Is Antitrust's Consumer Welfare Principle Imperiled?, 2018 University of Pennsylvania Law School
Is Antitrust's Consumer Welfare Principle Imperiled?, Herbert J. Hovenkamp
Antitrust’s consumer welfare principle stands for the proposition that antitrust policy should encourage markets to produce output as high as is consistent with sustainable competition, and prices that are accordingly as low. Such a policy does not protect every interest group. For example, it opposes the interests of cartels or other competition-limiting associations who profit from lower output and higher prices. It also runs counter to the interest of less competitive firms that need higher prices in order to survive. Market structure is relevant to antitrust policy, but its importance is contingent rather than absolute – that is, market structure ...
Regulation And The Marginalist Revolution, 2018 University of Pennsylvania Law School
Regulation And The Marginalist Revolution, Herbert J. Hovenkamp
The marginalist revolution in economics became the foundation for the modern regulatory State with its “mixed” economy. Marginalism, whose development defines the boundary between classical political economy and neoclassical economics, completely overturned economists’ theory of value. It developed in the late nineteenth century in England, the Continent and the United States. For the classical political economists, value was a function of past averages. One good example is the wage-fund theory, which saw the optimal rate of wages as a function of the firm’s ability to save from previous profits. Another is the theory of corporate finance, which assessed a ...
Building A Bridge Between Philanthropy And Profit: The History, Economics, And Politics Of Environmental Impact In A Commerce Society, Yekaterina Goncharova
Student Theses 2015-Present
This paper examines our consumerist society through past and present data, business practice, supply chain, economics, and its impact on human and environmental well-being. Upon examination, the thesis aims to suggest change through social indicators and policy. It answers numerous questions surrounding both the problems and solutions associated with environmental policy. These include: the question as to what exactly is social and environmental impact investing? What are current changes impacting humanity’s ecological footprint? Why does society need to make changes? Most importantly, it assesses how we can change? Chapter 1 explores the past and what led to an increase ...
Re-Imagining The Labor Movement As A Social Movement, 2018 Clark University
Re-Imagining The Labor Movement As A Social Movement, James Patin
Braided Cobwebs: Cautionary Tales For Dynamic Retail Pricing In End-To-End Power Systems, 2018 Siemans Industry, Mpls
Braided Cobwebs: Cautionary Tales For Dynamic Retail Pricing In End-To-End Power Systems, Auswin George Thomas, Leigh Tesfatsion
Economics Working Papers
This study investigates the effects of dynamic-price retail contracting on end-to-end power system operations. Performance is evaluated by means of carefully defined metrics for system stability, market efficiency, and market participant welfare. The study is carried out for an Integrated Retail and Wholesale (IRW) Test Case for which households have smart (price-responsive) air-conditioning (A/C) systems. A simplified version of the IRW Test Case with a directly postulated linear household demand curve is first used to derive, analytically, a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for system stability under dynamic-price retail contracting. A key finding is that dynamicprice retail contracts ...
Annual Net Returns To Cover Crops In Iowa, 2018 Iowa State University
Annual Net Returns To Cover Crops In Iowa, Alejandro Plastina, Fangge Liu, Wendiam Sawadgo, Fernando E. Miguez, Sarah Carlson, Guillermo Marcillo
Economics Working Papers
Despite the active promotion of cover crops as a key conservation practice, their adoption is very limited. We developed a series of partial budgets based on a statewide survey of Iowa farmers to evaluate the changes in net returns resulting from the incorporation of cover crops into a corn or soybean production system. The average net returns to cover crops use for farmers that did not use cover crops for grazing livestock or forage were consistently negative across different planting and termination methods, tillage practices, and experience levels. Only farmers that used cover crops for grazing livestock or forage, and ...
The Colonial American Economy, 2018 Iowa State University
The Colonial American Economy, Joshua L. Rosenbloom
Economics Working Papers
The first permanent British settlement in what became the United States was established in 1607, nearly 170 years prior to the American declaration of independence. This chapter examines the economic development of the British North American colonies that became the United States. As it describes, abundant natural resources and scarce labor and capital contributed to the remarkable growth in the size of the colonial economy, and allowed the free white colonial population to enjoy a relatively high standard of living. There was not, however, much improvement over time in living standards. Patterns of factor abundance also played an important role ...
