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Option Strangles: An Analysis Of Selling Equity Insurance, Clemens Kownatzki, Hisam Sabouni 2019 Pepperdine University

Option Strangles: An Analysis Of Selling Equity Insurance, Clemens Kownatzki, Hisam Sabouni

Graziadio Working Paper Series

Our results suggest, selling SPY strangles are generally profitable across a variety of widths. However, the payoff profile of a short option strangle exposes the contract seller to a potential for unlimited losses. Our evidence on maximum drawdowns indicates that losses on some positions can be the equivalent of the profits gained on approximately forty prior positions. This payoff profile has given rise to the metaphor of selling option contracts as the equivalent of “picking up nickels in front of a steam roller.” The goal of our paper is to analyze the full return characteristics of option strangles and to ...


Making Consumer Finance Work, Natasha Sarin 2019 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Making Consumer Finance Work, Natasha Sarin

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The financial crisis exposed major faultlines in banking and financial markets more broadly. Policymakers responded with far-reaching regulation that created a new agency—the CFPB—and changed the structure and function of these markets.

Consumer advocates cheered reforms as welfare-enhancing, while the financial sector declared that consumers would be harmed by interventions. With a decade of data now available, this Article presents the first empirical examination of the successes and failures of the consumer finance reform agenda. Specifically, I marshal data from every zip code and bank in the United States to test the efficacy of three of the most ...


Global Standards For Securities Holding Infrastructures: A Soft Law/Fintech Model For Reform, Charles W. Mooney Jr. 2019 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Global Standards For Securities Holding Infrastructures: A Soft Law/Fintech Model For Reform, Charles W. Mooney Jr.

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Intermediaries such as stockbrokers and banks are ubiquitous in global securities markets, playing essential roles in markets, including trading, settling trades, and post-settlement holding of securities. This essay focuses in particular on the roles of intermediaries in securities holding systems. It proposes an IOSCO-led “soft-law-to-hard-law” approach to the development of Global Standards for reforms to these holding systems. States would be expected to adopt “hard law” reforms through statutory and regulatory adjustments to securities holding systems. The reforms would embrace not only important standards of a functional and regulatory nature, but also holistic standards relating to the private law, insolvency ...


Actual And Self-Assessed Financial Literacy Among Employees Of A South African University, Gizelle D. Willows 2019 The University of Cape Town

Actual And Self-Assessed Financial Literacy Among Employees Of A South African University, Gizelle D. Willows

Numeracy

This study examines the level of financial literacy and self-assessed financial literacy amongst members of a South African tertiary institution’s retirement fund. Based on surveys of the fund’s members, I employ descriptive statistics and multivariate regression analyses to examine differences in financial literacy within and across groups. The results show that, despite working for an employer implementing many best practices identified by financial literacy advocates, respondents from all demographic subgroups possess relatively low levels of financial knowledge. Men, White respondents, and those with a higher cost of employment or higher educational attainment were more likely to have a ...


Circadian Variations And Risky Decision Making, Sana Sra 2019 Claremont Colleges

Circadian Variations And Risky Decision Making, Sana Sra

Scripps Senior Theses

Over the past decades, decision making under risk has garnered a great amount of attention both in the field of economics and psychology. Although state-dependent variabilities of risk taking are well-documented, little is known about the effects of a person’s preferred time of day, or chronotype, in risky decision making. Under circumstances of circadian mismatch (e.g., when an “early bird” makes decisions in the evening), research suggests that decision making may reflect a greater reliance on heuristics, such as using stereotypes in social judgments. However, the effects of circadian mismatch on heuristics in risky decision making are relatively ...


What Drives Merger Waves? A Study Of The Seven Historical Merger Waves In The U.S., Katherine Ching 2019 Claremont Colleges

What Drives Merger Waves? A Study Of The Seven Historical Merger Waves In The U.S., Katherine Ching

Scripps Senior Theses

Historically, merger and acquisition (or M&A) activity has occurred in cyclical patterns, forming what are known as “merger waves.” To date, there have been a total of seven waves. Though it is widely acknowledged that merger waves exist, there is no consensus on what drives these waves. Through both qualitative and quantitative analysis, this paper aims to determine the causes of merger waves and looks at those causes through two different lenses: the neoclassical view, which states that economic shocks cause merger waves, and the behavioral view, which states that increases in merger activity are due to managerial behavior ...


An Examination Of The Stock Market's Effect On Economic Inequality, Nicholas Golina 2019 The University of Akron

An Examination Of The Stock Market's Effect On Economic Inequality, Nicholas Golina

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The economic literature on economic inequality has shown that it can negatively impact aggregate demand because it indicates a higher concentration of wealth in the hands of the top 10% as opposed to the poor and middle class, who are more likely to consume. The literature has identified many factors that can lead to increasing inequality. The stock market could be one of those factors since it can either create an upward redistributive effect towards the top 10% or redistributive effect towards the middle class. This paper tested the effect of the stock market on inequality. This study contributes to ...


