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The Influences Of The Public Health Care System And Education System On The Economic Growth Of Swaziland, Grace Greer 2023 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Influences Of The Public Health Care System And Education System On The Economic Growth Of Swaziland, Grace Greer

International and Global Studies Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Kingdom of Eswatini, also known as Swaziland, has one of the youngest populations in the world with over 70% of citizens being under the age of 18 years old. This creates a substantial opportunity for economic, social, and educational growth in a country previously plagued with diseases such as HIV/AIDS, poor health care infrastructure cutting off thousands from basic care, and an educational system with a very low attendance rate and an even lower graduation rate. By evaluating the root causes of such issues dating back to the colonial era there is an opportunity to reprioritize health care ...


Associations Of The Covid-19 Pandemic With Older Individuals' Healthcare Utilization And Self-Reported Health Status: A Longitudinal Analysis From Singapore, Sangnam AHN, Seonghoon KIM, Kanghyock KOH 2022 University of Memphis

Associations Of The Covid-19 Pandemic With Older Individuals' Healthcare Utilization And Self-Reported Health Status: A Longitudinal Analysis From Singapore, Sangnam Ahn, Seonghoon Kim, Kanghyock Koh

Research Collection School Of Economics

Background: The COVID–19 pandemic has challenged the capacity of healthcare systems around the world and can potentially compromise healthcare utilization and health outcomes among non-COVID–19 patients. Objectives: To examine the associations of the COVID-19 pandemic with healthcare utilization, out-of-pocket medical costs, and perceived health among middle-aged and older individuals in Singapore. Method: Utilizing data collected from a monthly panel survey, a difference-in-differences approach was used to characterize monthly changes of healthcare use and spending and estimate the probability of being diagnosed with a chronic condition and self-reported health status before and during the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020. Subjects ...


“High Spending, Poor Productivity Gains!” Assessing Public Health System (In)Efficiency And Hospital Performance In The State Of Kuwait: Would More Private Delivery Improve Healthcare?, Aljawhara Alsabah 2022 Touro College and University System

“High Spending, Poor Productivity Gains!” Assessing Public Health System (In)Efficiency And Hospital Performance In The State Of Kuwait: Would More Private Delivery Improve Healthcare?, Aljawhara Alsabah

NYMC Student Theses and Dissertations

The healthcare sector in the State of Kuwait has been nurtured for many decades by the government, where the majority of health services in the country are controlled by the Ministry of Health (MoH). Although healthcare services in public sector hospitals are at highly subsidized rates, causing private sector involvement in healthcare to be considerably low, the growing demands for private delivery of care burgeoned participation of private hospitals in Kuwait, and improving hospital efficiency and productivity is more critical and timelier than ever. This dissertation aims to analyze public health system efficiency and hospital performance in the State of ...


Medicaid Expansion: Changes In Individual Health Outcomes, Julie Norman 2022 Utah State University

Medicaid Expansion: Changes In Individual Health Outcomes, Julie Norman

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

The Affordable Care Act is one of the biggest changes in the American healthcare system in the 21st century. One element of the ACA is medicaid expansion, which opened up federal funding for states to cover any individual earning below 138% of the federal poverty line. 21 states expanded medicaid in 2014 while 12 haven’t expanded. This paper utilizes the disparity for a natural experiment to determine the efficacy of the program. Outcome variables of interest include measurements of individual health, health access and utilization, and premature death rates. The results indicate positive, but small improvements due to the ...


State Immigration Policy Contexts And Racialized Legal Status Disparities In Healthcare Utilization Among U.S. Agricultural Workers, Rebecca Anna Schut, Courtney Boen 2022 University of Pennsylvania

State Immigration Policy Contexts And Racialized Legal Status Disparities In Healthcare Utilization Among U.S. Agricultural Workers, Rebecca Anna Schut, Courtney Boen

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Research links restrictive immigration policies to immigrant health and healthcare outcomes. Still, most studies in this area focus on the impacts of single policies in particular years, with few assessing how broader state-level immigration policy contexts impact groups by nativity, race-ethnicity, and legal status. Linking data from the National Agricultural Workers Survey (2005-2012) with information on state immigration policies, we use an intersectional approach to examine the links between state-level immigration policy contexts and healthcare utilization by nativity, race-ethnicity, and legal status. We also assess the associations between two specific types of state immigration policies—those governing immigrant access to ...


Essays On Industrial Organization And Health Economics, Cecilia S. Diaz Campo 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Essays On Industrial Organization And Health Economics, Cecilia S. Diaz Campo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

My thesis consists of three chapters studying the impact of health insurance design and public health policy on consumers’ health and health care utilization, welfare, and costs.

Chapter 2 studies an overlooked dynamic incentive that encourages health care utilization, which I term \textit{dynamic moral hazard}. Typical health plans feature high deductibles and caps on consumers' out-of-pocket spending, which generate nonlinear pricing. These nonlinearities, coupled with the uncertainty intrinsic to future health care demand, encourage consumers to increase spending since current utilization lowers future expected prices. Standard models study health care utilization decisions through the lens of annual models, which ...


