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"A Flop Or A Success?" An Evaluation Of The Welfare Impacts Of The 6-3-3-4 Education System In Nigeria, Ruth Uwaifo Oyelere 2017 Morehouse College

"A Flop Or A Success?" An Evaluation Of The Welfare Impacts Of The 6-3-3-4 Education System In Nigeria, Ruth Uwaifo Oyelere

Ruth Uwaifo Oyelere

The need for graduates who would be productive citizens able to contribute significantly to the Nigerian economy led to the overhaul of the old education system 6-5-4 and the implementation of the 6-3-3-4 system, with its first set of graduates from secondary schools in 1988. The main objective of the 6-3-3- 4 system was to produce self-reliant graduates with better labor market skills and earning potential. In this paper, we investigate to what extent this goal was achieved. Using a Regression Discontinuity (RD) design, we examine if graduates from the 6-3-3-4 system experienced an improvement in welfare compared to those ...


The Effect Of Childhood Siblings On Adult Income, Heather Bavido 2017 University of Northern Iowa

The Effect Of Childhood Siblings On Adult Income, Heather Bavido

Research in the Capitol

As evidenced by the decreased US fertility rate, families are having fewer children. As productivity has risen, the opportunity cost of having children has risen; and as wealth has increased the need to have children to provide income in old age has fallen. Research shows that with family income held constant, parents face a tradeoff between how many children they have and the perceived quality of the children. My research explores the relationship between the number of siblings an individual grows up with and adult wages. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, my results show individuals with seven ...


Core Support For The New Economy, Neva Goodwin 2017 Tufts University

Core Support For The New Economy, Neva Goodwin

Interdisciplinary Journal of Partnership Studies

This paper proposes an income guarantee called Core Support (CS), defined as compensation for household activities such as childcare, food preparation, care of elderly or ill persons in the home, and maintenance of the home and of household vehicles and appliances. The immediate goals of the proposal are to highlight, through compensation, the reality that the productive activities carried on in households are of essential importance for the whole economy and society, and to enable the people who carry out these essential activities to do so without having to short-change the care work because of the need to earn money ...


A Case Study In Tipping: An Economic Anomaly, Megan Nelson 2017 University of Kansas

A Case Study In Tipping: An Economic Anomaly, Megan Nelson

Crossing Borders: A Multidisciplinary Journal of Undergraduate Scholarship

When dining in a restaurant or having a drink at a bar, do you tip? If yes, what do you base the tip amount on? Is it who you are with? Do men tip more than women? Do you tip less when your actions are masked by a larger group? The answers to these questions are something that economists have struggled to explain. The most difficult question being: Why do people pay an additional amount when they have absolutely no legal obligation to do so? This case study explores the variables that lead to higher or lower tip amounts ...


Performance Pay, The Marriage Market And Rising Income Inequality In Taiwan, Shao-Hsun Keng, Peter F. Orazem 2017 National University of Kaohsiung

Performance Pay, The Marriage Market And Rising Income Inequality In Taiwan, Shao-Hsun Keng, Peter F. Orazem

Economics Working Papers

Taiwan expanded its college access significantly over the past two decades by converting 2-year junior colleges to 4-year colleges and relaxing entrance standards. The share of college graduates in the 22-24 years old population rose from 12% to 71% between 1990 and 2014. This should have suppressed returns to schooling and lowered inequality, but Taiwan’s Gini coefficient rose steadily over that period. We show that rising use of performance pay and positive assortative mating in the marriage market combine to explain the rising inequality. The presence of performance pay and positive assortative mating jointly increase the household income inequality ...


Using Natural Experiments To Identify The Effects Of Snap On Child And Adult Health, Daniel P. Miller, Taryn W. Morrissey 2017 Boston University

Using Natural Experiments To Identify The Effects Of Snap On Child And Adult Health, Daniel P. Miller, Taryn W. Morrissey

University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research Discussion Paper Series

The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP; formerly known as food stamps) can have important impacts that extend beyond its intended aims to improve food security and nutrition, particularly for health and health care use. This project examined the impact of SNAP receipt and benefit level on the health of adults and children using two natural experiments to address selection bias: 1) state policy variation in SNAP in an instrumental variables (IV) analysis; and, 2) the temporary expansion of SNAP benefits and eligibility provided through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) in a difference-in-difference (DD) approach. We used restricted data ...