Modeling Returns On Carbon Emission Allowances: An Application To Rggi, James Keneally 2019 Claremont Colleges

Modeling Returns On Carbon Emission Allowances: An Application To Rggi, James Keneally

CMC Senior Theses

This thesis attempts to model the returns on Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) allowances using logged monthly returns from 2011-2018. This asset, shown to be a useful diversifier in portfolios, has been identified by previous literature to behave similarly to commodities. I used auto-regressive, GARCH, and Markov regime switching models to analyze the returns because the returns displayed changing volatility. These models were comparatively analyzed both in and out-of-sample. In this limited data analysis, the Markov model outperformed both alternatives in-sample. The Markov and Garch models displayed similar predictive power out-of-sample, however neither were particularly effective.


Leveraged Buyouts: The Predictive Power Of Target Firm Characteristics, Yutao (James) Jiang 2019 Claremont McKenna College

Leveraged Buyouts: The Predictive Power Of Target Firm Characteristics, Yutao (James) Jiang

CMC Senior Theses

This paper utilizes a hazard model to predict the probability of leveraged buyout transactions for public firms. Rather than testing specific hypotheses, this paper incorporates all plausible predictors identified in existing literature to better delineate the effects of different characteristics. Largely confirming past results, I find that LBO transactions are more likely to occur for companies with more stable cash flows, less market visibility, lower market valuation, lower ownership concentration and lower costs of financial distress. By including LBO transactions from 1980 to September 2018, I find preliminary evidence that since the financial crisis of 2008 – 2009, private equity firms ...


The Big Spenddown: Digital Investment Advice And Decumulation, Steven Polansky, Peter Chandler, Gary R. Mottola 2018 FINRA

The Big Spenddown: Digital Investment Advice And Decumulation, Steven Polansky, Peter Chandler, Gary R. Mottola

Wharton Pension Research Council Working Papers

Digital investment advice providers have traditionally focused on the process of assets accumulation. But as Baby Boomers and Gen Xers age, they will need to shift from accumulation to decumulation, and there is less agreement about how to manage payouts during retirement. This chapter provides on overview of digital investment advice in the U.S., explores how digital advice providers are thinking about and executing decumulation strategies, identifies challenges they face, and discusses how these decumulation strategies could affect investors.


The Fintech Opportunity, Thomas Philippon 2018 New York University

The Fintech Opportunity, Thomas Philippon

Wharton Pension Research Council Working Papers

This chapter assesses potential impacts of FinTech on the finance industry. First we show that financial services remain surprisingly expensive in the U.S., which helps explain the emergence of new entrants. We then argue that the current regulatory approach is subject to significant political economy and coordination costs, and therefore it is unlikely to deliver much structural change. FinTech can improve both financial stability and access to services, but this will require important changes in the focus of regulations.


Behavioral Finance, Decumulation And The Regulatory Strategy For Robo-Advice, Tom Baker, Benedict Dellaert 2018 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Behavioral Finance, Decumulation And The Regulatory Strategy For Robo-Advice, Tom Baker, Benedict Dellaert

Wharton Pension Research Council Working Papers

This chapter examines the regulatory and market structure concerns raised by automated financial advisors, and arrives at two conclusions. First, the principles-based regulatory approach of the 1940 Investment Advisors Act in the U.S. appears adequate and sufficiently flexible to address the new issues raised by automation, at least for now. Second, there is a pressing need to develop new mechanisms for encouraging investment robo-advisors (and financial advisors generally) to provide high quality decumulation services to their customers, because neither of the two prevailing compensation approaches – assets under management and commissions – provides sufficient incentive at present, and consumers are poorly ...


Matching Fintech Advice To Participant Needs: Lessons And Challenges, Stephen L. Deschenes, P Brett Hammond 2018 Capital Group

Matching Fintech Advice To Participant Needs: Lessons And Challenges, Stephen L. Deschenes, P Brett Hammond

Wharton Pension Research Council Working Papers

The financial services industry is changing rapidly with the arrival of new economies of scale and networking effects attributable to FinTech, particularly via online or ‘robo’ advice. This chapter reviews the ‘robo-experience:’ how does it differ, if at all, from more traditional advice, and what is likely to happen next? After reviewing the goals and objectives of robo-advice, evolving advice models, who uses robo-advice, and investor behavior, we conclude that first adopters tend to be more affluent Millennial investors, as well as others seeking fast, mobile, and easy access to their finances. Nevertheless, though robo-advice has promised much, evidence is ...


