Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Comparative Psychology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

733 Full-Text Articles 744 Authors 399,378 Downloads 64 Institutions

All Articles in Comparative Psychology

Faceted Search

733 full-text articles. Page 2 of 25.

Colombian Women’S Experiences Of Cosmetic Surgery And Its Relationship To Body Image, Austin Gonzalez-Randolph 2021 National Louis University

Colombian Women’S Experiences Of Cosmetic Surgery And Its Relationship To Body Image, Austin Gonzalez-Randolph

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to understand women’s experiences of cosmetic surgery and its effects on body image on women from the Colombian cities of Bogotá and Pereira. The participants of this study were women of Colombian descent, who reside in Colombia. This was done with the hopes of better understanding how culture impacts views on cosmetic surgery. Colombia appears to have a culture that is very enmeshed with cosmetic surgery. This study provides an initial exploratory and qualitative investigation into the perception of body image as it relates to cosmetic surgery among six young women living in Colombia; …


Analysis Of A Rough-Toothed Dolphin (Steno Bredanensis) Introduction In A Human Care Setting, Lindsey Johnson 2021 The University of Southern Mississippi

Analysis Of A Rough-Toothed Dolphin (Steno Bredanensis) Introduction In A Human Care Setting, Lindsey Johnson

Dissertations

Rough-toothed dolphins are a rarely studied species of cetaceans found in temperate and tropical waters throughout the world. These dolphins live in fission-fusion societies and are highly social, swimming in tightly-packed and highly synchronized subgroups consisting of 2-10 individuals. The current study documents the introduction of a stranded calf into an existing population of six rough-toothed dolphins living in a human care setting. Specifically, recordings of vocal and non-vocal behaviors were analyzed across the four phases of the study: baseline, day of introduction, post-introduction, and follow-up. Whistles, a vocal signal associated with social contexts, increased from baseline to post-introduction phases …


Social Context Influences On Behavior Of Carolina Chickadees, Brittany A. Coppinger 2021 University of Tennessee Knoxville

Social Context Influences On Behavior Of Carolina Chickadees, Brittany A. Coppinger

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation assesses fundamental social factors that drive variation in calling and other behaviors of experimental flocks of Carolina chickadees. Specifically, I tested how group member familiarity and group composition affected individual behavior. In addition, I performed a direct experimental test of the Social Complexity Hypothesis for Communicative Complexity, which states that groups that are more socially complex will communicate with greater signal complexity than groups that are less social complex. I consider complexity to be a combination of three factors: the number of parts in a system, the variation among the parts, and the variation in the way those …


Diverging Identities: The Juxtaposition Of Palestinians In Israel And The Occupied Territories, Micah Russell 2021 Brigham Young University

Diverging Identities: The Juxtaposition Of Palestinians In Israel And The Occupied Territories, Micah Russell

Sigma: Journal of Political and International Studies

No abstract provided.


Investigating Social Preferences In A High Fission-Fusion Society Of Black And White Ruffed Lemur (Varecia Variegata), Patricia A. Adamo 2021 CUNY Hunter College

Investigating Social Preferences In A High Fission-Fusion Society Of Black And White Ruffed Lemur (Varecia Variegata), Patricia A. Adamo

Theses and Dissertations

Wild lemur primates were tested for social preferences across behaviors. Study found highly conservative social preferences that were very consistent across all behavioral states, despite high fission fusion traits common of lemur groups. This finding lays the foundation for using nearest-neighbor as a proxy of social preference for future endeavors.