Impact Of Food Insecurity And Snap Participation On Healthcare Utilization And Expenditures, Seth A. Berkowitz, Hilary K. Seligman, Sanjay Basu 2017 Massachusetts General Hospital

Impact Of Food Insecurity And Snap Participation On Healthcare Utilization And Expenditures, Seth A. Berkowitz, Hilary K. Seligman, Sanjay Basu

University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research Discussion Paper Series

We tested three hypothesis related to food insecurity and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), America’s largest anti-food insecurity program. We hypothesized that 1)food insecurity would be associated with increased healthcare expenditures, 2)food insecurity would be associated with increased use of emergency department and inpatient services, and 3) SNAP participation would be associated with lower subsequent healthcare expenditures. We used data from the 2011 National Health Interview Survey linked to the 2012-13 Medical Expenditures Panel Survey. We used zero-inflated negative binomial regression to test the relationship between food insecurity and healthcare cost and use. We evaluated the ...


The Real Value Of Snap Benefits And Health Outcomes, Hilary W. Hoynes, Erin Bronchetti, Garret Christensen 2017 University of California, Berkeley

The Real Value Of Snap Benefits And Health Outcomes, Hilary W. Hoynes, Erin Bronchetti, Garret Christensen

University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research Discussion Paper Series

The food stamp program (SNAP) is one of the most important elements of the social safety net and is the second largest anti-poverty program for children in the U.S. (only the EITC raises more children above poverty). The program varies little across states and over time, which creates challenges for quasi-experimental evaluation. Notably, SNAP benefit levels are fixed across 48 states; but local food prices vary widely, leading to substantial variation in the real value of SNAP benefits. In this study, we leverage time variation in the real value of the SNAP benefit across markets to examine the effects ...


Child Age And Gender Differences In Food Security In A Low-Income Inner-City Population, Robert A. Moffitt, David C. Ribar 2017 Johns Hopkins University

Child Age And Gender Differences In Food Security In A Low-Income Inner-City Population, Robert A. Moffitt, David C. Ribar

University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research Discussion Paper Series

A long literature in economics concerns itself with differential allocations of resources to different children within the family unit. In a study of approximately 1,500 very disadvantaged families with children in Boston, Chicago, and San Antonio from 1999 to 2005, significant differences in levels of food allocation, as measured by an indicator of food “insecurity,” are found across children of different ages and genders. Using answers to unique survey questions for a specific child in the family, food insecurity levels are found to be much higher among older boys and girls than among younger ones, and to be sometimes ...


The Interconnection Of The Great Recession, Income Disparity, Segregated Metropolitan Districts, And Their Significance To All In The U.S., Marcellus Demer 2017 Claremont McKenna College

The Interconnection Of The Great Recession, Income Disparity, Segregated Metropolitan Districts, And Their Significance To All In The U.S., Marcellus Demer

CMC Senior Theses

In the United States, nobody can survive without depending on the income of oneself or of those that support them. Thus, economic opportunity and its skewed availability is pertinent to everyone. With income inequality in the United States measured in the early 2010s reaching some of the highest estimates among nations around the globe, people seek to investigate the forces behind this phenomenon and reverse it. This paper focuses on some of the many cycles and structures that exist to reinforce the challenges of achieving economic equality. Specifically, I extrapolate data to measure the correlations between the Great Recession and ...


An Empirical Study Of Earnings Of Immigrants And Native-Born Americans In The U.S. Labor Market Given Different Levels Of Educational Attainment, Yuli P. Gomez Bravo 2016 Buffalo State College

An Empirical Study Of Earnings Of Immigrants And Native-Born Americans In The U.S. Labor Market Given Different Levels Of Educational Attainment, Yuli P. Gomez Bravo

Applied Economics Theses

This paper will compare the Lifetime wage earnings of immigrants and native-born citizens in the U.S. for the years 2000-2010 according to educational attainment using cross-sectional data. The data obtained through IPUMS-CPS Integrated Public Use of Microdata Series, University of Minnesota. The findings of investment in Human Capital of Mincer (1958), the Immigrants earnings distribution of Chiswick and Miller (2006), the Pareto’s law of income distribution, and the immigrants investment in human capital model by Duleep and Regets (1999) are the theoretical basis in which this study will be ruled. The empirical evidence suggests that immigrants who invest ...


The Nominalistic Principle: A Legal Approach To Inflation, Deflation, Devaluation And Revaluation, Alain H. Sheer 2016 University of Georgia

The Nominalistic Principle: A Legal Approach To Inflation, Deflation, Devaluation And Revaluation, Alain H. Sheer

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Income Distribution, Export Instability, And Savings Behavior, David Lim 2016 Technological and Higher Education Institute of Hong Kong, Vocational Training Council

Income Distribution, Export Instability, And Savings Behavior, David Lim

Prof. David Lim

This paper examines the effects of income distribution and export instability on the savings ratios of a group of 12 developed and 52 less developed countries (DCs and LDCs) for 1968-73. The effect of income distribution on savings has been studied before but not on as comprehensive a group of countries as presented here. The effect of export instability on savings has not been examined before in the literature on the determinants of savings behavior. It has, however, been discussed in the literature on the relationship between export instability and economic growth and part of the purpose of this paper ...