Benefit Plan Cybersecurity Considerations: A Recordkeeper And Plan Perspective, Timothy Rouse, David Levine, Allison Itami, Benjamin Taylor 2018 SPARK Institute

Benefit Plan Cybersecurity Considerations: A Recordkeeper And Plan Perspective, Timothy Rouse, David Levine, Allison Itami, Benjamin Taylor

Wharton Pension Research Council Working Papers

The U.S. has no comprehensive national law governing cybersecurity and no uniform framework for measuring the effectiveness of protections, though retirement plan record keepers maintain the personally identifiable information on millions of workers, collecting names, birth dates, social security numbers, and beneficiaries. Plan sponsors frequently engage consultants and attorneys to help them secure sensitive data, but more work is necessary to engage a larger discussion around this issue. The SPARK Institute has outlined a flexible approach for an independent third-party reporting of cyber security capabilities with several key control objectives.


The Emergence Of The Robo-Advisor, Jill E. Fisch, Marion Labouré, John A. Turner 2018 University of Pennsylvania Law School

The Emergence Of The Robo-Advisor, Jill E. Fisch, Marion Labouré, John A. Turner

Wharton Pension Research Council Working Papers

This volume examines how technology is transforming financial applications, and how FinTech promises a similar revolution in the retirement planning processes. Robo-advisors and mobile savings apps are a few harbingers of innovations to come. Nevertheless, these changes will bring with them new ethical and regulatory considerations, design challenges related to promoting adoption by an older population less trusting of technology, and concerns over data security and privacy. Our contributors take stock of the disruptive impact of financial technology on retirement planning, saving, investment, and decumulation; and it also highlights issues that regulators, plan sponsors, academics, and policymakers must consider as ...


Climate Risks And Market Efficiency, Harrison HONG, Frank Weikai LI, Jiangmin XU 2018 Singapore Management University

Climate Risks And Market Efficiency, Harrison Hong, Frank Weikai Li, Jiangmin Xu

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

Climate science finds that the trend towards higher global temperatures exacerbates the risks of droughts. We investigate whether the prices of food stocks efficiently discount these risks. Using data from thirty-one countries with publicly-traded food companies, we rank these countries each year based on their long-term trends toward droughts using the Palmer Drought Severity Index. A poor trend ranking for a country forecasts relatively poor profit growth for food companies in that country. It also forecasts relatively poor food stock returns in that country. This return predictability is consistent with food stock prices underreacting to climate change risks.


Is Public Transit's 'Green' Reputation Deserved?, Justin Beaudoin 2018 University of Washington Tacoma

Is Public Transit's 'Green' Reputation Deserved?, Justin Beaudoin

TREC Friday Seminar Series

While public transit has a reputation as a potential means to ameliorate the adverse environmental effects of automobile travel, there have been very few empirical studies of the marginal effect of transit supply on air quality. We explore whether any of the substantial improvement in air quality observed in the U.S. from 1991 to 2011 can be attributed to increased public transit supply by developing an equilibrium model of transit and automobile travel volumes as a function of the level of transit supplied. We then empirically analyze the effects of the level of transit supply on observed ambient pollution ...


Partisan Conflict And Stock Price, Dashan HUANG, WANG LIYAO 2018 Singapore Management University

Partisan Conflict And Stock Price, Dashan Huang, Wang Liyao

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

Partisan conflict has been one dominant theme in U.S. politics in recent years. By using the textual index of Azzimonti (2018), this paper shows that partisan conflict positively predicts market returns, controlling for economic predictors and proxies for uncertainty, disagreement, geopolitical risk, and political sentiment. A one standard-deviation increase in partisan conflict is associated with a 0.58% increase in next month market return. The forecasting power concentrates in periods when the president is from the Republican Party or the majority of House is Republicans. Partisan conflict is positively related to downside risk, and makes investors more conservative when ...


Financial Knowledge And Portfolio Complexity In Singapore, Seng Kee Benedict KOH, Olivia S. MITCHELL, Susann ROHWEDDER 2018 Singapore Management University

Financial Knowledge And Portfolio Complexity In Singapore, Seng Kee Benedict Koh, Olivia S. Mitchell, Susann Rohwedder

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

Financial literacy in Singapore has not been analyzed in much detail, despite the fact that this is one of the world’s most rapidly aging nations. Using the Singapore Life Panel®, we explore older Singaporeans’ levels of financial knowledge and compare them to those observed in the United States. We assess portfolio complexity for these older households, to examine how financial literacy is related to outcomes of interest. We show that older Singaporeans’ levels of financial literacy are comparable overall to those in the United States, even though older Singaporeans score slightly lower on some dimensions (knowledge of interest and ...


An Examination Of The Stock Market’S Effect On Economic Inequality, Nicholas J. Golina 2018 The University of Akron

An Examination Of The Stock Market’S Effect On Economic Inequality, Nicholas J. Golina

Undergraduate Economic Review

The literature on economic inequality has shown that stock markets can negatively impact aggregate demand because it indicates a higher concentration of wealth in the hands of the top 10% as opposed to the middle class. The stock market could be one of the factors leading to increased inequality. This study contributes to the literature by analyzing stock markets in OECD countries. Building on Tsountas et al (2015), the results showed that stock markets can have a positive impact on inequality, but with weak economic significance. It is recommended that policymakers should focus on factors that more greatly impact inequality.


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