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Estimating Compensating Wage Differentials With Endogenous Job Mobility, Kurt Lavetti, Ian M. Schmutte 2016 The Ohio State University

Estimating Compensating Wage Differentials With Endogenous Job Mobility, Kurt Lavetti, Ian M. Schmutte

Labor Dynamics Institute

We demonstrate a strategy for using matched employer-employee data to correct endogenous job mobility bias when estimating compensating wage differentials. Applied to fatality rates in the census of formal-sector jobs in Brazil between 2003-2010, we show why common approaches to eliminating ability bias can greatly amplify endogenous job mobility bias. By extending the search-theoretic hedonic wage frame- work, we establish conditions necessary to interpret our estimates as preferences. We present empirical analyses supporting the predictions of the model and identifying conditions, demonstrating that the standard models are misspecified, and that our proposed model eliminates latent ability and endogenous mobility biases.


Natural Disasters In Latin America: The Role Of Disaster Type And Productive Sector On The Urban-Rural Income Gap And Rural To Urban Migration, Madeline Alice Messick 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Natural Disasters In Latin America: The Role Of Disaster Type And Productive Sector On The Urban-Rural Income Gap And Rural To Urban Migration, Madeline Alice Messick

Dissertations

This research provides insight into the impact of natural disasters as drivers of rural to urban migration in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Disasters of varying types are predicted to have differing impacts on the productive sectors of agriculture, industry, and services; which due to the concentration of the various productive sectors in either urban or rural areas, subsequently changes the urban-rural wage differential. Changes to the wage differential (as measured by the urban-rural income gap) are predicted to lead to movement between urban and rural areas until a new equilibrium wage is reached.

This dissertation first identifies a ...


Earnings Mobility In Times Of Growth And Decline: Argentina From 1996 To 2003, Gary S. Fields, María Laura Sánchez Puerta 2016 Cornell University

Earnings Mobility In Times Of Growth And Decline: Argentina From 1996 To 2003, Gary S. Fields, María Laura Sánchez Puerta

Gary S Fields

In recent years, the economy of Argentina has experienced both rapid economic growth and severe economic decline. In this paper, we use a series of one-year long panels to study who gained the most in pesos when the economy grew and who lost the most in pesos when the economy contracted. Various considerations led us to expect that mobility would be divergent—that is, that the individuals who started with the highest initial earnings would enjoy the largest earnings gains in pesos. Contrary to expectations and for a wide range of specifications, mobility is found to be mostly convergent, sometimes ...


Using The Theory Of Fundamental Causes To Show The Potential Effects Of Socioeconomic Status On Surgical Outcomes, Mehwish Qasim, A.B.D. 2016 University of Iowa

Using The Theory Of Fundamental Causes To Show The Potential Effects Of Socioeconomic Status On Surgical Outcomes, Mehwish Qasim, A.B.D.

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Surgical procedures are both costly and common. There are large differences in surgical outcomes both within and between hospitals based on patient characteristics such as measures of income. In both 2000 and 2009, patients residing in low-income communities had worse morbidity and mortality rates, across a wide range of quality indicators. In this review, the author will explicate the Theory of Fundamental Causes as it relates to surgical care, review key empirical findings and address potential limitations of the theory. This review will provide a platform for researchers to discuss current research in surgical disparities using the Theory of Fundamental ...


The Adequacy Of Rural Capital Markets: Public Purpose And Policy Options, Mark A. Edelman Dr. 2016 Iowa State University

The Adequacy Of Rural Capital Markets: Public Purpose And Policy Options, Mark A. Edelman Dr.

Mark Edelman

Mr. Chairman and Committee Members, I appreciate the opportunity to testify before the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry regarding rural capital issues. Several perspectives inform my comments today. I am an Extension public policy economist at Iowa State University. I serve as a member of the Rural Policy Research Institute's (RUPRI) Rural Finance Task Force. Many of my comments are grounded in the RUPRI Task Force background white paper "The Adequacy of Rural Financial Markets." cited as one of the four studies for review and discussion at today's hearing. At the request of the ISU Vice ...


Evaluating Stolper-Samuelson: Trade Liberalization & Wage Inequality In India, Anthony M. Michael 2016 University of San Francisco

Evaluating Stolper-Samuelson: Trade Liberalization & Wage Inequality In India, Anthony M. Michael

Master's Theses

This paper tests the predictions of the Stolper-Samuelson Theorem in India after it underwent major trade reform in 1991. Using industry level tariff data, the paper empirically examines trade liberalization’s effect on the wages of high-skilled labor relative to low skilled labor within firms. The study finds empirical evidence to support growing wage differentials within firms, which contradict the predictions of the Stolper-Samuelson Theorem. Additionally, when controlling for firm size and the effects of the global financial crisis, these results remain robust. Finally, the paper explores training and welfare and R&D’s effect on the wage differentials within ...


