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Veterans In Workforce Development: Participation And Labor Market Outcomes, Colleen Chrisinger 2017 University of Oregon

Veterans In Workforce Development: Participation And Labor Market Outcomes, Colleen Chrisinger

Upjohn Institute Working Papers

This paper compares the employment status and earnings of veterans and nonveterans following their receipt of public workforce development services in Washington State during the years 2002–2012. It also describes workforce program participation patterns for veterans and nonveterans to determine if veterans have equal or prioritized access to key programs, where prioritization is required by law. Based on tabulations and propensity score weighted regressions using administrative data, the results indicate slightly lower levels of participation by veterans than nonveterans in two major workforce programs (Wagner-Peyser and the Workforce Investment Act Adult program), and high participation in veteran-specific programs (Disabled ...


New Evidence On State Fiscal Multipliers: Implications For State Policies, Timothy J. Bartik 2017 W.E. Upjohn Institute

New Evidence On State Fiscal Multipliers: Implications For State Policies, Timothy J. Bartik

Upjohn Institute Working Papers

When state and local governments engage in balanced budget changes in taxes and spending, what fiscal multiplier effects do such policies have on creating local jobs? Traditionally, the view has been that possible job-creation effects of such state and local “demand-side” policies are smaller, second-order effects. Such effects might be worthwhile to take into consideration when a state or local government balances its budget during a recession, but the effects were believed to be of modest magnitude, and not of major importance for more general state and local public policies. However, recent estimates of fiscal multiplier effects of state and ...


Evaluating Public Employment Programs With Field Experiments: A Survey Of American Evidence, Christopher J. O'Leary 2017 W.E. Upjohn Institute

Evaluating Public Employment Programs With Field Experiments: A Survey Of American Evidence, Christopher J. O'Leary

Upjohn Institute Working Papers

Research in the 1970s based on observational data provided evidence consistent with predictions from economic theory that paying unemployment insurance (UI) benefits to involuntarily jobless workers prolongs unemployment. However, some scholars also reported estimates that the additional time spent in subsidized job search was productive. That is, UI receipt tended to raise reemployment wages after work search among the unemployed. A series of field experiments in the 1980s investigated positive incentives to overcome the work disincentive effects of UI. These were followed by experiments in the 1990s that evaluated the effects of restrictions on UI eligibility through stronger work search ...


Structural Change And Productivity Growth In Developing Countries, Ahmed Salim Nuhu 2017 Eastern Illinois University

Structural Change And Productivity Growth In Developing Countries, Ahmed Salim Nuhu

Masters Theses

The dual-economy model predicts that holding productivity constant, labor reallocation from less to more productive sectors, also known as 'structural change' results in improvement in economy-wide productivity. The objective of this thesis is to test the empirical predictions of this model using sectoral-level data from twenty-eight developing countries. Using the shift-share growth decomposition approach, we find regional growth-enhancing effects of structural change in Asia, Latin America and North Africa from, 1980 to 2000 and growth-reducing effects in Sub-Saharan Africa over the same period. However, as intersectoral productivity gaps disappeared after 2000, technological progress led the growth process in much of ...


Marginal Revenue Products Of Collegiate Basketball Players: What's March Madness Worth To Your Team?, Nicholas K.S Johnson 2017 Vassar College

Marginal Revenue Products Of Collegiate Basketball Players: What's March Madness Worth To Your Team?, Nicholas K.S Johnson

Senior Capstone Projects

Basketball is considered a revenue sport within the context of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). The annual March Madness tournament brings in over a billion dollars in advertising revenue alone. This is just one illustration of the influx of money lining the coffers of the NCAA and Division 1 teams each year, leading many to question why the student-athletes don't receive a bigger piece of the pie. Some pundits argue that the athletic scholarship caps and restriction of player movement enforced by the NCAA lead to players contributing more in revenue to their schools than they receive in ...


Economic Shocks And Crime: Evidence From The Brazilian Trade Liberalization, Rafael Dix-Carneiro, Rodrigo R. Soares, Gabriel Ulyssea 2017 Duke University

Economic Shocks And Crime: Evidence From The Brazilian Trade Liberalization, Rafael Dix-Carneiro, Rodrigo R. Soares, Gabriel Ulyssea

Upjohn Institute Working Papers

This paper studies the effect of changes in economic conditions on crime. We exploit the 1990s trade liberalization in Brazil as a natural experiment generating exogenous shocks to local economies. We document that regions exposed to larger tariff reductions experienced a temporary increase in crime following liberalization. Next, we investigate through what channels the trade-induced economic shocks may have affected crime. We show that the shocks had significant effects on potential determinants of crime, such as labor market conditions, public goods provision, and income inequality. We propose a novel framework exploiting the distinct dynamic responses of these variables to obtain ...


