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Facing Racial Discrimination In The Labor Environment, Ya Xu 2017 Bryant University

Facing Racial Discrimination In The Labor Environment, Ya Xu

Honors Projects in History and Social Sciences

Almost 50 years after the signing of the 1968 Civil Rights Act, and over 150 years after the official end of slavery in the US, the labor market is still far from equal. Minorities, especially those who racially identify as black and Latino, still face higher unemployment rates, lower median salaries (Wilson, 2015), and higher difficulty in obtaining interview opportunities (Bertrand and Mullainathan, 2004). The overarching question for my Capstone is as follows: How does perceived racial discrimination affect a person in the labor environment1? To investigate this question, I conducted a survey for Bryant University alumni which asked the ...


The Selection And Causal Effects Of Work Incentives On Labor Productivity: Evidence From A Two Stage Randomized Controlled Trial In Malawi, KIM, Seonghoon KIM, Thomas KIM 2017 Singapore Management University

The Selection And Causal Effects Of Work Incentives On Labor Productivity: Evidence From A Two Stage Randomized Controlled Trial In Malawi, Kim, Seonghoon Kim, Thomas Kim

Research Collection School Of Economics

Incentives are essential to promote labor productivity. We implemented a two-stage field experiment to measure effects of career and wage incentives on productivity through self-selection and causal effect channels. First, workers were hired with either career or wage incentives. After employment, a random half of workers with career incentives received wage incentives and a random half of workers with wage incentives received career incentives. We find that career incentives attract higher-performing workers than wage incentives but do not increase productivity for existing workers. Instead, wage incentives increase productivity for existing workers. Observable characteristics are limited in explaining the selection effect.


Does Human Capital Play A Role In The Growing Income Inequality In The Oecd Countries?, Jordan A. Cram 2017 Trinity College, Hartford Connecticut

Does Human Capital Play A Role In The Growing Income Inequality In The Oecd Countries?, Jordan A. Cram

Senior Theses and Projects

Researchers have tried to determine reasons for the growing income inequality in the OECD countries, but human capital is not a reason typically addressed. This paper empirically seeks to determine a relationship between human capital and income inequality using multiple regression analysis. I hypothesize a negative relationship; meaning increases in the independent variable, average human capital in a country, will cause a decrease in the dependent variable, income inequality due to the idea that increases in education should increase the incomes of the poor more than those of the rich. Income inequality will be measured by the Gini coefficient and ...


Innovation And Employment, Hian Teck HOON, Edmund PHELPS 2017 Singapore Management University

Innovation And Employment, Hian Teck Hoon, Edmund Phelps

Research Collection School of Economics

Is employment higher in an economy that has a higher rate of innovation? In Hoonand Phelps (1997), we study this question in the small open, and closed, economy underthe assumption that the rate of technological progress is exogenous to the economic system.In this paper, we reexamine this question in the context of a model with endogenousproduct innovation (and thus endogenous technological progress) and endogenous laborsupply first in a small open economy taking the world interest rate as given and then ina closed economy that determines the whole term structure of the interest rate. In ourpresent model, creating a given ...


Why Tenure? An Optimal Contract Perspective, Zhengzheng Qian 2017 Florida International University

Why Tenure? An Optimal Contract Perspective, Zhengzheng Qian

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In academia, after a reasonable probationary period of service and upon the achievement of tenure, the recipients of tenure are entitled to a continuing appointment at an institution without mandatory retirement and with only limited grounds for revocation. Advocates of tenure argued that it protected academic freedom through economic security. Opponents of tenure argued that it fostered inefficient and unproductive behavior. This dissertation developed a framework for examining academic tenure in U.S. economics departments. I constructed a dataset of tenured U.S. economics professors who were Ph.D. recipients between 1990 and 2006 and tracked their publications. In the ...


No More Starving Artists: Why The Art Market Needs A Universal Artist Resale Royalty Right, Allison Schten 2017 Notre Dame Law School

No More Starving Artists: Why The Art Market Needs A Universal Artist Resale Royalty Right, Allison Schten

Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law

Artists often struggle to make a living because they see profits only from the first sales of their work. Unlike other creative arts, where the creator can earn a living via sales of books or music, an artist’s product is valuable for its singularity. Droit de suite, or the artist resale royalty right, allows artists to recover a percentage of profits from resales of their work. Implementing resale royalty schemes has been a subject of controversy worldwide due to fears that the art market will relocate to areas without such additional transaction costs—but broad-scale, international implementation of droit ...