Covid's Impact On Nurses & Their Labor Market, Joshua Stanfill 2022 Portland State University

Covid's Impact On Nurses & Their Labor Market, Joshua Stanfill

University Honors Theses

The Covid pandemic has swept across the globe impacting many different kinds of people in many different ways. Businesses and workers experienced changes in how their respective labor markets operated with new incentives. One group of laborers that experienced quite a significant impact are nurses working through the Covid pandemic. The pandemic created new incentives for nurses that heavily impacted their labor market. Through a literature review of scientific studies examining the impacts of working through a pandemic on nurses, I discovered that this was causing psychological and emotional damage to nurses. Covid spurred on an already occurring nursing shortage ...


Episode Based Payment Models And The Hospital Safety-Net: An Evaluation Of The Center For Medicare And Medicaid Services’ Comprehensive Joint Replacement Bundled Payment Program, John A. Gravina 2022 CUNY School of Public Health

Episode Based Payment Models And The Hospital Safety-Net: An Evaluation Of The Center For Medicare And Medicaid Services’ Comprehensive Joint Replacement Bundled Payment Program, John A. Gravina

Dissertations and Theses

Episode Based Payment Models and the Hospital Safety-net: An Evaluation of the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services’ Comprehensive Joint Replacement Bundled Payment Program

By John Anthony Gravina

Advisor: Alexis Pozen, Ph.D.

Introduction: Payments for Healthcare services are increasingly being tied to clinical quality, patient experience, health outcomes, and efficiency through value-based payment arrangements (VBP). VBP presents a potential opportunity to reduce healthcare expenditures by requiring providers to take on financial risk associated with the cost and quality of care, therefore aligning payment incentives with the goals of providing higher quality and efficient care. As of 2020, 80 percent ...


Three Essays On Development Economics And Human Capital, Arpita KHANNA 2022 Singapore Management University

Three Essays On Development Economics And Human Capital, Arpita Khanna

Dissertations and Theses Collection (Open Access)

In the first chapter, we estimate the impact of exposure to the 2015 Nepal Earthquake on intimate partner violence with two rounds of Demographic and Health Surveys data. Using differences-in-differences estimation, we find that exposure to the earthquake lead to a statistically and economically significant increase in intimate partner violence in the urban areas but not in the rural areas. This is possibly due to an increase in the stress felt by the victims. We also offer some evidence that the impact heterogeneity between the urban and rural areas is attributable to the differences in the reconstruction processes and assistance ...


Using Machine Learning To Analyze Children’S Drawings As Indicators Of Mental Well-Being, Nicholas R. Lawrie 2022 University of San Francisco

Using Machine Learning To Analyze Children’S Drawings As Indicators Of Mental Well-Being, Nicholas R. Lawrie

Master's Theses

Human figure drawings are a well-studied diagnostic tool for emotional distress in children. Cleft lip/palate is one of the most common birth defects in the world, and has been shown to negatively impact emotional well-being in childhood which can have negative economic consequences in adulthood. Utilizing a dataset of human figure drawings from children in India and survey data on mental health, this paper will assess the impact of corrective surgery on mental health outcomes, as well as assess the validity of the drawing emotional indicators themselves. The results indicate that while the emotional indicators may not be valid ...


Hospital Costs Of Post-Operative Delirium: A Systematic Review, Md. Parvez Mosharaf, Khorshed Alam, Nicholas Ralph, Jeff Gow 2022 University of Rajshahi

Hospital Costs Of Post-Operative Delirium: A Systematic Review, Md. Parvez Mosharaf, Khorshed Alam, Nicholas Ralph, Jeff Gow

Journal of Perioperative Nursing

Aims: In this systematic review, the primary aim is to investigate the hospital cost burden attributed to post-operative delirium (POD). A secondary aim is to examine how patient length of stay (LOS) in hospital varies across the selected studies.

Background: POD is a common occurrence after major surgery and leads to serious medical complications. It is associated with increased morbidity and double the risk of mortality from surgery compared to non-delirious patients. POD increases patient LOS in hospital and increases the economic burden on patients and the health system.

Design: A systematic review was conducted.

Method: Published articles in English ...


True Price Of A Pack: Tobacco Expenditure And Height-For-Age In Indonesia, Madeline Helfer 2022 William & Mary

True Price Of A Pack: Tobacco Expenditure And Height-For-Age In Indonesia, Madeline Helfer

Undergraduate Honors Theses

While the negative impact of tobacco on the health of smokers is well known, the ways in which smoking impacts the health of the smoker’s children is less understood. This study explores whether tobacco expenditure increases the risk of stunting among children under the age of five in Indonesia, where smoking and stunting rates are among the highest in Southeast Asia. Given the severe income constraints faced by poor Indonesian households, large tobacco expenditure potentially “crowds-out” spending on nutrition, worsening the nutritional health of children in smoking households. To examine this relationship, I use a sample of children under ...