Dynamic Responses To Labor Demand Shocks: Evidence From The Financial Industry In Delaware, Russell Weinstein 2017 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Dynamic Responses To Labor Demand Shocks: Evidence From The Financial Industry In Delaware, Russell Weinstein

Upjohn Institute Working Papers

This paper analyzes an important shock to local labor demand in the financial services sector: firm relocation to Delaware following a Supreme Court ruling and state legislation in the 1980s. Using synthetic controls and bordering states, I find significant effects on employment growth, the unemployment rate, and participation in the first decade. Employment spillovers to the nontradable sector and migration appear larger than estimates from shocks to the tradable sector. Effects persist for 10 to 20 years after Delaware loses its original policy-induced advantage. The shift towards a low unemployment sector explains this persistence, rather than direct productivity effects or ...


Wage Inequality In The Manufacturing Sector Of The Mexico And Its Regions, According To The Trade Opening, 2005-2015, Reyna E. Rodríguez Pérez, Vicente German-Soto, Crhistian Joel González Cuatianquis 2016 Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila

Wage Inequality In The Manufacturing Sector Of The Mexico And Its Regions, According To The Trade Opening, 2005-2015, Reyna E. Rodríguez Pérez, Vicente German-Soto, Crhistian Joel González Cuatianquis

Vicente German-Soto

This paper analyzes the evolution of wage inequality in the manufacturing sector of the regions of Mexico, according to the grade of exposition to trade opening. The methodology consists in measuring the wage inequality through the Theil index decomposition; it is calculated from data of the Survey of Occupation and Employment (ENOE) 2005 and 2015. The results indicate that wage inequality has decreased in Mexico and in its regions by 2015, especially in those areas with low exposition to trade opening. The gap decomposition shows that the intra-part is the principal source of inequality, which is higher in the sex-classification ...


Ignoring Experts' Honest Advice: Private Vs. Public Communication, Felipe Balmaceda Assoc Prof. 2016 Diego Portales University

Ignoring Experts' Honest Advice: Private Vs. Public Communication, Felipe Balmaceda Assoc Prof.

Felipe Balmaceda

This paper studies a cheap-talk game between a Decision-Maker, an Expert and an Observer. We argue that there are circumstances in which an uniformed Decision-Maker elicits more information from a better informed Expert when she ignores the Expert's honest advice with positive probability.  Key to this result is that the Decision-Maker and Expert are concerned about the Expert's ability to be well informed, they have different prior beliefs about a payoff relevant state of the world and communication between the Expert and the Decision-Maker is private. A direct consequence of this is that the Expert exerts at least ...


Single-Mother Families And The Gender Gap In Children's Time Investment And Non-Cognitive Skill, Agnese Romiti, Letizia Mencarini, Silvia Pasqua 2016 Selected Works

Single-Mother Families And The Gender Gap In Children's Time Investment And Non-Cognitive Skill, Agnese Romiti, Letizia Mencarini, Silvia Pasqua

Agnese Romiti

No abstract provided.


Optimal Task Assignments With Loss-Averse Agents, Felipe Balmaceda Assoc Prof. 2016 Diego Portales University

Optimal Task Assignments With Loss-Averse Agents, Felipe Balmaceda Assoc Prof.

Felipe Balmaceda

This paper studies optimal task assignments in a setting where agents are expectation-based loss averse according to KoszegiRabin (2006) and KoszegiRabin (2007) and compensated according to an aggregated performance measure in which tasks are technologically independent.  The principal faces a trade-off between paying lower compensation costs by making an agent responsible for all tasks (i.e., multitasking) and restricting the set of implementable effort profiles, and paying higher expected compensation costs by allocating each task to a different agent (i.e., specialization) and being able to implement any feasible effort profile. In the absence of loss aversion, multitasking always dominates ...


Synthetic Control Estimation Beyond Case Studies: Does The Minimum Wage Reduce Employment?, David Powell 2016 Rand Corporation

Synthetic Control Estimation Beyond Case Studies: Does The Minimum Wage Reduce Employment?, David Powell

David Powell

Panel data are often used in empirical work to account for fixed additive time and unit effects.  The synthetic control estimator relaxes the assumption of additive effects for case studies in which a treated unit adopts a single policy.  This paper generalizes the case study synthetic control estimator to estimate treatment effects for multiple discrete or continuous variables, jointly estimating the treatment effects and synthetic controls for each unit.  Applying the estimator to study the disemployment effects of the minimum wage for teenagers, I estimate an elasticity of -0.44, substantially larger in magnitude than estimates generated using additive fixed ...


The Effect Of Health Insurance On Young Adults' Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence From The Affordable Care Act's Dependent Coverage Expansion, Quazi Hassan 2016 CUNY Hunter College

The Effect Of Health Insurance On Young Adults' Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence From The Affordable Care Act's Dependent Coverage Expansion, Quazi Hassan

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

The Affordable Care Act’s dependent coverage mandate extended young adults’ parental coverage to age 26. I study the expansion’s impact on young adults’ labor market outcomes using a control function method. Following the expansion, I find dependent coverage lowered labor force participation, lowered incomes, and mixed evidence regarding labor supply.