Everyday Memory In People With Down Syndrome, Yingying Yang, Zachary M. Himmelberger, Trent Robinson, Megan Davis, Frances Conners, Edward Merrill 2021 Montclair State University

Everyday Memory In People With Down Syndrome, Yingying Yang, Zachary M. Himmelberger, Trent Robinson, Megan Davis, Frances Conners, Edward Merrill

Department of Psychology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

Although memory functions in people with Down Syndrome (DS) have been studied extensively, how well people with DS remember things about everyday life is not well understood. In the current study, 31 adolescents/young adults with DS and 26 with intellectual disabilities (ID) of mixed etiology (not DS) participated. They completed an everyday memory questionnaire about personal facts and recent events (e.g., school name, breakfast). They also completed a standard laboratory task of verbal long-term memory (LTM) where they recalled a list of unrelated words over trials. Results did not indicate impaired everyday memory, but impaired verbal LTM, in people with …


Social Media & Negative Effects On Body Image, Jack Fechter 2021 Kutztown University of Pennsylvania

Social Media & Negative Effects On Body Image, Jack Fechter

English Department: Research for Change - Wicked Problems in Our World

Since the beginning of the 2010’s, social media has grown to affect every aspect of our daily lives. With children using it earlier in their lives, they are getting mass exposure to societal ideals about what body type should be. This has negatively impacted adolescents’ view of body image, which has led to dissatisfaction with their own bodies. This leads to depressive symptoms and even in some cases suicide, which has gone up among adolescents in the past decade. The article that follows details how and why these issues occur, as well as solutions to fix them. These solutions discussed …


Attention In Social Anxiety Disorder And Depression: Insights From Evoked Brain Responses, Matt Judah 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Attention In Social Anxiety Disorder And Depression: Insights From Evoked Brain Responses, Matt Judah

Publications and Presentations

Social anxiety disorder and depression are thought to involve biased attention. For example, social anxiety may be associated with paying more attention to negative facial expressions. Depression may be associated with less attention to reward. Such biases in attention are thought to maintain symptoms, such as negative thoughts and avoidance. The presentation will describe the history of research examining biased attention in social anxiety disorder and depression. The speaker will present research using evoked brain responses as a window to understanding biased attention. Implications for social anxiety disorder and depression, as well as treatment, will be discussed.


The Effect Of The Difference In The Perception Of Temperature Between Sexes On The Academic Performance Of Chapin High School Students, Tiffany V. Phan 2021 Chapin High School

The Effect Of The Difference In The Perception Of Temperature Between Sexes On The Academic Performance Of Chapin High School Students, Tiffany V. Phan

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Mental performance and mental functions may be negatively affected by decreases in thermal comfort as a result of large differences in temperature. Additionally, females are seen to be less content with room temperatures and actually prefer rooms with higher temperatures in comparison to males. This investigation explored the potential effect that sex plays in thermal perception and the impact it may yield on academic performance within a high school population. It was hypothesized that female students would experience an increase in academic performance as the temperature increased while males would experience the opposite effect. A quasi-experimental approach was used to …


A Foray Into The Interval Timing Capabilities Of Tufted Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus [Sapajus] Apella), Gryff Griffin 2021 Bucknell University

A Foray Into The Interval Timing Capabilities Of Tufted Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus [Sapajus] Apella), Gryff Griffin

Honors Theses

Time is a critical part of life and timing on the range from milliseconds to minutes has proven to be critical for several behaviors such as foraging and movement. While the exact neurological structures of interval timing are currently undefined, several studies have been completed comparing the interval timing capabilities of humans and nonhuman primates. However, these studies have unanimously utilized members of Macaca, which limits the abilities for researchers to make apt comparisons between humans and all nonhuman primates. This study sought to investigate whether tufted capuchins (Cebus [Sapajus] apella) have the capability to measure time …


Distractors As A Tool To Increase “Self-Control” In Pigeons (Columba Livia), Peyton Mueller 2021 University of Kentucky

Distractors As A Tool To Increase “Self-Control” In Pigeons (Columba Livia), Peyton Mueller

Theses and Dissertations--Psychology

In the successive delay-discounting task, all trials start with a stimulus to which a response results in a small amount of reinforcement (smaller-sooner). If no response is made, the stimulus changes and a response results in a larger reinforcer (larger-later). The purpose of this study was to examine the use of a non-reinforced distractor (a stimulus to which responding has no programmed consequence) as a method of increasing the proportion of larger-later (LL) choices in a successive delay-discounting task. Earlier research studying the use of distractors may have inadvertently associated the distractor with reinforcement. Four experiments were conducted and each …


