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Labor Scarcity, Finance, And Innovation: Evidence From Antebellum America, Yifei Mao, Jessie Jiaxu Wang 2018 Cornell University School of Hotel Administration

Labor Scarcity, Finance, And Innovation: Evidence From Antebellum America, Yifei Mao, Jessie Jiaxu Wang

Working Papers

This paper establishes labor scarcity as an important economic channel through which access to finance shapes technological innovation. We exploit antebellum America, a unique setting with (1) staggered passage of free banking laws across states and (2) sharp differences in labor scarcity between slave and free states. We find that greater access to finance spurred technological innovation as measured by patenting activities, especially in free states where labor was relatively scarce. Interestingly, in slave states where slave labor was prevalent, access to finance encouraged technological innovation that substituted for free labor, but discouraged technological innovation that substituted for slave labor.


Degrees Of Poverty: The Relationship Between Family Income Background And The Returns To Education, Timothy J. Bartik, Brad J. Hershbein 2018 W.E. Upjohn Institute

Degrees Of Poverty: The Relationship Between Family Income Background And The Returns To Education, Timothy J. Bartik, Brad J. Hershbein

Timothy J. Bartik

Drawing on the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we document a startling empirical pattern: the career earnings premium from a four-year college degree (relative to a high school diploma) for persons from low-income backgrounds is considerably less than it is for those from higher-income backgrounds. For individuals whose family income in high school was above 1.85 times the poverty level, we estimate that career earnings for bachelor’s graduates are 136 percent higher than earnings for those whose education stopped at high school. However, for individuals whose family income during high school was below 1.85 times the poverty ...


Degrees Of Poverty: The Relationship Between Family Income Background And The Returns To Education, Timothy J. Bartik, Brad J. Hershbein 2018 W.E. Upjohn Institute

Degrees Of Poverty: The Relationship Between Family Income Background And The Returns To Education, Timothy J. Bartik, Brad J. Hershbein

Brad J. Hershbein

Drawing on the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we document a startling empirical pattern: the career earnings premium from a four-year college degree (relative to a high school diploma) for persons from low-income backgrounds is considerably less than it is for those from higher-income backgrounds. For individuals whose family income in high school was above 1.85 times the poverty level, we estimate that career earnings for bachelor’s graduates are 136 percent higher than earnings for those whose education stopped at high school. However, for individuals whose family income during high school was below 1.85 times the poverty ...


Nebraska Business And Consumer Confidence Indexes: March 9, 2018, Eric Thompson 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Nebraska Business And Consumer Confidence Indexes: March 9, 2018, Eric Thompson

Leading Economic Indicator Reports

Nebraska consumer and business confidence fell during February 2018, dropping from the near-peak levels seen in January. The Consumer Confidence Index – Nebraska (CCI-N) fell to 101.6 in February from a value of 115.2 in January. The February value remains above the neutral level of 100.0. The Business Confidence Index – Nebraska (BCI-N) fell to 107.4 In February from 112.2 in January. Both monthly readings were well above the neutral value of 100.0 suggesting that business confidence remains strong. When asked about the most important issue facing their business, customer demand was mentioned by 38 percent ...


Entrepreneurship Education Empowers Youth To Change Their Lives, Marianna Brashear, Jason Riddle 2018 Foundation for Economic Education

Entrepreneurship Education Empowers Youth To Change Their Lives, Marianna Brashear, Jason Riddle

National Youth-At-Risk Conference Savannah

The Foundation for Economic Education (FEE) aims at equipping Title 1 schools with free, hands-on, engaging materials that any teacher can facilitate either individually or in a classroom setting with no background in entrepreneurship necessary. These versatile lessons, courses, and workshops teach the entrepreneurial mindset optimizing opportunities for grades 8-12 students no matter which life/career path they choose.


Does Player Performance Outside Of Major League Baseball Translate To The Mlb?, Ian Vogt 2018 Union College

Does Player Performance Outside Of Major League Baseball Translate To The Mlb?, Ian Vogt

Honors Theses

Statistical analysis has transformed the way front offices across Major League Baseball manage the rosters of their teams. However, much of this statistical analysis is limited to evaluating players playing in the American major league environment. Little has been done in the way of using statistical analysis to evaluate how performance translates from league-to-league, and the market for international and college players remains highly inefficient, despite expansion of these player pools. My study is an attempt to make this market a more efficient one.

I measure the correlation between performance in two top international baseball leagues (Nippon Professional Baseball and ...


Economic Emergency Program: St. Cloud Household Refrigeration And Home Freezer Manufacturing Plant Closure (Electrolux), Brigid Tuck, King Banaian, Richard A. MacDonald, Neil Linscheid 2018 Senior Economic Impact Analyst, University of Minnesota

Economic Emergency Program: St. Cloud Household Refrigeration And Home Freezer Manufacturing Plant Closure (Electrolux), Brigid Tuck, King Banaian, Richard A. Macdonald, Neil Linscheid

Special Economic Studies

On January 30, 2018, Electrolux announced the closure its manufacturing facility in St. Cloud, Minnesota. The plant currently has 860 employees. Their jobs will be lost once Electrolux completes its closure as planned in 2019. Electrolux plans to invest in its Tennessee and South Carolina plants. Upright freezer production will move to South Carolina. There will likely be few viable opportunities for local workers at the Electrolux facility to re-locate to South Carolina.