Labor Markets, Human Capital, And The Human Agent's Share Of Production, Wallace E. Huffman 2016 Iowa State University

Labor Markets, Human Capital, And The Human Agent's Share Of Production, Wallace E. Huffman

Wallace Huffman

Labor, or the time of the human agent, is one of the most important inputs in production. Labor services in agriculture are provided: by farm operators/ managers who perform very important allocative, production/marketing decision making and supervisory functions (Schultz 1972; Huf&nan 1985; Huffman 199lb) and frequently engage directly in production; by members of the operator's family or relatives who largely work without direct compensation; and by hired workers. The incomes of farm families and of hired farm workers are determined not only by the amount of labor that they sell but also by the amount of other resources to ...


Immigration And Agriculture In The 1990s, Wallace E. Huffman 2016 Iowa State University

Immigration And Agriculture In The 1990s, Wallace E. Huffman

Wallace Huffman

The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (!RCA) contained provisions having the intent of changing the supply and demand for labor in the United States and alleviating many social problems associated with earlier illegal immigration. Many of the proponents of IRCA were optimistic in the mid-1980s about how IRCA would slow illegal immigration. Issues of fairness to workers had been addressed by legalizing individuals who had a history of working as undocumented workers in U.S. agriculture and the rest of the economy; needs for a short-term guaranteed supply of seasonal agricultural service workers to agriculture had been taken ...


Comparable Worth And The Structure Of Earnings: The Iowa Case, Peter F. Orazem, J. Peter Mattila 2016 Iowa State University

Comparable Worth And The Structure Of Earnings: The Iowa Case, Peter F. Orazem, J. Peter Mattila

Peter F. Orazem

Comparable worth pay plans have been implemented in several states since the early 1980s. To our knowledge, however, no study exists of the actual impact of such plans on the pay structure of state government. We examine the case of comparable worth in Iowa, both as proposed in 1984 and as actually implemented (in compromise form) in 1985. In particular, we identify the relative winners and losers from comparable worth by analyzing the impact on earnings for men, women, minorities, unionized employees, and particular occupational groups, such as supervisors and professionals. In addition, we are able to determine whether the ...


Off-Farm Work Decisions Of Husbands And Wives: Joint Decision Making, Wallace E. Huffman, Mark D. Lange 2016 Iowa State University

Off-Farm Work Decisions Of Husbands And Wives: Joint Decision Making, Wallace E. Huffman, Mark D. Lange

Wallace Huffman

Theoretical and econometric models are developed to examine joint wage-labor participation and hours decisions of a husband and wife in farm households. The econometric model is multiple equation and recursive. The specification of the off-farm labor supply equation of the husband (wife) depends on whether his (her) wife (husband) does or does not work off-farm, and this structure is endogenous. The model is fitted to data for Iowa farm households. The main conclusion is that the off-farm labor supply equation of a married individ- ual differs significantly depending on whether his or her spouse also works for a wage.


Links Among Farm Productivity, Off-Farm Work, And Farm Size In The Southeast, Jet Yee, Mary Clare Ahearn, Wallace Huffman 2016 United States Department of Agriculture

Links Among Farm Productivity, Off-Farm Work, And Farm Size In The Southeast, Jet Yee, Mary Clare Ahearn, Wallace Huffman

Wallace Huffman

This paper examines the linkages among agricultural total factor productivity, farm size, and farm household participation in the off-farm labor market for the Southeastern states for the period 1960-1996. We find evidence of a simultaneous relationship between productivity and measures of farm structure. The results support the expected relationships between the endogenous variables, namely that productivity and farm size are positively related, farm size and off-farm work participation are negatively related, and off-farm work and productivity are negatively related. We find positive and significant impacts of government policies (investments in public research, extension, and highways) on productivity growth.


An Empirical Study Of Earnings Of Immigrants And Native-Born Americans In The U.S. Labor Market Given Different Levels Of Educational Attainment, Yuli P. Gomez Bravo 2016 Buffalo State College

An Empirical Study Of Earnings Of Immigrants And Native-Born Americans In The U.S. Labor Market Given Different Levels Of Educational Attainment, Yuli P. Gomez Bravo

Applied Economics Theses

This paper will compare the Lifetime wage earnings of immigrants and native-born citizens in the U.S. for the years 2000-2010 according to educational attainment using cross-sectional data. The data obtained through IPUMS-CPS Integrated Public Use of Microdata Series, University of Minnesota. The findings of investment in Human Capital of Mincer (1958), the Immigrants earnings distribution of Chiswick and Miller (2006), the Pareto’s law of income distribution, and the immigrants investment in human capital model by Duleep and Regets (1999) are the theoretical basis in which this study will be ruled. The empirical evidence suggests that immigrants who invest ...


Endogenous Quality Choice, Signaling, And Welfare, Gea M. LEE, Seung Han YOO 2016 Singapore Management University

Endogenous Quality Choice, Signaling, And Welfare, Gea M. Lee, Seung Han Yoo

Research Collection School Of Economics

We consider a model in which each worker endogenously selects his own type through aprivate investment decision and selects a public signal in the labor market. Signaling thencontributes to social welfare through its influence on the quality choice. We offer a rationalefor the argument that there are too many high-type workers from a welfare perspective,identifying circumstances under which separating equilibrium generates too many high-typeworkers while having to use the incentive-compatible signal and treat high-type workersdifferently in the market. The inefficiency can then be reduced in pooling equilibrium.


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