The Meaning And Measurement Of Income Mobility, Gary S. Fields, Efe A. Ok 2016 Cornell University

The Meaning And Measurement Of Income Mobility, Gary S. Fields, Efe A. Ok

Gary S Fields

Income mobility may be seen as arising from two sources: (i) the transfer of income among individuals with total income held constant, and (ii) a change in the total amount of income available. In this paper, we propose several sensible properties defining the concept of income mobility and show that an easily applicable measure of mobility is uniquely implied by these properties. We also show that the resulting measure is additively decomposable into the two sources listed above, namely, mobility due to the transfer of income within a given structure and mobility due to economic growth or contraction. Finally, these ...


Income-Generating Functions In A Low Income Country: Colombia, Gary S. Fields, T. Paul Schultz 2016 Cornell University

Income-Generating Functions In A Low Income Country: Colombia, Gary S. Fields, T. Paul Schultz

Gary S Fields

Income generating functions are statistical tools used to explain income inequality and other economic outcomes and behavior. These functions are often associated with a strict human capital framework, but they need not be. Instead, they may be viewed as a reduced form equation summarizing the relationship between income and various personal and locational characteristics. Following this latter interpretation, we develop the regression and analysis of variance approaches to income generating functions and estimate them empirically using micro-economic data from one low income country, Colombia. Proceeding to increasingly parsimonious specifications of income generating functions, insights are gained into the structure of ...


Employment, Income Distribution And Economic Growth In Seven Small Open Economies, Gary S. Fields 2016 Cornell University

Employment, Income Distribution And Economic Growth In Seven Small Open Economies, Gary S. Fields

Gary S Fields

[Excerpt] Resurgent interest has been manifested among development economists in trickle-down, i.e., the view that the more rapid the rate of economic growth, the more rapid the improvement in employment and income distribution. Throughout this paper, the term ‘income distribution’ will refer to the location and dispersion of the pattern of incomes, i.e., to ‘absolute incomes and poverty’ and to ‘relative income inequality’. Empirical evidence supports trickle-down in some cases, but the evidence is contrary to trickle-down in others.

These data indicate:

  1. A high rate of economic growth is neither necessary nor sufficient for inequality to decline.
  2. A ...


Income Distribution And Economic Growth, Gary S. Fields 2016 Cornell University

Income Distribution And Economic Growth, Gary S. Fields

Gary S Fields

[Excerpt] Who benefits how much from economic growth and why? This question is fundamental to today’s development economics. This chapter reviews some of the major lessons learned and major directions for future research in the study of income distribution and economic development.


Employment And Economic Growth In Costa Rica, Gary S. Fields 2016 Cornell University

Employment And Economic Growth In Costa Rica, Gary S. Fields

Gary S Fields

Costa Rica’s economic growth in the last 25 years has had favorable labor market and income distribution consequences. Overall, employment growth kept pace with labor force growth, the mix of jobs improved, real wages rose, and relative inequality and absolute poverty fell. But during the economic crisis of 1980-82, when real per capita income plummeted, labor market conditions deteriorated markedly: unemployment doubled, employment composition worsened, and real wages fell by 40%. Growth, labor market conditions, and income distribution have moved together.


Antitrust, Competition Policy, And Inequality, Jonathan B. Baker, Steven C. Salop 2016 American University Washington College of Law

Antitrust, Competition Policy, And Inequality, Jonathan B. Baker, Steven C. Salop

Jonathan B. Baker

Economic inequality recently has entered the political discourse in a highly visible way. This political impact is not a surprise. As the U.S. economy has begun to recover from the Great Recession since mid-2009, economic growth has effectively been appropriated by those already well off, leaving the median household less well off. The serious economic, political and moral issues raised by inequality can be addressed through a panoply of public policies including competition policy, the focus of this article. The article describes the channels through which market power contributes to inequality, and sets forth a range of possible antitrust ...


Essays On Human Capital And Inequality, Youngmin Park 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Essays On Human Capital And Inequality, Youngmin Park

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis conducts positive and normative analysis of inequality based on human capital theory. In Chapter 2, we document important differences in early child investments by family income and study four leading mechanisms thought to explain these gaps: intergenerational ability correlation, consumption value of investment, information frictions, and credit constraints. We evaluate whether these mechanisms are consistent with other stylized facts related to the marginal returns on investments and the effects of parental income on child investments and skills.

In Chapter 3, I study optimal higher education subsidies when parents’ willingness to pay for their children's education differs due ...


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