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Labor Gone Digital (Digifacket)! Experiences From Creating A Web Archive For Swedish Trade Unions, Jenny Jansson, Katrin Uba, Jaanus Karo 2020 Uppsala University

Labor Gone Digital (Digifacket)! Experiences From Creating A Web Archive For Swedish Trade Unions, Jenny Jansson, Katrin Uba, Jaanus Karo

Journal of Contemporary Archival Studies

The Internet has become an increasingly important forum for societal activism, as event mobilization, member organization, and some actions have moved online. These new types of activities, often facilitated by diverse social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram, form an increasingly important part of contemporary social movements’ and organizations’ communication, work, and expression. This rapid digitalization and the increase of online activities have created a dilemma for social movement archives and researchers: Born-digital material is necessary to understand our contemporary movements, yet the materials generated and available on the Internet are rarely systematically archived. To help find solutions ...


History Of Islamic Economic Thought: A Content Analysis, Luqman Hakim Handoko 2020 Islamic Banking Department, Sekolah Tinggi Ekonomi Islam (STEI) SEBI, Depok, Indonesia; Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Science, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

History Of Islamic Economic Thought: A Content Analysis, Luqman Hakim Handoko

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

There are many sources of Islamic economic thought left by Muslim Scholars. For decades, contemporary Muslim economists have been trying to explore and examine the contribution of Muslim Scholars. Among the efforts is to produce the book of the history of Islamic economic thought (HIET) either by thematic approach or by a personal approach. The current study aims to explore how often and profoundly the discussion of the economic thought of the Muslim scholars among authors of HIET, especially on a personal approach. Therefore, to extract and analyze the data will use a simple content analysis and descriptive approach. Twenty-two ...


Lessons Learned: Lorie Logan, Mercedes Cardona 2020 Yale University

Lessons Learned: Lorie Logan, Mercedes Cardona

Journal of Financial Crises

Lorie Logan is executive vice president in the Markets Group of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, the System Open Market Account (SOMA) manager pro tem for the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC), and head of Market Operations, Monitoring, and Analysis (MOMA).


Lessons Learned: Donald Kohn, Maryann Haggerty 2020 Yale University

Lessons Learned: Donald Kohn, Maryann Haggerty

Journal of Financial Crises

Kohn, an economist, is a 40-year veteran of the Federal Reserve System. He served as a member of the Board of Governors, and was vice chair, from 2002-2010, which included the years of the global financial crisis (GFC).


The United Kingdom's Credit Guarantee Scheme (U.K. Gfc), Christian M. McNamara 2020 Yale University

The United Kingdom's Credit Guarantee Scheme (U.K. Gfc), Christian M. Mcnamara

Journal of Financial Crises

The September 15, 2008, bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers resulted in a collapse of wholesale funding markets that threatened the ability of UK financial institutions to continue funding themselves. By the end of the month, two leading UK banks—HBOS and Bradford & Bingley—had to be rescued, and there was a real risk that the entire financial system could collapse. Faced with the need to stabilize the system, UK regulators on October 8 introduced a package of measures that included a £250 billion Credit Guarantee Scheme (the Guarantee Scheme) aimed at providing banks with access to needed funding. Under the Guarantee ...


Sweden's Guarantee Scheme (Sweden Gfc), Lily S. Engbith, Kevin Kiernan 2020 Yale University

Sweden's Guarantee Scheme (Sweden Gfc), Lily S. Engbith, Kevin Kiernan

Journal of Financial Crises

Although Sweden was not as directly impacted by the Global Financial Crisis as some other economies, Lehman Brothers’ bankruptcy on September 15, 2008, prompted Swedish authorities to take preemptive measures to protect domestic banks and financial institutions. One such program, announced on October 20, 2008, and implemented on October 29, 2008, was designed to preserve credit extension to businesses and households through what became known as the Swedish Guarantee Scheme. Per the terms of the Scheme, new short- and medium-term debt of maturities ranging from 90 days to five years issued by eligible banks would be guaranteed by the Swedish ...


The Spanish Guarantee Scheme For Credit Institutions (Spain Gfc), Lily Engbith 2020 Yale University

The Spanish Guarantee Scheme For Credit Institutions (Spain Gfc), Lily Engbith

Journal of Financial Crises

Given Spanish banks’ heavy investment in the housing and construction markets in the lead-up to the global financial crisis (GFC), the collapse of the subprime mortgage market and Lehman Brothers’ bankruptcy on September 15, 2008, impelled the government to implement stabilization measures to calm, recapitalize, and restructure its domestic banking sector. The Spanish Guarantee Scheme for Credit Institutions (the Guarantee Scheme) was one of the first interventions to be enacted, announced by Spain’s Ministry of Economy and Finance on October 13, 2008, by Royal Decree-Law 7/2008 on “Urgent Economic and Financial Measures in relation to the Concerted Action ...