Discrimination In The Restaurant Industry In Ohio, Sophia Greathouse 2017 Kent State University

Discrimination In The Restaurant Industry In Ohio, Sophia Greathouse

Undergraduate Research Symposium

This paper explores the size of discrimination in the restaurant industry in Ohio in 1980 and 2010. OLS regressions were used in order to discover the differences in wages between different groups. A set of Oaxaca decompositions, a counterfactual exercise, were implemented to determine how much of the difference could be attributed to discrimination. I found that African American workers made 14.8% less than their white counterparts. Discrimination may be even worse than this wage gap allows: when comparing African American workers to a counterfactual treated with white coefficients, the African American workers make 17.8% less than the ...


P29. Basic Skills Or Major-Specific Knowledge? Sources Of Wage Penalties For Working Outside The Major Field Of Study, Yuki Onozuka 2017 Western University

P29. Basic Skills Or Major-Specific Knowledge? Sources Of Wage Penalties For Working Outside The Major Field Of Study, Yuki Onozuka

Western Research Forum

Background: This paper examines the sources of wage penalties for working outside the major field of study. Recent research shows that workers in a job unrelated to their major field of study experience significantly lower wages than those in a related job. A substantial amount of human capital may be underutilized. Identifying the sources of the wage penalty is important in terms of how to decrease the inefficient use of human capital, students' college major choice, and type of human capital accumulated in college.

Methods: I use the 1993 National Survey of College Graduates and the O*NET to divide ...


A New Panel Database On Business Incentives For Economic Development Offered By State And Local Governments In The United States, Timothy J. Bartik 2017 W.E. Upjohn Institute

A New Panel Database On Business Incentives For Economic Development Offered By State And Local Governments In The United States, Timothy J. Bartik

Timothy J. Bartik

No abstract provided.


Garment Workers In Kentucky Oral History Project (Fa 865), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives 2017 Western Kentucky University

Garment Workers In Kentucky Oral History Project (Fa 865), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives

FA Finding Aids

Finding aid only for Folklife Archives Project FA 865. Interviews conducted by Lisa Karen Miller containing details about the lives of garment workers in Kentucky and Tennessee. Some of the topics included were technological changes, job layoffs, and labor unions.


Core Support For The New Economy, Neva Goodwin 2017 Tufts University

Core Support For The New Economy, Neva Goodwin

Interdisciplinary Journal of Partnership Studies

This paper proposes an income guarantee called Core Support (CS), defined as compensation for household activities such as childcare, food preparation, care of elderly or ill persons in the home, and maintenance of the home and of household vehicles and appliances. The immediate goals of the proposal are to highlight, through compensation, the reality that the productive activities carried on in households are of essential importance for the whole economy and society, and to enable the people who carry out these essential activities to do so without having to short-change the care work because of the need to earn money ...


A Case Study In Tipping: An Economic Anomaly, Megan Nelson 2017 University of Kansas

A Case Study In Tipping: An Economic Anomaly, Megan Nelson

Crossing Borders: A Multidisciplinary Journal of Undergraduate Scholarship

When dining in a restaurant or having a drink at a bar, do you tip? If yes, what do you base the tip amount on? Is it who you are with? Do men tip more than women? Do you tip less when your actions are masked by a larger group? The answers to these questions are something that economists have struggled to explain. The most difficult question being: Why do people pay an additional amount when they have absolutely no legal obligation to do so? This case study explores the variables that lead to higher or lower tip amounts ...


Performance Pay, The Marriage Market And Rising Income Inequality In Taiwan, Shao-Hsun Keng, Peter F. Orazem 2017 National University of Kaohsiung

Performance Pay, The Marriage Market And Rising Income Inequality In Taiwan, Shao-Hsun Keng, Peter F. Orazem

Economics Working Papers

Taiwan expanded its college access significantly over the past two decades by converting 2-year junior colleges to 4-year colleges and relaxing entrance standards. The share of college graduates in the 22-24 years old population rose from 12% to 71% between 1990 and 2014. This should have suppressed returns to schooling and lowered inequality, but Taiwan’s Gini coefficient rose steadily over that period. We show that rising use of performance pay and positive assortative mating in the marriage market combine to explain the rising inequality. The presence of performance pay and positive assortative mating jointly increase the household income inequality ...