Do You Copy? Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Auditory Processing, And Heart Rate Variability, Lyndsey Johnson 2021 University of North Florida

Do You Copy? Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Auditory Processing, And Heart Rate Variability, Lyndsey Johnson

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Self -report measures used in PTSD research have the potential to limit the degree of symptom severity in military veterans, especially as there is often underreporting in this population (Kline, Falca-Dodson, Susner et al., 2010). Polyvagal Theory provides a framework assessing if physiological measures can tap into PTSD Symptomology (Porges, 1995). It is therefore hypothesized that lower scores on auditory processing tests will be positively correlated with higher scores on Stress and PTSD measures. Additionally, it is thought that lower scores on auditory processing tedts as well as higher scores on PTSD and Stress Measures will be positively correlated with …


An Evaluation Of Wayfinding Abilities In Adolescent And Young Adult Males With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Yingying Yang, Weijia Li, Dan Huang, Wei He, Yanxi Zhang, Edward Merrill 2021 Montclair State University

An Evaluation Of Wayfinding Abilities In Adolescent And Young Adult Males With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Yingying Yang, Weijia Li, Dan Huang, Wei He, Yanxi Zhang, Edward Merrill

Department of Psychology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

Background

Wayfinding refers to traveling from place to place in the environment. Despite some research headway, it remains unclear whether individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) show strengths, weaknesses, or similarities in wayfinding compared with ability-matched typically developing (TD) controls.

Method

The current study tested 24 individuals with ASD, 24 mental-ability (MA) matched TD (MA-TD) controls, and 24 chronological-age (CA) matched TD (CA-TD) controls. Participants completed a route learning task and a survey learning task, both programmed in virtual environments, and a perspective taking task. Their parents completed questionnaires assessing their children’s everyday wayfinding activities and competence.

Results

Overall, CA-TD …


Inside The Zoo: Captive Giraffes’ Changes In Social Ties Throughout Membership Variations, Morgan Paige Howard 2021 University of North Florida

Inside The Zoo: Captive Giraffes’ Changes In Social Ties Throughout Membership Variations, Morgan Paige Howard

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Many animals live in gregarious, fission-fusion societies where group size and composition are continually changing. Despite this, many studies have suggested that captive animals are capable of maintaining long term social bonds with others. In captive giraffes, effects on their social bonds during membership transitions have not been studied thoroughly, however, prior research does show that social bonds are a defining factor in non-captive animals. Captive giraffe social network patterns were investigated at the Jacksonville Zoo and Botanical Gardens using all occurrence behavioral data. Based on previous research, I hypothesized that when one of the individuals in the group was …


Influence Of Increased Options On Performance Generalization Across Two Variations Of The Monty Hall Dilemma, Robert A. Southern 2021 Georgia Southern University

Influence Of Increased Options On Performance Generalization Across Two Variations Of The Monty Hall Dilemma, Robert A. Southern

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Monty Hall dilemma (MHD) is a probability puzzle at which humans consistently fail to adopt the optimal winning strategy. The participant chooses between three identical doors, behind one of which is a valuable prize. After the participant makes their initial decision, the host reveals that there is nothing behind one of the two remaining doors, then asks the participant if they would like to stay with their originally selected door or switch to the remaining unopened door. The optimal choice is to switch to the previously unchosen door, which increases the probability of winning from 33% to 67%. Despite …


Stress Levels In Cal Poly Student-Athletes Versus Non-Student-Athletes, Anthony Dean Mattle 2020 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Stress Levels In Cal Poly Student-Athletes Versus Non-Student-Athletes, Anthony Dean Mattle

Social Sciences

Comparative study between Cal Poly student-athletes and non-student athletes examining perceived stress levels and the prominence of six specific stressors (Schoolwork, money, future success, family, extracurricular, and time management). The data found no statistical significance between perceived stress levels and status as either an athlete or non-athlete. However, the data did show that status as an athlete or non-athlete had a statistical significance on where students ranked extracurricular activities among the six stressors.