Antebellum Labor Markets, 2018 Iowa State University
Antebellum Labor Markets, Joshua L. Rosenbloom
Economics Working Papers
The United States economy was transformed in the period between American independence and the beginning of the Civil War by rapid population growth, the development of manufacturing, the onset of modern economic growth, increasing urbanization, the rapid spread of settlement into the trans-Appalachian west, and the rise of European immigration. These years were also characterized by an increasing sectional conflict between free and slave states that culminated in 1861 in Southern secession from the Union and a bloody and destructive Civil War. Labor markets were central to each of these developments, directing the reallocation of labor between sectors and regions ...
Whatever Did Happen To The Antitrust Movement?, 2018 University of Pennsylvania Law School
Whatever Did Happen To The Antitrust Movement?, Herbert J. Hovenkamp
Antitrust in the United States today is caught between its pursuit of technical rules designed to define and implement defensible economic goals, and increasing calls for a new antitrust “movement.” The goals of this movement have been variously defined as combating industrial concentration, limiting the economic or political power of large firms, correcting the maldistribution of wealth, control of high profits, increasing wages, or protection of small business. High output and low consumer prices are typically unmentioned.
In the 1960s the great policy historian Richard Hofstadter lamented the passing of the antitrust “movement” as one of the “faded passions of ...
Prophylactic Merger Policy, 2018 University of Pennsylvania Law School
Prophylactic Merger Policy, Herbert J. Hovenkamp
An important purpose of the antitrust merger law is to arrest certain anticompetitive practices or outcomes in their “incipiency.” Many Clayton Act decisions involving both mergers and other practices had recognized the idea as early as the 1920s. In Brown Shoe the Supreme Court doubled down on the idea, attributing to Congress a concern about a “rising tide of economic concentration” that must be halted “at its outset and before it gathered momentum.” The Supreme Court did not explain why an incipiency test was needed to address this particular problem. Once structural thresholds for identifying problematic mergers are identified there ...
The Rule Of Reason, 2018 University of Pennsylvania Law School
The Rule Of Reason, Herbert J. Hovenkamp
Antitrust’s rule of reason was born out of a thirty-year (1897-1927) division among Supreme Court Justices about the proper way to assess multi-firm restraints on competition. By the late 1920s the basic contours of the rule for restraints among competitors was roughly established. Antitrust policy toward vertical restraints remained much more unstable, however, largely because their effects were so poorly understood.
This article provides a litigation field guide for antitrust claims under the rule of reason – or more precisely, for situations when application of the rule of reason is likely. At the time pleadings are drafted and even up ...
Governance By Contract: The Implications For Corporate Bylaws, 2018 University of Pennsylvania Law School
Governance By Contract: The Implications For Corporate Bylaws, Jill E. Fisch
Boards and shareholders are increasing using charter and bylaw provisions to customize their corporate governance. Recent examples include forum selection bylaws, majority voting bylaws and advance notice bylaws. Relying on the contractual conception of the corporation, Delaware courts have accorded substantial deference to board-adopted bylaw provisions, even those that limit shareholder rights.
This Article challenges the rationale for deference under the contractual approach. With respect to corporate bylaws, the Article demonstrates that shareholder power to adopt and amend the bylaws is, under Delaware law, more limited than the board’s power to do so. As a result, shareholders cannot effectively ...
Horizontal Mergers, Market Structure, And Burdens Of Proof, 2018 University of Pennsylvania Law School
Horizontal Mergers, Market Structure, And Burdens Of Proof, Herbert J. Hovenkamp, Carl Shapiro
Since the Supreme Court’s landmark 1963 decision in Philadelphia National Bank, antitrust challengers have mounted prima facie cases against horizontal mergers that rested on the level and increase in market concentration caused by the merger, with proponents of the merger then permitted to rebut by providing evidence that the merger will not have the feared anticompetitive effects. Although the way that concentration is measured and the triggering levels have changed over the last half century, the basic approach has remained intact. This longstanding structural presumption, which is well supported by economic theory and evidence, has been critical to effective ...
