking. However, pigeons often peck when it is allowed but not required (e.g., fixed time schedules) but pecking may be adventitiously reinforced. In the present experiment, to better compare a schedule of reinforcement that requires pecking with one that requires the absence of pecking, we compared a fixed-interval (FI) schedule in which reinforcement follows the first peck after the interval has elapsed and a differential-reinforcement-of-other behavior (DRO) schedule which requires pigeons abstain from pecking for a similar interval. The ...


Behavioral Indicators Of Poor Welfare In Shelter Dogs, Paige M. Adams, Suma Mallavarapu 2017 Kennesaw State University

Behavioral Indicators Of Poor Welfare In Shelter Dogs, Paige M. Adams, Suma Mallavarapu

The Kennesaw Journal of Undergraduate Research

We studied behavioral indicators of poor welfare in shelter dogs. Our research question was: How is the welfare of shelter dogs affected by length of stay at a shelter, age, sex, and breed. Data were collected on 18 dogs from October 2016 to March 2017 at a small private shelter in Marietta, GA. Data were collected in 15-minute sessions when the dogs were in their indoor enclosures. No significant differences were found in time spent in abnormal behaviors among dogs that were at the shelter for less than 1 month, 1-6 months, and longer than 6 months, between males and ...


Signature Whistle Production During A Bottlenose Dolphin Group Integration, Megan S. Broadway 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Signature Whistle Production During A Bottlenose Dolphin Group Integration, Megan S. Broadway

Dissertations

Bottlenose dolphins are an important species of interest because they possess a variety of abilities that are relatively rare in the animal kingdom, one being complex acoustic communication. Signature whistles - distinctive calls that are unique for each individual – are one of the most studied call types, but we know little about how these calls are used in various contexts, such as during an introduction. Looking at the socio-behavioral context in which signature whistles are used is likely the best way of learning how these whistles are used in a particular context (Caldwell, Caldwell, & Tyack, 1990). For this project, the behavior ...


Evaluating Social Network Dynamics Of Bigg’S Killer Whales (Orcinus Orca) And Vessel Traffic Within A Transboundary Region: Implications For Conservation Management, Courtney Smith 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Evaluating Social Network Dynamics Of Bigg’S Killer Whales (Orcinus Orca) And Vessel Traffic Within A Transboundary Region: Implications For Conservation Management, Courtney Smith

Dissertations

The social lives of animals are defined by group dynamics based on the nature and strength of associations and movements between individuals, often resulting in highly complex and interconnected social networks. However, understanding of how environmental variables may shape this structure is poorly understood. Within the inland waters of Washington State and southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, mammal-eating Bigg’s (transient) killer whales occur in relatively small, but stable social groups. Group size and occurrence in recent years has increased, coinciding with a growing whale watching industry. Given the central importance of the social network within killer whale population dynamics ...


The Mental Homologies Of Mammals. Towards An Understanding Of Another Mammalsworld View, Marthe Kiley-Worthington 2017 Centre d'Eco-Etho Recherche et Education

The Mental Homologies Of Mammals. Towards An Understanding Of Another Mammalsworld View, Marthe Kiley-Worthington

Theory of Mind Collection

Mammals’ mental homologies include that they look after their young, suckle and protect them; they acquire information about the world by learning. They have five types of sensory receptors and a brain to analyze the information and they feel: that is they are sentient. Mental homologies have been largely ignored by behavioural scientists since Darwin because of certain historical beliefs. This however has not been the case for people who have had to do with non-human mammals who have long recognized their mental similarities to humans. As a result, behavioural science has sponsored some inappropriate research (examples are given). The ...


Goats Display Audience-Dependent Human-Directed Gazing Behaviour In A Problem-Solving Task, Christian Nawroth, Jemma M. Brett, Alan G. McElligott 2017 Queen Mary University of London

Goats Display Audience-Dependent Human-Directed Gazing Behaviour In A Problem-Solving Task, Christian Nawroth, Jemma M. Brett, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Domestication is an important factor driving changes in animal cognition and behaviour. In particular, the capacity of dogs to communicate in a referential and intentional way with humans is considered a key outcome of how domestication as a companion animal shaped the canid brain. However, the lack of comparison with other domestic animals makes general conclusions about how domestication has affected these important cognitive features difficult. We investigated human-directed behaviour in an ‘unsolvable problem’ task in a domestic, but non-companion species: goats. During the test, goats experienced a forward-facing or an away-facing person. They gazed towards the forward-facing person earlier ...


The Use Of Judgement Bias To Assess Welfare In Farm Livestock, L. Baciadonna, A. G. McElligott 2017 Queen Mary University of London

The Use Of Judgement Bias To Assess Welfare In Farm Livestock, L. Baciadonna, A. G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, PhD

The development of accurate measures of animal emotions is important for improving and promoting animal welfare. Cognitive bias indicates the effect of emotional states on cognitive processes, such as memory, attention, and judgement. Cognitive bias tests complement existing behavioural and physiological measures for assessing the valence of animal emotions indirectly. The judgement bias test has been used to assess emotional states in non-human animals; mainly in laboratory settings. The aim of this review is to summarise the findings on the use of the judgement bias test approach in assessing emotions in non-human animals, focusing in particular on farm livestock. The ...


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