Why Do Negative Employment Outcomes For Workers With Disabilities Persist?: Investigating The Effects Of Human Capital, Social Capital, And Discrimination, Martine Maculaitis 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Why Do Negative Employment Outcomes For Workers With Disabilities Persist?: Investigating The Effects Of Human Capital, Social Capital, And Discrimination, Martine Maculaitis

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Little is known about why poor job outcomes for workers with disabilities (WD) persist. Hence, the aim of this study was to combine and extend human capital, social capital, and multiple jeopardy advantage theories to develop and test a comprehensive model of the processes explaining job outcomes for WD. Data from the 2010 US National Health Interview Survey (N=3,887) and O*Net were analyzed to investigate the extent to which disability status (i.e., WD with work limitations, WD with no work limitations, or non-disabled workers [NDW]) relates to four types of work outcomes (i.e., annual compensation ...


Net Impact And Benefit-Cost Estimates Of The Workforce Development System In Washington State, Kevin Hollenbeck, Wei-Jang Huang 2017 W.E. Upjohn Institute

Net Impact And Benefit-Cost Estimates Of The Workforce Development System In Washington State, Kevin Hollenbeck, Wei-Jang Huang

Kevin Hollenbeck

No abstract provided.


How Has The Affordable Care Act Affected Work And Wages?, Jean Abraham PhD, Anne Beeson Royalty PhD 2017 University of Pennsylvania

How Has The Affordable Care Act Affected Work And Wages?, Jean Abraham Phd, Anne Beeson Royalty Phd

Issue Briefs

In a review of the evidence, the authors find that the ACA had minimal effect on employment, hours of work, and compensation. This brief provides critical perspective on the effects of reforms on labor markets for federal and state policymakers as they consider changing or repealing the law.


Off-Farm Work Of Farm Families: Some Empirical Results And Policy Implications, Wallace E. Huffman 2017 Iowa State University

Off-Farm Work Of Farm Families: Some Empirical Results And Policy Implications, Wallace E. Huffman

Wallace Huffman

The welfare of farm families, even those with large farms, is not determined solely by their incomes from the farms they operate (USDA 1976, p. 62). The share of personal income of the farm population from nonfarm sources has steadily increased from 27 percent in 1950 and 35 percent in 1960 to so+ percent in the 1970's, except for 1973-74 when net farm income rose so dramatically.I Moreover, approximately 70 percent of the income 2 from nonfarm sources is wage and salary income. Thus a large and growing share of the income of farm families is not from ...


An Assessment Of The Process Underlying Raw Calculations, Wallace E. Huffman 2017 Iowa State University

An Assessment Of The Process Underlying Raw Calculations, Wallace E. Huffman

Wallace Huffman

The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986, Public Law 99-603 (commonly referred to as IRCA), contained provisions having the intent of changing the supply and demand for hired labor on U.S. farms. The legislation defined a new class of farm work called seasonal agricultural services (SAS) which covers most of the farm work in producing and harvesting perishable crops, and a new class of alien workers called SAWs. Because newly legalized special agricultural workers (SAWs) might leave seasonal agricultural services for other U.S. jobs, IRCA contained a provision for replenishing SA Ws. Replenishment with alien workers was ...


Memorandum: Data Needs For Research On Domestic Outsourcing In The United States, Susan Houseman, Annette Bernhardt 2017 W.E. Upjohn Institute

Memorandum: Data Needs For Research On Domestic Outsourcing In The United States, Susan Houseman, Annette Bernhardt

Staff Papers and Presentations

Available evidence points to substantial growth in U.S. firms’ outsourcing of various functions to domestic as well as foreign suppliers, a phenomenon sometimes called the vertical disintegration of the firm. Although receiving less attention than its offshore counterpart, domestic outsourcing is changing how work in the U.S. is organized across firms and industries. Good data allowing documentation of such supply networks is critical to the accuracy of many analyses, including employment impact analyses of a wide range of federal, state, and local economic policies; occupational workforce projections; and sector and industry productivity statistics. Moreover, although there are many ...


The Rise Of Technology And Its Influence On Labor Market Outcomes, Maja K. Thomas 2017 Gettysburg College

The Rise Of Technology And Its Influence On Labor Market Outcomes, Maja K. Thomas

Gettysburg Economic Review

Technological progress has significantly changed the inputs and production processes utilized by firms. Such shifts have led to warnings throughout the past few decades that substantial numbers of jobs, particularly things belonging to the middle class, would be eliminated and replaced by technology. This paper examines the validity of this argument by estimating the impact of technology investment on local labor markets during that period. I find evidence for a positive, rather than negative, relationship between technology and employment. Furthermore, my estimates suggest there exists a complementary relationship between technology investment and growth in labor opportunities, rather than a substitution ...


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