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Family Economics Writ Large, Jeremy Greenwood, Nezih Guner, Guillaume Vandenbroucke 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Family Economics Writ Large, Jeremy Greenwood, Nezih Guner, Guillaume Vandenbroucke

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Powerful currents have reshaped the structure of families over the last century. There has been (i) a dramatic drop in fertility and greater parental investment in children; (ii) a rise in married female labor-force participation; (iii) a decline in marriage and a rise in divorce; (iv) a higher degree of positive assortative mating; (v) more children living with a single mother; (vi) shifts in social norms governing premarital sex and married women's roles in the labor market. Macroeconomic models explaining these aggregate trends are surveyed. The relentless flow of technological progress and its role in shaping family life are ...


Testing For Nationality Discrimination In Major League Soccer, Matthew Swift 2017 Claremont McKenna College

Testing For Nationality Discrimination In Major League Soccer, Matthew Swift

CMC Senior Theses

Using data from the 2014-2016 Major League Soccer (MLS) seasons, this paper finds evidence for nationality discrimination in the MLS. In particular, foreign players receive a wage premium of 15.97 percent, ceteris paribus. Foreign players also receive an additional bump in their salary based on performance. Finally, using an Oaxaca (1973) decomposition, I find that 22-26% of the differences in wages between foreign and domestic players is largely due to discrimination.


Modeling Endogenous Mobility In Wage Determination, John M. Abowd, Kevin L. McKinney, Ian M. Schmutte 2017 Cornell University

Modeling Endogenous Mobility In Wage Determination, John M. Abowd, Kevin L. Mckinney, Ian M. Schmutte

Labor Dynamics Institute

We evaluate the bias from endogenous job mobility in fixed-effects estimates of worker- and firm-specific earnings heterogeneity using longitudinally linked employer-employee data from the LEHD infrastructure file system of the U.S. Census Bureau. First, we propose two new residual diagnostic tests of the assumption that mobility is exogenous to unmodeled determinants of earnings. Both tests reject exogenous mobility. We relax the exogenous mobility assumptions by modeling the evolution of the matched data as an evolving bipartite graph using a Bayesian latent class framework. Our results suggest that endogenous mobility biases estimated firm effects toward zero. To assess validity, we ...


Employee Selection Strategies In Casual Dining Restaurants, Tim Racey 2017 Walden University

Employee Selection Strategies In Casual Dining Restaurants, Tim Racey

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Annual turnover for hourly employees in the hospitality industry averages 102%. The costs associated with hiring and training new employees are estimated at 150% of an employee's salary for businesses with more than 30 employees. The purpose of this case study was to examine the personnel selection strategies used in the casual dining sector. The sample for this study was 6 casual dining restaurant managers in the central Georgia area. Three of the participants used online selection strategies and 3 participants used intuition-based strategies. The objective of this study was to compare the similarities and differences between each respective ...


Exploring The Impact Of Collective Bargaining Agreements On Employee Performance Management, Nana Gyesie 2017 Walden University

Exploring The Impact Of Collective Bargaining Agreements On Employee Performance Management, Nana Gyesie

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

As of 2014, union density in the United States had dropped compared to union density during the 1950s. Collective bargaining agreements are the foundational agreement for all issues related to salary, benefits, and working conditions. The purpose of this multiple case study was to explore how collective bargaining agreements hindered or enabled managers from creating and sustaining high performance work practices. The conceptual framework included Walton and McKersie's work on behavioral theories for labor negotiations, human capital, and collective bargaining, and Huselid's work on high performance work practices. Fifteen respondents across 5 labor unions in Washington DC were ...


Demonstration And Evaluation Of The Short-Time Compensation Program In Iowa And Oregon: Final Report, Susan Houseman, Christopher J. O'Leary, Katharine G. Abraham, Frank Bennici, Susan Labin, Richard Sigman 2017 W.E. Upjohn Institute

Demonstration And Evaluation Of The Short-Time Compensation Program In Iowa And Oregon: Final Report, Susan Houseman, Christopher J. O'Leary, Katharine G. Abraham, Frank Bennici, Susan Labin, Richard Sigman

External Papers and Reports

Short-time compensation (STC) is an optional program within some state unemployment insurance (UI) systems that allows employers experiencing a temporary reduction in business to lower the average hours of employees in lieu of laying them off. Employer use of the STC option has been low in states with STC programs. We conducted demonstrations in Iowa and Oregon to evaluate the effectiveness of several interventions designed to increase employer awareness and use of STC, including disseminating information about STC to specific employers (members of the “treatment” group) over a 12-month period. The main findings support the hypothesis that lack of awareness ...