The Italian Guarantee Scheme (Italy Gfc), Lily Engbith 2020 Yale University

The Italian Guarantee Scheme (Italy Gfc), Lily Engbith

Journal of Financial Crises

The collapse of Lehman Brothers on September 15, 2008, and its severe impact on global credit markets impelled governments around the world to enact stabilization measures to calm and protect their domestic economies. The Italian Republic, while not directly affected by the US subprime mortgage crisis, preemptively implemented emergency procedures and programs to ensure the stability of their banking system. Announced with the passage of Decree-Law No. 157 on October 13, 2008, and legally enforced under Law 190/2008 of December 4, 2008, the Italian Guarantee Scheme (the Guarantee Scheme) was aimed at protecting institutions whose interbank lending abilities had ...


The Hungarian Guarantee Scheme (Hungary Gfc), Alec Buchholtz 2020 Yale University

The Hungarian Guarantee Scheme (Hungary Gfc), Alec Buchholtz

Journal of Financial Crises

In the midst of the global financial crisis, in October 2008, the Magyar Nemzeti Bank (MNB), the Hungarian national bank, noticed a selloff of government securities by foreign banks and a large depreciation in the exchange rate of the Hungarian forint (HUF) in foreign exchange (FX) markets. Hungarian banks experienced liquidity pressures due to margin calls on FX swap contracts, prompting the MNB and Minister of Finance to seek assistance from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the European Central Bank (ECB) and the World Bank. The IMF and ECB approved Hungary’s requests in late 2008 to create a €20 ...


The Guarantee Scheme For Bank Funding In Finland (Finland Gfc), Lily Engbith 2020 Yale University

The Guarantee Scheme For Bank Funding In Finland (Finland Gfc), Lily Engbith

Journal of Financial Crises

As the global financial crisis raged in October 2008, its severe impact on global credit markets impelled governments to enact stabilization measures to calm and protect their domestic economies. The Republic of Finland, though not directly affected, designed preemptive interventions to mitigate disruption to its financial system. Among them was the Guarantee Scheme for Bank Funding in Finland (the Guarantee Scheme), announced on October 22, 2008, and implemented on February 12, 2009, which aimed to support banks and mortgage institutions with their short- and medium-term financing needs. Under the program, the Finnish State Treasury made up to €50 billion available ...


Austria's Oesterreichische Clearingbank Ag (Oecag) (Austria Gfc), Claire Simon 2020 Yale University

Austria's Oesterreichische Clearingbank Ag (Oecag) (Austria Gfc), Claire Simon

Journal of Financial Crises

In October 2008, euro-area countries adopted a joint framework to guide national policies combatting the effects of the global financial crisis. In Austria, this led to the enactment of a number of measures and amendments, including the Interbank Market Support Act (Interbankmarktstärkungsgesetz, or IBSG). IBSG called for the establishment of a new clearing bank to facilitate interbank lending. It also permitted the Minister of Finance to guarantee up to €5 billion of short-term securities issued by the clearing bank and to absorb losses of the clearing bank up to €4 billion. The clearing bank, Oesterreichische Clearingbank AG (OeCAG), was owned ...


Austria's Ibsg Guarantee Program (Austria Gfc), Claire Simon 2020 Yale University

Austria's Ibsg Guarantee Program (Austria Gfc), Claire Simon

Journal of Financial Crises

Following the adoption of a joint framework by euro-area countries in response to the intensifying financial crisis in October 2008, Austria enacted a package of measures including the Interbank Market Support Act (Interbankmarktstärkungsgesetz, "IBSG"). In addition to calling for the establishment of a new clearing bank to facilitate interbank lending, IBSG permitted the Austrian government to guarantee debt securities issued by other eligible institutions. Securities issued by eligible institutions with a maturity of three years or less (five years in exceptional circumstances) were eligible for guarantee. According to IBSG, the amount outstanding for all measures taken under the act could ...


The Australian Government Guarantee Scheme For Large Deposits And Wholesale Funding (Australia Gfc), Ariel Smith 2020 Yale University

The Australian Government Guarantee Scheme For Large Deposits And Wholesale Funding (Australia Gfc), Ariel Smith

Journal of Financial Crises

The Australian Guarantee Scheme for Large Deposits and Wholesale Funding was developed in 2008 shortly after the failure of Lehman Brothers. It was designed to foster financial-system stability and confidence and to help depository institutions continue to access funding during a period of volatility. In addition to a guarantee for large deposits, the scheme allowed institutions to apply for a government guarantee for newly issued wholesale liabilities with maturities of up to five years; in return, the institutions paid the government a monthly fee based on their credit rating and the value of the debt guaranteed. The entire Guarantee Scheme ...


The Debt Guarantee Program Of The Temporary Liquidity Guarantee Program (U.S. Gfc), Justin Katz 2020 Yale Program on Financial Stability

The Debt Guarantee Program Of The Temporary Liquidity Guarantee Program (U.S. Gfc), Justin Katz

Journal of Financial Crises

Following the collapse of Lehman Brothers in September of 2008, banks faced extreme difficulty in issuing new debt and finding affordable sources of funds due to heightened fears over counterparty solvency and liquidity risk. By the end of September, the TED spread had spiked to 464 basis points, and issuance of commercial paper fell 88%. On October 14th, to boost confidence and lower short-term financing costs, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation announced the Debt Guarantee Program (DGP) as part of the Temporary Liquidity Guarantee Program (TLGP). Under the DGP, the FDIC guaranteed in full a limited amount of senior unsecured ...


