Non-Employment Benefits And The Evolution Of Worker-Employer Cooperation: Experiments With Real And Computational Agents, 2016 University of Nevada - Reno
Non-Employment Benefits And The Evolution Of Worker-Employer Cooperation: Experiments With Real And Computational Agents, Mark Pingle, Leigh Tesfatsion
Experiments with real and computational agents are used to examine the impact of changing the level of a non-employment payoff on the evolution of cooperation between workers and employers participating in a sequential employment game with incomplete contracts. Workers either direct work offers to preferred employers or choose unemployment. and receive the non-employment payoff. Subject to capacity limitations, employers either accept work offers from preferred workers or remain-vacant' and receive the non-employment payoff. Matched workers and. employers participate in an employment relationship modeled as a prisoner's dilemma game. • In both types of experiments, increases in the non-employment payoff result ...
The Nominalistic Principle: A Legal Approach To Inflation, Deflation, Devaluation And Revaluation, 2016 University of Georgia
The Nominalistic Principle: A Legal Approach To Inflation, Deflation, Devaluation And Revaluation, Alain H. Sheer
Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law
No abstract provided.
Income Distribution, Export Instability, And Savings Behavior, 2016 Technological and Higher Education Institute of Hong Kong, Vocational Training Council
Income Distribution, Export Instability, And Savings Behavior, David Lim
Prof. David Lim
This paper examines the effects of income distribution and export instability on the savings ratios of a group of 12 developed and 52 less developed countries (DCs and LDCs) for 1968-73. The effect of income distribution on savings has been studied before but not on as comprehensive a group of countries as presented here. The effect of export instability on savings has not been examined before in the literature on the determinants of savings behavior. It has, however, been discussed in the literature on the relationship between export instability and economic growth and part of the purpose of this paper ...
The Meaning And Measurement Of Income Mobility, 2016 Cornell University
The Meaning And Measurement Of Income Mobility, Gary S. Fields, Efe A. Ok
Gary S Fields
Income mobility may be seen as arising from two sources: (i) the transfer of income among individuals with total income held constant, and (ii) a change in the total amount of income available. In this paper, we propose several sensible properties defining the concept of income mobility and show that an easily applicable measure of mobility is uniquely implied by these properties. We also show that the resulting measure is additively decomposable into the two sources listed above, namely, mobility due to the transfer of income within a given structure and mobility due to economic growth or contraction. Finally, these ...
Income-Generating Functions In A Low Income Country: Colombia, 2016 Cornell University
Income-Generating Functions In A Low Income Country: Colombia, Gary S. Fields, T. Paul Schultz
Gary S Fields
Income generating functions are statistical tools used to explain income inequality and other economic outcomes and behavior. These functions are often associated with a strict human capital framework, but they need not be. Instead, they may be viewed as a reduced form equation summarizing the relationship between income and various personal and locational characteristics. Following this latter interpretation, we develop the regression and analysis of variance approaches to income generating functions and estimate them empirically using micro-economic data from one low income country, Colombia. Proceeding to increasingly parsimonious specifications of income generating functions, insights are gained into the structure of ...
Employment, Income Distribution And Economic Growth In Seven Small Open Economies, 2016 Cornell University
Employment, Income Distribution And Economic Growth In Seven Small Open Economies, Gary S. Fields
Gary S Fields
[Excerpt] Resurgent interest has been manifested among development economists in trickle-down, i.e., the view that the more rapid the rate of economic growth, the more rapid the improvement in employment and income distribution. Throughout this paper, the term ‘income distribution’ will refer to the location and dispersion of the pattern of incomes, i.e., to ‘absolute incomes and poverty’ and to ‘relative income inequality’. Empirical evidence supports trickle-down in some cases, but the evidence is contrary to trickle-down in others.
These data indicate:
- A high rate of economic growth is neither necessary nor sufficient for inequality to decline.
- A ...
Income Distribution And Economic Growth, 2016 Cornell University
Income Distribution And Economic Growth, Gary S. Fields
Gary S Fields
[Excerpt] Who benefits how much from economic growth and why? This question is fundamental to today’s development economics. This chapter reviews some of the major lessons learned and major directions for future research in the study of income distribution and economic development.