The Political Impact Of Rising Trade Exposure: Evidence From 2000 - 2016 U.S. Presidential Elections, Xiaoyang Qian 2017 Claremont McKenna College

The Political Impact Of Rising Trade Exposure: Evidence From 2000 - 2016 U.S. Presidential Elections, Xiaoyang Qian

CMC Senior Theses

In this paper we analyze the impact of global imports on regional labor markets, and how such impact translates to changes in voting patterns in the U.S. Presidential elections from 2000 to 2016. We find that imports from different U.S. trading partners influence voting patterns in different ways. In particular, we observe an anti-incumbent effect caused by import competition from OECD countries. Such an effect cannot be observed for imports from low-income countries. There is also evidence that suggests high exposure to import competition tends to drive voters toward the Democratic candidate, who typically proposes better social welfare ...


The Relative Impact Of The Ged On Labor Market Outcomes For The Formerly Incarcerated, Sally Vandenberg 2017 Claremont McKenna College

The Relative Impact Of The Ged On Labor Market Outcomes For The Formerly Incarcerated, Sally Vandenberg

CMC Senior Theses

This paper shows that while incarceration is associated with economic losses, the economic benefits associated with a GED may be nearly twice as large for high school dropouts that have been incarcerated than for dropouts who have not been incarcerated. My results, though imprecisely estimated, suggest that this relationship may be one of correlation, rather than causality. I find that among the formerly incarcerated the GED is associated with other positive outcomes, particularly lower rates of drug use.


Compensating Against Turnover: Managers' Talent Retention Decisions In Major League Baseball Under A Budget Constraint, Emma Knoesen 2017 Scripps College

Compensating Against Turnover: Managers' Talent Retention Decisions In Major League Baseball Under A Budget Constraint, Emma Knoesen

Scripps Senior Theses

From 1997 to 1999 and 2003 to the present, Major League Baseball has had a luxury tax on high payroll teams. This paper analyzes the impact of the tax as a budget constraint on teams’ ability to reward and retain high performing players. In contrast to other papers, we use wins above replacement (WAR), a popular sabermetrics statistic, to measure performance. Using this metric, we quantify the number of top performers, how this performance is rewarded with salary, and how salary impacts players’ mobility decisions. We conclude that when using WAR, the distribution of performance is not heavy tailed and ...


There And Now, Tinghua Huang 2017 Bard College

There And Now, Tinghua Huang

Senior Projects Spring 2017

THERE AND NOW

by Tinghua Huang

History/Observation of Life/Rebellion/Challenge/ Time/(without)Intention

In my exhibition, I have photos, bags, garments, the FIT IN room, and a clock with a second display. I will explain my points for choosing to put them in my show, and it is up to you, the viewers, to take it, expand it, or not. I believe there is never a final answer to art, as long as humans have their own ability to think.

I made the choice of putting the photos in my show to convey a straightforward sense of my ...


From The Fair Labor Standards Act To Individual State Minimum Wages: Measuring State Minimum Wages And Economic Performance, Adam Charles Carafotes 2017 Bard College

From The Fair Labor Standards Act To Individual State Minimum Wages: Measuring State Minimum Wages And Economic Performance, Adam Charles Carafotes

Senior Projects Spring 2017

This project will analyze the historical foundation of the minimum wage in the United States prior to the first federal wage enactment in 1938 to the current federal wage as well as individual state wages. This paper will offer a historical overview along with economic ideology in determining appropriate minimum wage floors on state and federal levels of the economy. The question of raising either state or federal minimum wages has drawn great importance in the eyes of our country and in the eyes of economic thinkers, policymakers, and individuals. The minimum wage has been the backbone for working individuals ...


Making The Male Manager: Can Non-Cognitive Skills Explain The Glass Ceiling?, Nora Paget Harrington 2017 Bard College

Making The Male Manager: Can Non-Cognitive Skills Explain The Glass Ceiling?, Nora Paget Harrington

Senior Projects Spring 2017

Abstract: This project examines whether men and women’s non-cognitive skills —or personality characteristics— influence their respective occupational attainment. I take an interdisciplinary approach to inform my hypothesis by incorporating psychological and sociological theories on the production and reproduction of gender roles in order to understand why men and women may systematically differ along some personality dimensions. I use linear probability and probit models to measure the effect of the non-cognitive traits, locus of control, self-esteem, and risk tolerance on the probability of being a manager. In both models I find that an internal locus of control, high self-esteem, and ...


Are Immigrants The Next Great Appliance? The Effects Of Immigration On Female Labor Force Participation, Logan Daniel Callahan 2017 Bard College

Are Immigrants The Next Great Appliance? The Effects Of Immigration On Female Labor Force Participation, Logan Daniel Callahan

Senior Projects Spring 2017

This paper argues the burgeoning idea that an inflow of low-skilled immigrants into a receiving country can provide benefits for high-skilled native women. In considering the often increased responsibilities held by women in the household, when compared to men, the introduction of immigrants of certain occupations can help ease these responsibilities. A series of regressions explain that the effect is statistically significant, especially when considering low-skilled female immigrants. Policy implications are discussed as well as areas for future research. The paper concludes with a brief secondary theory and discourse on the labor constraints of women.