Leveraging The Effects Of Loss Framing To Nudge Low-Income, High-Achieving Students In Chicago Towards Higher Education, Benjamin Feis 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Leveraging The Effects Of Loss Framing To Nudge Low-Income, High-Achieving Students In Chicago Towards Higher Education, Benjamin Feis

Honors Theses (PPE)

The vast majority of low-income, high-achieving high school students in the U.S. either do not apply to college or undermatch by attending less selective institutions than those they are qualified to attend. Previous research has demonstrated that behavioral “nudges” can be an effective and low-cost method of influencing students’ application behavior and encouraging them to enroll in selective institutions. This study contributes to this existing body of literature by examining whether framing college earnings premium information as a loss causes low-income high school students in Chicago to report greater likelihood of applying to college than when the same information ...


Testing Stochastic Convergence Amongst Mexican States: A Polynomial Regression Analysis, Vicente German-Soto, Natalia Salazar Garza 2016 Autonomous University of Coahuila

Testing Stochastic Convergence Amongst Mexican States: A Polynomial Regression Analysis, Vicente German-Soto, Natalia Salazar Garza

Vicente German-Soto

Another look on the economic convergence among Mexican states is offered examining whether they are approaching along 1940-2010. Methodology is based on polynomial regressions, a method that determines whether predictions can be significantly improved by increasing the complexity of the fitted straight-line model. Estimates from a set of polynomial terms are a theoretical approximation to income differentials, so it constitutes an adequate frame to analyze if different initial conditions tend to diminish in the long-run. We calibrate for each economy the polynomial equation of best adjustment supported in information criteria and a strategy of backward iterative elimination. Empirical results are ...


Testing Stochastic Convergence Amongst Mexican States: A Polynomial Regression Analysis, Vicente German-Soto, Natalia Salazar Garza 2016 Autonomous University of Coahuila

Testing Stochastic Convergence Amongst Mexican States: A Polynomial Regression Analysis, Vicente German-Soto, Natalia Salazar Garza

Vicente German-Soto

Another look on the economic convergence among Mexican states is offered examining whether they are approaching along 1940-2010. Methodology is based on polynomial regressions, a method that determines whether predictions can be significantly improved by increasing the complexity of the fitted straight-line model. Estimates from a set of polynomial terms are a theoretical approximation to income differentials, so it constitutes an adequate frame to analyze if different initial conditions tend to diminish in the long-run. We calibrate for each economy the polynomial equation of best adjustment supported in information criteria and a strategy of backward iterative elimination. Empirical results are ...


Are Music Streaming Services Healthy For The Recorded Music Industry?, Elizabeth W. Pittman 2016 University of Arkansas

Are Music Streaming Services Healthy For The Recorded Music Industry?, Elizabeth W. Pittman

Economics Undergraduate Honors Theses

To listen to music just a few hundred years ago would require hundreds of miles of travel, tons of wood and metal and ivory and copper strings, construction of a stage and audience platforms, human capital to perform the music of course, and lots of money. All of these variables would combine to produce an auditory experience of approximately 45 minutes total. Today, a single musician can produce the sound of dozens with just a laptop, and it can be consumed relatively cheaply with the click of a button. Digital services such as iTunes or Spotify give listeners access to ...


Inequality And Financialization, Oscar C. Soons 2016 University of Rhode Island

Inequality And Financialization, Oscar C. Soons

Senior Honors Projects

This paper analyzes economic inequality in the United States and makes a connection between rising inequality and “Financialization” since the 1970’s. I provide an overview of how and why income and wealth inequality have changed over time. The increase in inequality since the 1970’s is correlated with an increase in Financialization, measured by a Financialization index that I created. Financialization, defined as the increasing size, power and influence of the financial sector in the economy and politics, has changed the economic and political landscape in the United States in a way that increases economic inequality.


Income Inequality In American Professional Sports Leagues, Joshua S. Thurman 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Income Inequality In American Professional Sports Leagues, Joshua S. Thurman

Economics Undergraduate Honors Theses

Sports leagues provide an interesting window to view issues that larger economies face that are much harder to measure due to their complexity. These leagues have many policy tools similar to those used in major world economies such as minimum wage, price ceilings, labor unions, and revenue sharing, although the impact of these policies are much easier to measure in the closed economy model of a sports league because the income and output of every player in a given year is known. In this paper, I measure the level and trend of income inequality in the NBA, NFL, and MLB ...