Employment And Economic Growth In Costa Rica, 2016 Cornell University
Employment And Economic Growth In Costa Rica, Gary S. Fields
Gary S Fields
Costa Rica’s economic growth in the last 25 years has had favorable labor market and income distribution consequences. Overall, employment growth kept pace with labor force growth, the mix of jobs improved, real wages rose, and relative inequality and absolute poverty fell. But during the economic crisis of 1980-82, when real per capita income plummeted, labor market conditions deteriorated markedly: unemployment doubled, employment composition worsened, and real wages fell by 40%. Growth, labor market conditions, and income distribution have moved together.
Measurement Error In Job Evaluation And The Gender Wage Gap, 2016 Shih Hsin University
Measurement Error In Job Evaluation And The Gender Wage Gap, Shih-Neng Chen, Peter F. Orazem, J. Peter Mattila, Jeffrey J. Greig
Job evaluation is used to establish pay for many workers in the United States and has been used to measure the extent of pay discrimination. However, job evaluations are subject to measurement error that can bias these estimates. Using computed reliability ratios to adjust for measurement error in a study of Iowa state government jobs, we find that measurement errors exaggerate the implied extent of discrimination against predominantly female jobs by 34%-44%. Measurement errors also exaggerate the number of independent job factors which affect pay. A practical procedure for making these corrections is illustrated.
The Implementation Process Of Comparable Worth: Winners And Losers, 2016 Iowa State University
The Implementation Process Of Comparable Worth: Winners And Losers, Peter F. Orazem, J. Peter Mattila
This paper provides a unique opportunity to observe how a public policy affected the earnings of various interest groups at different stages of implementation. Specifically, we examine how the earnings of women, union members, and supervisory and professional staff were affected by various proposed and implemented comparable worth pay plans in Iowa. We find that large relative gains to women in the original proposed plans were reduced as the process evolved. As a result, some of the original gains to women were redistributed to union members, supervisors, and professionals.
Computer Adoption And Returns In Transition, 2016 Iowa State University
Computer Adoption And Returns In Transition, Yemisi Kuku, Peter F. Orazem, Rajesh Singh
Across nine transition economies, it is the young, educated, English-speaking workers with the best access to local telecommunications infrastructures that work with computers. These workers earn about 25% more than do workers of comparable observable skills who do not use computers. Controlling for likely simultaneity between computer use at work and labor market earnings makes the apparent returns to computer use disappear. These results are corroborated using Russian longitudinal data on earnings and computer use on the job. High costs of computer use in transition economies suppress wages that firms can pay their workers who use computers.
Antitrust, Competition Policy, And Inequality, 2016 American University Washington College of Law
Antitrust, Competition Policy, And Inequality, Jonathan B. Baker, Steven C. Salop
Jonathan B. Baker
Economic inequality recently has entered the political discourse in a highly visible way. This political impact is not a surprise. As the U.S. economy has begun to recover from the Great Recession since mid-2009, economic growth has effectively been appropriated by those already well off, leaving the median household less well off. The serious economic, political and moral issues raised by inequality can be addressed through a panoply of public policies including competition policy, the focus of this article. The article describes the channels through which market power contributes to inequality, and sets forth a range of possible antitrust ...
Consumption Of Tobacco And Alcoholic Beverages Among Spanish Consumers, 2016 University of Houston, Downtown
Consumption Of Tobacco And Alcoholic Beverages Among Spanish Consumers, Justo Manrique, Helen H. Jensen
The joint selection and purchase of alcohol and tobacco in Spain is modeled using bivariate probit and endogenous switching regression analysis to account for the interaction between drinking and smoking. Different expenditure structures for tobacco and alcohol arise when one or both are consumed. Endogenous switching among structures exists because households are not randomly assigned. The results show that the correlation term of the selection equations and most correction terms for selfselectivity bias are statistically significant. The results also show that income and household demographic variables are important determinants of both selection and expenditures on tobacco and alcohol.
Essays On Human Capital And Inequality, 2016 The University of Western Ontario
Essays On Human Capital And Inequality, Youngmin Park
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
This thesis conducts positive and normative analysis of inequality based on human capital theory. In Chapter 2, we document important differences in early child investments by family income and study four leading mechanisms thought to explain these gaps: intergenerational ability correlation, consumption value of investment, information frictions, and credit constraints. We evaluate whether these mechanisms are consistent with other stylized facts related to the marginal returns on investments and the effects of parental income on child investments and skills.
In Chapter 3, I study optimal higher education subsidies when parents’ willingness to pay for their children's education differs due ...