St. Cloud area decision-makers will benefit from timely information regarding the potential economic impact of the closure. In response, University of Minnesota Extension and the St. Cloud ...


The Colonial American Economy, Joshua L. Rosenbloom 2018 Iowa State University

The Colonial American Economy, Joshua L. Rosenbloom

Economics Working Papers

The first permanent British settlement in what became the United States was established in 1607, nearly 170 years prior to the American declaration of independence. This chapter examines the economic development of the British North American colonies that became the United States. As it describes, abundant natural resources and scarce labor and capital contributed to the remarkable growth in the size of the colonial economy, and allowed the free white colonial population to enjoy a relatively high standard of living. There was not, however, much improvement over time in living standards. Patterns of factor abundance also played an important role ...


Minimum Wages And Occupational Skills Acquired During High School, Benjamin Meier, Kyrstin Shadle, Brent E. Kreider, Peter F. Orazem 2018 Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas

Minimum Wages And Occupational Skills Acquired During High School, Benjamin Meier, Kyrstin Shadle, Brent E. Kreider, Peter F. Orazem

Economics Working Papers

The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 Geocode sample and the O*NET Occupational Database are used to generate estimates of skills acquired on jobs held by youth during high school. The types of jobs firms offer high school students change with the minimum wage. Jobs offered in high minimum wage states involve less skill acquisition. These same skills are shown to be important for income, employment and occupational skills later in life. Additional schooling substitutes for job skills acquired in high school, implying lost on-the-job training in high school is most costly for youth who do not go to ...


The Heterogeneous Cyclicality Of Income And Wages Among The Distribution In The Uk, Maria Cervini, Antonia Lopez, José I. Silva 2018 Universitat de Girona

The Heterogeneous Cyclicality Of Income And Wages Among The Distribution In The Uk, Maria Cervini, Antonia Lopez, José I. Silva

José Ignacio Silva

We investigate the cyclicality of real hourly wages and income using individual data for the UK over the 1991-2013 period. By paying special attention to the heterogeneity among different earnings and income groups, we document
that individuals at the top of the distribution are more cyclical than lower ones. We also show that real wages and income are roughly acyclical for low wage and income workers. In particular, we present evidence that the adjustment for low-paid workers takes place through transitions to and from unemployment.


Re-Conceptualizing The Economic Incorporation Of Immigrants: A Comparison Of The Mexican And Vietnamese, Shannon Gleeson 2018 Cornell University

Re-Conceptualizing The Economic Incorporation Of Immigrants: A Comparison Of The Mexican And Vietnamese, Shannon Gleeson

Shannon Gleeson

Using data from the 2000 5 per cent Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, this article advocates three shifts in our theoretical and empirical approaches to understanding immigrant economic incorporation. First, through a comparison of Mexican and Vietnamese immigrants, these findings highlight the importance of an immigrant population’s relationship to the state for economic outcomes, and cautions against analyses that aggregate the foreign-born population. Second, through a joint analysis of unemployment and poverty outcomes, these findings call for researchers to be specific about the varied aspects of ‘‘economic incorporation’’ and distinguish between factors that drive labor market access, and those ...


Measuring Health Outcomes Of Uncovered Employment: A Study Of Income, Social Mobility, Equality, And Health Indicators In An Under-Looked Segment Of The Labor Force, Zakariya Kmir 2018 University of Maryland, Baltimore County

Measuring Health Outcomes Of Uncovered Employment: A Study Of Income, Social Mobility, Equality, And Health Indicators In An Under-Looked Segment Of The Labor Force, Zakariya Kmir

Undergraduate Economic Review

Economists have strongly supported the idea that unemployment causes many undesirable health outcomes. However, how does belonging to a different sector of employment tied closely to changes in minimum wage and inflation relate to overall health? To properly understand the numerical significance of health disparities in the uncovered sector of employment, this research is targeted at quantifying the relationship between the insured and non-insured within the uncovered sector. By substantiating the existence of severe health disparities as a function of the labor force dynamic, this research subsequently estimates the amount of inefficiency and negative health outcomes in the US economy ...


Is There Really A Foreign Language Premium In Canada?: Evaluating The Foreign Language Effect On Canadian Wages, Peter C. Ki 2018 University of British Columbia

Is There Really A Foreign Language Premium In Canada?: Evaluating The Foreign Language Effect On Canadian Wages, Peter C. Ki

Undergraduate Economic Review

Given the debates on whether knowing a foreign language has a positive or negative effect on wages, there is little or no research conducted on how it fares in Canada, despite extensive studies on French and English. Using the Public Use Microdata Files of the 2011 National Household Survey by Statistics Canada, I find a 2.84% wage penalty for Canadians who know a foreign language and an even greater penalty for Canadians who use these languages at work. I proceed to decompose the results by language and occupation to find varying results. I also attempt to use a religion ...