Erica Groshen Interview, Justin Carinci 2017 W.E. Upjohn Institute

Erica Groshen Interview, Justin Carinci

External Papers and Reports

Interview with former Commissioner of Labor Statistics and head of the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Erica Groshen, from her presentation at the W.E. Upjohn Institute on August 29, 2017.


Growing Portland: Not Whether, But How, Richard Barringer, Joseph McDonnell 2017 University of Southern Maine

Growing Portland: Not Whether, But How, Richard Barringer, Joseph Mcdonnell

Muskie School of Public Service

In the 400 years since European settlement, Portland has survived the ravages of war, invasion, pestilence, conflagration, and economic depression and recession. Once a renowned manufacturing, trade, and shipping center, it now enjoys what might be called a post-industrial renaissance as a vibrant center for the arts, education, entertainment, and banking, legal, and medical services; and is frequently cited as one of America’s best small cities. As a result, Portland is growing today and is positioned for more growth.

The question, then, is not whether Portland will grow, but how well it will grow; or, how best to manage ...


Pay For Play: Shirking In The Nfl, Gregory Marks 2017 University of Colorado, Boulder

Pay For Play: Shirking In The Nfl, Gregory Marks

Undergraduate Honors Theses

While there is extensive literature on shirking in sports, this is the first study to comprehensively examine shirking in the National Football League (NFL). Using a linear regression, player performance is regressed on numerous contract variables, including a contract dummy variable, total contract amount, contract length, and percent of salary that is guaranteed, along with several control variables. Although the results are not statistically significant, the direction of the relevant coefficients indicates that shirking may be occurring in the NFL. The complex nature of NFL contracts makes it difficult to discern the mechanism through which shirking may be occurring.


Europa Regina: The Effect Of World War Ii On European Female Labor, Helen Harris 2017 University of Colorado, Boulder

Europa Regina: The Effect Of World War Ii On European Female Labor, Helen Harris

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Previous research suggests that WWII induced a lasting increase in American female labor force participation. This paper explores if WWII influenced European female labor force participation in a similar way from 1940 to 1960. The analysis regresses changes in female labor force participation after the war, on changes in military mobilization rates for 17 European countries. The results show that the European female labor force participation growth rate decreased during the decade 1940-1950 and increased from 1940-1960. While these results are statistically significant and female specific, they are relatively small in magnitude. Within these changes were sectoral changes, primarily a ...


Going Solo: A Qualitative Comparison Of Single Women In Japan And Colombia, Maya Heins 2017 University of Colorado, Boulder

Going Solo: A Qualitative Comparison Of Single Women In Japan And Colombia, Maya Heins

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis examines the economic, social, and cultural conditions of single women in Japan and Colombia as a medium for understanding how globalization impacts gender inequality around the world. The rise of single women around the world elicits questions about the changing nature of gender roles and how global economic policies impact the lives of women. The research finds that while large differences exist between the situation of single women in the Global North and South, by remaining single, women are afforded more bargaining power to renegotiate their place within oppressive systems. The rise in single women around the globe ...


The Employment Service-Unemployment Insurance Partnership: Origin, Evolution, And Revitalization, David E. Balducchi, Christopher J. O'Leary 2017 Consultant

The Employment Service-Unemployment Insurance Partnership: Origin, Evolution, And Revitalization, David E. Balducchi, Christopher J. O'Leary

Upjohn Institute Working Papers

This study traces the origin and evolution of the partnership between the employment service and unemployment insurance programs in the United States. We examine objectives of the framers of the Wagner-Peyser and Social Security Acts that established these programs. Using primary sources, we then analyze early actions of the architects of social insurance to facilitate cooperation between the two programs to meet economic exigencies, grapple with political cronyism, and surmount legal barriers. We also discuss factors that caused changes in the employment service–unemployment insurance partnership over time. We identify reasons for the erosion in cooperation starting in the 1980s ...


Nafta And The Gender Wage Gap, Shushanik Hakobyan, John McLaren 2017 Fordham University

Nafta And The Gender Wage Gap, Shushanik Hakobyan, John Mclaren

Upjohn Institute Working Papers

Using U.S. Census data for 1990–2000, we estimate effects of NAFTA on U.S. wages, focusing on differences by gender. We find that NAFTA tariff reductions are associated with substantially reduced wage growth for married blue-collar women, much larger than the effect for other demographic groups. We investigate several possible explanations for this finding. It is not explained by differential sensitivity of female-dominated occupations to trade shocks, or by household bargaining that makes married female workers less able to change their industry of employment than other workers. We find some support for an explanation based on an equilibrium ...


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