Estimating Compensating Wage Differentials With Endogenous Job Mobility, 2016 The Ohio State University
Estimating Compensating Wage Differentials With Endogenous Job Mobility, Kurt Lavetti, Ian M. Schmutte
Labor Dynamics Institute
We demonstrate a strategy for using matched employer-employee data to correct endogenous job mobility bias when estimating compensating wage differentials. Applied to fatality rates in the census of formal-sector jobs in Brazil between 2003-2010, we show why common approaches to eliminating ability bias can greatly amplify endogenous job mobility bias. By extending the search-theoretic hedonic wage frame- work, we establish conditions necessary to interpret our estimates as preferences. We present empirical analyses supporting the predictions of the model and identifying conditions, demonstrating that the standard models are misspecified, and that our proposed model eliminates latent ability and endogenous mobility biases.
Natural Disasters In Latin America: The Role Of Disaster Type And Productive Sector On The Urban-Rural Income Gap And Rural To Urban Migration, 2016 University of Southern Mississippi
Natural Disasters In Latin America: The Role Of Disaster Type And Productive Sector On The Urban-Rural Income Gap And Rural To Urban Migration, Madeline Alice Messick
This research provides insight into the impact of natural disasters as drivers of rural to urban migration in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Disasters of varying types are predicted to have differing impacts on the productive sectors of agriculture, industry, and services; which due to the concentration of the various productive sectors in either urban or rural areas, subsequently changes the urban-rural wage differential. Changes to the wage differential (as measured by the urban-rural income gap) are predicted to lead to movement between urban and rural areas until a new equilibrium wage is reached.
This dissertation first identifies a ...
Earnings Mobility In Times Of Growth And Decline: Argentina From 1996 To 2003, 2016 Cornell University
Earnings Mobility In Times Of Growth And Decline: Argentina From 1996 To 2003, Gary S. Fields, María Laura Sánchez Puerta
Gary S Fields
In recent years, the economy of Argentina has experienced both rapid economic growth and severe economic decline. In this paper, we use a series of one-year long panels to study who gained the most in pesos when the economy grew and who lost the most in pesos when the economy contracted. Various considerations led us to expect that mobility would be divergent—that is, that the individuals who started with the highest initial earnings would enjoy the largest earnings gains in pesos. Contrary to expectations and for a wide range of specifications, mobility is found to be mostly convergent, sometimes ...
Using The Theory Of Fundamental Causes To Show The Potential Effects Of Socioeconomic Status On Surgical Outcomes, Mehwish Qasim, A.B.D.
Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice
Surgical procedures are both costly and common. There are large differences in surgical outcomes both within and between hospitals based on patient characteristics such as measures of income. In both 2000 and 2009, patients residing in low-income communities had worse morbidity and mortality rates, across a wide range of quality indicators. In this review, the author will explicate the Theory of Fundamental Causes as it relates to surgical care, review key empirical findings and address potential limitations of the theory. This review will provide a platform for researchers to discuss current research in surgical disparities using the Theory of Fundamental ...
Worker Cooperatives As An Innovative Strategy To Address Income Inequality?, 2016 Illinois State University
Worker Cooperatives As An Innovative Strategy To Address Income Inequality?, Bryan Titzler
Stevenson Center for Community and Economic Development
This project explores the relation between the magnitude of the cooperative sector and the degree of income inequality in a country. After a somewhat selective consideration of the possible linkages between the size of the cooperative sector and income inequality, and using Gini as the primary measure for income inequality and two proxies for the size of the cooperative sector, an empirical exploration is done in three ways. First, simple plots are used to judge the gross relation between Gini and each of the two proxies for the size of the cooperative sector. Both plots show a perceptible negative relation ...
Evaluating Stolper-Samuelson: Trade Liberalization & Wage Inequality In India, 2016 University of San Francisco
Evaluating Stolper-Samuelson: Trade Liberalization & Wage Inequality In India, Anthony M. Michael
This paper tests the predictions of the Stolper-Samuelson Theorem in India after it underwent major trade reform in 1991. Using industry level tariff data, the paper empirically examines trade liberalization’s effect on the wages of high-skilled labor relative to low skilled labor within firms. The study finds empirical evidence to support growing wage differentials within firms, which contradict the predictions of the Stolper-Samuelson Theorem. Additionally, when controlling for firm size and the effects of the global financial crisis, these results remain robust. Finally, the paper explores training and welfare and R&D’s effect on the wage differentials within ...