Quehacer Del Trabajo Social En El Campo De Salud Mental En Bogotá, Angie Paola Vargas Gualdron, Valentina Cabrera Pérez, Alejandra Valentina Velandia Diaz 2020 Universidad de La Salle, Bogotá

Quehacer Del Trabajo Social En El Campo De Salud Mental En Bogotá, Angie Paola Vargas Gualdron, Valentina Cabrera Pérez, Alejandra Valentina Velandia Diaz

Trabajo Social

La presente investigación tiene como objetivo caracterizar el quehacer del trabajo social en el campo de la salud mental en la ciudad de Bogotá, desde allí, aportar a la construcción de conocimiento. Lo anterior comprendiendo que este es un campo poco documentado en el que cada vez hay mayor participación de la profesión - disciplina. Es importante mencionar que el país ha tenido avances significativos en la comprensión y abordaje de la salud mental, lo que se da a partir de la Ley 1616 de 2013 y la reciente Política Nacional de Salud Mental.

Teniendo en cuenta lo anterior, se …


Effect Of Environmental Enrichment On The Acquisition Of Sign-Tracking Of An Ethanol Bottle In The Home Environment, Amanda Pra Sisto 2020 Seton Hall University

Effect Of Environmental Enrichment On The Acquisition Of Sign-Tracking Of An Ethanol Bottle In The Home Environment, Amanda Pra Sisto

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Sign tracking is a Pavlovian conditioning procedure that has been used in preclinical drug-addiction research with rats to investigate individual differences in the attribution of incentive motivational value to reward cues that may lead to problematic behavior such as drug addiction. Animals demonstrate a tendency to interact with an object conditioned stimulus (CS) that signals the presentation or delivery of a reward, even though the delivery of the reward is independent of any interaction with the stimulus. Thus, it can be argued that sign tracking is a compulsive-like behavior, or an indication of compulsive “wanting” that is associated with increased …


The Association Between Objective And Subjective Socioeconomic Standing And Subjective Well-Being: A Meta-Analysis, Jacinth J. X. TAN, Michael W. KRAUS, Nichelle C. CARPENTER, Nancy E. ADLER 2020 Singapore Management University

The Association Between Objective And Subjective Socioeconomic Standing And Subjective Well-Being: A Meta-Analysis, Jacinth J. X. Tan, Michael W. Kraus, Nichelle C. Carpenter, Nancy E. Adler

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

This meta-analysis tested if the links between socioeconomic status (SES) and subjective well-being (SWB) differ by whether SES is assessed objectively or subjectively. The associations between measures of objective SES (i.e., income and educational attainment), subjective SES (i.e., the MacArthur ladder SES and perceived SES), and SWB (i.e., happiness and life satisfaction) were synthesized across 357 studies, totaling 2,352,095 participants. Overall, the objective SES and subjective SES measures were moderately associated (r = .32). The subjective SES-SWB association (r = .22) was larger than the objective SES-SWB association (r = .16). The income-SWB association (r = .23) was comparable with …


An Interpretative Phenomenological Inquiry Into Experience, Expression, And Effect Of Gratitude Among Males And Females, Naved Iqbal, Supriya Srivastava, Imtiyaz Ahmad Dar 2020 Jamia Millia Islamia University, New Delhi

An Interpretative Phenomenological Inquiry Into Experience, Expression, And Effect Of Gratitude Among Males And Females, Naved Iqbal, Supriya Srivastava, Imtiyaz Ahmad Dar

The Qualitative Report

Gratitude is a universal phenomenon that is experienced and expressed differently by individuals. The differences in experience and expression of gratitude are based on a number of factors, important among them is gender. There are very few studies that have explored gender differences using quantitative methods in gratitude interventions. However, this phenomenon can best be understood by employing qualitative methods like Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), as it is concerned with trying to understand any phenomenon, from the participant’s point of view. There is a paucity of research in this area. Therefore, we tried to explore experience, expression, and effects of …


Digital Commons powered by bepress