Overqualification Among Aboriginal Workers In Canada, Jungwee Park 2018 Statistics Canada

Overqualification Among Aboriginal Workers In Canada, Jungwee Park

The International Indigenous Policy Journal

This study examines education, employment, and the extent to which adult Aboriginal workers (aged 25-64) were overqualified for their jobs compared to non-Aboriginal workers. Data are from the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) including 415,115 Aboriginal workers and 13,301,610 non-Aboriginal workers. Aboriginal workers with higher levels of education (bachelor degree or higher) were less likely to be overqualified than their non-Aboriginal counterparts; but Aboriginal workers with lower levels of education (less than university level) were more likely to be overqualified than non-Aboriginal workers. This study also highlights differences in overqualification by field of study: Among Aboriginal workers ...


Nebraska Business And Consumer Confidence Indexes: February 2, 2018, Eric Thompson 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Nebraska Business And Consumer Confidence Indexes: February 2, 2018, Eric Thompson

Leading Economic Indicator Reports

Consumer and business confidence rebounded in Nebraska during January 2018. The Consumer Confidence Index – Nebraska (CCI-N) rose to 115.2, well above the neutral level of 100.0 and a value of 93.3 in December 2017. This is the highest level recorded for the CCI-N since it was first released in February of 2016. The Business Confidence Index – Nebraska (BCI-N) rose to 112.2 in January from 107.5 in December. Both monthly readings were well above the neutral value of 100.0. When asked about the most important issue facing their business, customer demand was mentioned by 40 ...


For Better, For Worse: The Effect Of Maternity Leave Policy On Divorce Rates, Toni S. Forde 2018 CUNY Hunter College

For Better, For Worse: The Effect Of Maternity Leave Policy On Divorce Rates, Toni S. Forde

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Prior to 1993, maternity leave legislation in the United States varied from state to state. The implementation of the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) thus created a “natural experiment” via which we can study the effect of the law on divorce across states.


Nebraska Business And Consumer Confidence Indexes: January 5, 2018, Eric Thompson 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Nebraska Business And Consumer Confidence Indexes: January 5, 2018, Eric Thompson

Leading Economic Indicator Reports

Consumer and business confidence declined in Nebraska during December 2017. The Consumer Confidence Index – Nebraska (CCI-N) fell to 93.3 in December, well below the neutral level of 100.0. The index had reached a record level of 106.2 in November, but that high level of confidence was not sustained. The Business Confidence Index – Nebraska (BCI-N) fell from 114.1 in November to 107.5 in December. While lower, the December reading remains well above the neutral value of 100.0. When asked about the most important issue facing their business, customer demand was mentioned by 38 percent of ...


'They Come Here To Work': An Evaluation Of The Economic Argument In Favor Of Immigrant Rights, Shannon Gleeson 2018 Cornell University

'They Come Here To Work': An Evaluation Of The Economic Argument In Favor Of Immigrant Rights, Shannon Gleeson

Shannon Gleeson

Advocates commonly highlight the exploitation that hard-working undocumented immigrants commonly suffer at the hands of employers, the important contribution they make to the US economy, and the fiscal folly of border militarization and enhanced immigration enforcement policies. In this paper, I unpack these economic rationales for expanding immigrant rights, and examine the nuanced ways in which advocates deploy this frame. To do so, I rely on statements issued by publicly present immigrant rights groups in six places: California, Florida, Illinois, New York, Texas, and Washington, DC. I also draw on interviews with immigrant advocates in San Jose, CA and Houston ...


Jackpot! The Employment Effects Of Gaming Revenue Allocation Plans On Native American Tribes, Landon C. Echols 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Jackpot! The Employment Effects Of Gaming Revenue Allocation Plans On Native American Tribes, Landon C. Echols

Wharton Research Scholars

Revenue allocation plans (RAPs) are one way in which Native American tribal governments distribute their casino profits equally to every member of the tribe. This study matches tribes with approved RAPs to their respective “treatment” counties. These treatment counties are then matched and compared to control counties of similar geography and population through difference-in-difference analysis. Through this analysis, it is apparent that there are no effects of RAPs on unemployment rates in treatment counties – however, there seems to be a slight positive effect on employment-to-population ratios and labor force participation rates. This paper finds that the RAP in 22 counties ...


Three Essays On College Earnings Premium And China’S Higher Education Expansion, Chenxu Hu 2018 University of Kentucky

Three Essays On College Earnings Premium And China’S Higher Education Expansion, Chenxu Hu

Theses and Dissertations--Economics

My dissertation consists of three essays that study the college premium in China and how it has been affected by China’s higher education expansion.

In the first essay, I utilize the high education expansion as exogenous source to estimate the college premium. The rapidly changing access to college provides a rare opportunity to estimate a local treatment effect (LATE) of college education on earnings by utilizing the drastic increase in college admission rate in 1999. I also utilize the yearly admission rate as an instrumental variable for the endogenous college education. Using China Household Income Project 2013, the two ...


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