Exchange Patterns And Relations In Collaborative Governance., Charles Wharton Kaye-Essien 2016 University of Louisville

Exchange Patterns And Relations In Collaborative Governance., Charles Wharton Kaye-Essien

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collaborative governance has received considerable attention in recent years. From environmental resource management to public safety, collaborative governance continues to play a vital role in regional problem solving. In spite of this increasing popularity previous attempts to model the political, economic, and demographic determinants of collaboration have in most cases produced inconsistent results, thereby undermining the ability to generalize from such findings. Additionally, our understanding of the relational patterns that emanate from collaborative agreements remains fairly rudimentary. The main objective of this research is to address some of the gaps in the literature and improve our understanding of collaborative governance ...


Income Inequality, Incarceration, And Black-White Poverty Rate Differentials, Conor B. Stanhope 2016 St. John Fisher College

Income Inequality, Incarceration, And Black-White Poverty Rate Differentials, Conor B. Stanhope

The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research

This paper attempts to analyze and isolate the effects of income inequality on the difference between poverty rates amongst the Black and White population by state in 2010, using each state’s GINI coefficient estimate as the inequality measurement. In addition, the author proposes an alternative income distribution measurement to try and further interpret the effects of a particular state’s income allocation on its poverty rate differential. This paper will also discuss, and attempt to quantify, other factors that could affect disparity in poverty rates between Black and White Americans, such as incarceration rates. The author finds that there ...


Crime Does Pay: Financial Illiteracy And Criminal Behavior, Samaria Muhammad 2016 Georgia State University

Crime Does Pay: Financial Illiteracy And Criminal Behavior, Samaria Muhammad

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


The Benefits Of Child Contact While In Prison On Educational Program Participation And Employment Outcomes, Déshané Velasquez 2016 Georgia State University

The Benefits Of Child Contact While In Prison On Educational Program Participation And Employment Outcomes, Déshané Velasquez

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


The Golden Straightjacket Is Out Of Style, Lacey Germana 2016 Wright State University

The Golden Straightjacket Is Out Of Style, Lacey Germana

Best Integrated Writing

Germana’s review of Thomas Friedman’s The Lexus and the Olive Tree provides careful summary and critique of Friedman’s argument and passionately calls for a balance between increased standards of living and careful stewardship of the earth.


The Distribution Of Globalized Power, Rachel Canter 2016 Wright State University

The Distribution Of Globalized Power, Rachel Canter

Best Integrated Writing

Canter reviews Thomas Friedman’s The Lexus and the Olive Tree and observes the dissonance between our notions of globalization and global society; she offers an alternate worldview that pays respect to regional cultures and values.


Equitable Distribution Of Microfinance: How Language, Ethnicity, And Religion Affect Access To Microcredit Loans, Hallie Elizabeth Westlund 2016 College of William and Mary

Equitable Distribution Of Microfinance: How Language, Ethnicity, And Religion Affect Access To Microcredit Loans, Hallie Elizabeth Westlund

College of William & Mary Undergraduate Honors Theses

Microfinance consists of small loans or savings given in the form of microcredit to help foster the growth of small businesses and help those who do not have access to formal financial institutions. Scholarship is mixed on whether microfinance is successful or not in lifting people out of poverty, but microfinance has been shown to help individuals run more successful businesses. Microfinance loans are not distributed equally; some regions and countries receive far more loans than others. Additionally, women receive more loans than men. This research analyzes whether minority groups have equal access to microfinance loans; particularly whether ethnic, religious ...


Del Movimiento Estudiantil A Revolución Democrática: Esperanza Está En La Institución, Jensen Handwork 2016 SIT Graduate Institute - Study Abroad

Del Movimiento Estudiantil A Revolución Democrática: Esperanza Está En La Institución, Jensen Handwork

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The Chilean State is currently in a political era defined as the Crisis de Legitimidad (Crisis of Legitimacy) in result of extreme socioeconomic inequality and widespread political disillusionment. In 2011, a social movement led by university students became the most important movement since the democratic transition began in 1990, succeeding in re-politicizing the population. The movement started as a demand that the State offer free higher education and end various injustices in the entire education system, however, in time the movement and became a statewide expression of the frustration felt against the neo-liberal state. Over 80% of the Chilean population ...


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