Bank Debt Guarantee Programs, Christian M. McNamara, Greg Feldberg, David Tam, Andrew Metrick 2020 Yale University

Bank Debt Guarantee Programs, Christian M. Mcnamara, Greg Feldberg, David Tam, Andrew Metrick

Journal of Financial Crises

One of the hallmarks of the global financial crisis of 2007-09 was the rapid evaporation of the non-deposit, wholesale funding many financial institutions had become increasingly reliant upon in the years leading up to the crisis. In the aftermath of the Lehman Brothers bankruptcy, governments became increasingly concerned about even fundamentally sound institutions’ ability to access necessary funding. In response, beginning in October 2008, authorities across the globe began introducing guarantee programs enabling institutions to issue debt that would be backed by a guarantee from the government in exchange for a guarantee fee. While the specific details of these programs ...


Denmark's Loan Bills Temporary Credit Facility (Denmark Gfc), Keni Sabath 2020 Yale University

Denmark's Loan Bills Temporary Credit Facility (Denmark Gfc), Keni Sabath

Journal of Financial Crises

The loan bills temporary credit facility was first implemented in May 2008, before the Global Financial Crisis had truly hit Denmark. It continued to be utilized as part of a broader effort to increase interbank lending after the collapse of Lehman Brothers in September 2008. The objective of the loan bills scheme was to facilitate lending among financial institutions. Each week, loan bills could be pledged as collateral for a seven-day loan from Denmark’s central bank, Danmarks Nationalbank. One banking institution could borrow from another institution by issuing a loan bill, and the institution buying the bill could raise ...


Denmark's Excess-Capital Temporary Credit Facility (Denmark Gfc), Keni Sabath 2020 Yale University

Denmark's Excess-Capital Temporary Credit Facility (Denmark Gfc), Keni Sabath

Journal of Financial Crises

During the interbank market freeze following the Lehman Brothers collapse in September 2008, Denmark’s central bank, Danmarks Nationalbank, used a series of unconventional monetary policy instruments to increase market liquidity. One such action included the introduction of the excess-capital temporary credit facility, also known as the solvency scheme. Under this facility, credit lines from Danmarks Nationalbank could be provided to banks and mortgage-credit institutions on the basis of their excess capital adequacy, calculated as the difference between their base capital and their capital need. The purpose of this facility was to ease the tight liquidity situation by providing access ...


The United Kingdom's Corporate Bond Secondary Market Scheme (U.K. Gfc), Claire Simon 2020 Yale University

The United Kingdom's Corporate Bond Secondary Market Scheme (U.K. Gfc), Claire Simon

Journal of Financial Crises

In late 2008, at the height of the Global Financial Crisis, increased liquidity premia and risk aversion in the secondary market hindered companies’ ability to issue corporate bonds. In response, in January 2009, Her Majesty’s Treasury authorized the Bank of England to establish a facility to purchase commercial bonds through the Asset Purchase Facility. In March 2009, the Bank of England published details on the Corporate Bond Secondary Market Scheme, in conjunction with its quantitative easing program. Under the scheme, the Bank acted as a market maker of last resort in the secondary bond market, making regular purchases of ...


Japan's Special Funds-Supplying Operations (Japan Gfc), Alec Buchholtz 2020 Yale Program on Financial Stability

Japan's Special Funds-Supplying Operations (Japan Gfc), Alec Buchholtz

Journal of Financial Crises

Following the collapse of Lehman Brothers in September 2008, the global commercial paper (CP) market began to tighten as interest rates rose and investors sought more-liquid money market securities. The Bank of Japan (BOJ) introduced several measures in late 2008 to make liquidity available to nonfinancial corporations that were strapped for cash. In December 2008, the BOJ implemented special funds-supplying operations in order to provide unlimited liquidity to banks and other financial institutions so they could continue to fund nonfinancial corporations. The BOJ would provide one- to three-month loans against an equal value of eligible corporate debt at a rate ...


Japan's Outright Purchases Of Commercial Paper (Japan Gfc), Alec Buchholtz 2020 Yale Program on Financial Stability

Japan's Outright Purchases Of Commercial Paper (Japan Gfc), Alec Buchholtz

Journal of Financial Crises

Following the collapse of Lehman Brothers in September 2008, the global commercial paper (CP) market began to tighten as interest rates rose and investors sought more-liquid money market securities. The Bank of Japan (BOJ) introduced several operations in late 2008 to promote liquidity in the CP market. In January 2009, the BOJ began to purchase CP and asset-backed CP outright from banks and other financial institutions. The BOJ could purchase up to ¥3 trillion of CP with a residual maturity of up to three months, among other short-term securities, via 10 purchases of up to ¥300 billion each. The BOJ ...


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