Horizontal Shareholding And Antitrust Policy, 2018 Yale University
Horizontal Shareholding And Antitrust Policy, Fiona M. Scott Morton, Herbert J. Hovenkamp
“Horizontal shareholding” occurs when one or more equity funds own shares of competitors operating in a concentrated product market. For example, the four largest mutual fund companies might be large shareholders of all the major United States air carriers. A growing body of empirical literature concludes that under these conditions market output in the product market is lower and prices higher than they would otherwise be.
Here we consider how the antitrust laws might be applied to this practice, identifying the issues that courts are likely to encounter and attempting to anticipate litigation problems. We assume that neither the mutual ...
A Multifaceted View Of Ceo Compensation And Performance: A Case Study, 2018 Stamford International University
A Multifaceted View Of Ceo Compensation And Performance: A Case Study, John Nirenberg
Journal of Social Change
This case addresses CEO pay, a topic that annually stimulates the question of whether or not executive compensation is based on performance or something else and why it is so high in absolute terms. The societal impact of the new class of executives among the largest companies in the United States set apart from the rest of the world in a cocoon of wealth and privilege inflames resentment among workers, widens an already unfathomable distance between those at the top and the rest of us, and endangers the social amity among citizens of the polity . Positive social change might result ...
In Good Company: In The Future, Every Business Might Be Social, 2018 Singapore Management University
In Good Company: In The Future, Every Business Might Be Social, Christian Petroske
It sounds like a riddle: why would Coca Cola, one of the biggest soft drinks companies in the world, be investing in a cause to empower fi ve million female entrepreneurs globally by 2020? It’s true:1 the Coca Cola Company’s initiative, called 5by20, is a forerunning example of a trend sweeping the corporate world. This trend is known by many names, the foremost of which are “shared value”, “inclusive business” or “sustainable business”. Their defi nitions can seem murky at fi rst, but these terms share a common thread. They sit at the intersection of economy and ...
The Impact Of Noxious And Carcinogenic Pollutants In Adams County Colorado, 2018 University of Colorado, Boulder
The Impact Of Noxious And Carcinogenic Pollutants In Adams County Colorado, Ahnika Leroy
Undergraduate Honors Theses
This paper will explore how carcinogenic and noxious pollutants emitted from Toxic Release Sites (TRI) effect housing prices in an urban area of Colorado. This is possible in an empirical model that considers the influence of commercial and industrial properties. My approach addresses an important source of omitted variable bias like issues of sorting and agglomeration by disaggregating pollutant types and sites. I will also compare estimates using a hedonic and repeat sales model. Since I am using the repeat sales model, this can control for bias due to sorting. Results indicate that pollutant coefficients in the repeat sales model ...
Competition In The Venture Capital Market And The Success Of Start-Up Companies: Theory And Evidence, Suting Hong, Konstantinos Serfes, Veikko Thiele
No abstract provided.
Swing Contracts With Dynamic Reserves For Flexible Service Management, 2017 Iowa State University
Swing Contracts With Dynamic Reserves For Flexible Service Management, Shanshan Ma, Zhaoyu Wang, Leigh Tesfatsion
The increasing penetration of variable energy resources in modern electric power systems requires additional flexibility in ancillary service provision to maintain reliable and efficient grid operations. However, full recognition and appropriate compensation of this flexibility is difficult to ensure within current power market designs due to rigidities in service definitions and requirements. For example, reserve requirements (RRs) are typically set in advance at administratively determined levels. If RRs are too large, wasteful expenditures result; and, if RRs are too small, high real-time costs are incurred for peak generation and/or load curtailment. To address these problems, this paper proposes a ...
Bringing Emotions Into Social Exchange Theory, 2017 Cornell University
Bringing Emotions Into Social Exchange Theory, Edward J. Lawler, Shane R. Thye
Edward J Lawler
We analyze and review how research on emotion and emotional phenomena can elaborate and improve contemporary social exchange theory. After identifying six approaches from the psychology and sociology of emotion, we illustrate how these ideas bear on the context, process, and outcome of exchange in networks and groups. The paper reviews the current state of the field, develops testable hypotheses for empirical study, and provides specific suggestions for developing links between theories of emotion and theories of exchange.