Economic Impact Of The Western Africa Ebola Outbreak--A Holistic Approach, Xufeng Liu 2022 William & Mary

Economic Impact Of The Western Africa Ebola Outbreak--A Holistic Approach, Xufeng Liu

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The 2014 Western Africa Ebola Epidemic was one of the most severe epidemics in the region’s history, creating considerable health and economic burdens on the affected countries. The first part of this paper relies on several macroeconomic databases from 2009 to 2019 to evaluate the aggregate economic impact of Ebola both in the short- and medium-run. We also use household surveys to assess the microeconomic effects of Ebola on employment and household non-farm enterprises (HNFE) at different phases of the outbreak in Sierra Leone. Our primary estimation method is the Difference-in-Differences approach with the canonical specification where we compare ...


Out-Of-Pocket Healthcare Costs And Undesirable Healthcare Expenditures, Cody Sanford Taylor 2022 William & Mary

Out-Of-Pocket Healthcare Costs And Undesirable Healthcare Expenditures, Cody Sanford Taylor

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Healthcare costs in the U.S. have risen over recent decades, and this issue was a focal point of the last several national election cycles. I investigate the relationship between out-of-pocket healthcare costs and incidences of catastrophic and impoverishing healthcare expenditure. I also explore whether other important factors, such as demographic, personal health, and those related to the healthcare system change the likelihood of such healthcare expenditures. Lastly, I use a difference in means method and logistic regressions to analyze the probability of incurring undesirable healthcare expenses and the impacts of relevant factors for certain subsections of the U.S ...


Evaluation Of The Effect Of Two Polishing Techniques And Thermocycling Process On Surface Roughness, Hardness, And Color Stability Of Composites, Muhammet Fidan, Zeynep Dereli 2022 Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Usak University, Usak, Turkey

Evaluation Of The Effect Of Two Polishing Techniques And Thermocycling Process On Surface Roughness, Hardness, And Color Stability Of Composites, Muhammet Fidan, Zeynep Dereli

Journal of Dentistry Indonesia

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two polishing techniques and 10.000 thermocycles on the color stability, surface roughness, and hardness of two nanohybrid (Tetric N-Ceram, Escom100) and one bulkfill (Filtek) resin composites. Methods: A total of 60 specimens were prepared using three resin composites and 20 discs from each composite. Specimens for each composite were randomly divided into two different polishing groups (Optrapol rubber and Sof-Lex discs) (n=10). Surface roughness (Ra, μm), microhardness (VHN), and color change (ΔE00) values were measured pre- and post-thermocycling. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to ...


Salivary Iga Depression In Drug-Influenced Gingival Enlargement Among Hypertensive Patients, Muhammad Annurdin Sabarudin, Haslina Taib, Wan Majdiah Wan Mohamad, Siti Lailatul Akmar Zainuddin, Wan Syamimee Wan Ghazali, Ahmad Azhar Misran 2022 Department of Periodontology and Community Oral Health, Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Jalan Pandan Utama, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia Health Campus, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia

Salivary Iga Depression In Drug-Influenced Gingival Enlargement Among Hypertensive Patients, Muhammad Annurdin Sabarudin, Haslina Taib, Wan Majdiah Wan Mohamad, Siti Lailatul Akmar Zainuddin, Wan Syamimee Wan Ghazali, Ahmad Azhar Misran

Journal of Dentistry Indonesia

Drug-influenced gingival enlargement (DIGE) among hypertensive patients is commonly associated with antihypertensive drugs such as calcium channel blockers (CCBs). Immune response alteration is one of the proposed mechanisms for DIGE. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) in saliva which involves in defense mechanism was shown to be affected in patients with DIGE. Objective: This study aimed to determine the association of salivary IgA level with DIGE. Methods: This cross-sectional study comprised 47 hypertensive patients who had consumed antihypertensive drugs for at least 3 months. Twenty-one (44.7%) males and 26 (55.3%) females had participated in this study. Data was analyzed using SPSS ...


Endodontic Management Of Mandibular First Molar With Four Roots - A Rare Case Report With Clinical Management Guidelines, Shaikh Shahbaz, Huma Iftekhar, Sharique Alam, Zehra Shavez 2022 Department of Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India

Endodontic Management Of Mandibular First Molar With Four Roots - A Rare Case Report With Clinical Management Guidelines, Shaikh Shahbaz, Huma Iftekhar, Sharique Alam, Zehra Shavez

Journal of Dentistry Indonesia

Mandibular molar is usually two rooted with one mesial and one distal root. Additional roots are rare which requires accurate diagnosis and a methodical and scrupulous endodontic treatment. Objective: This paper aims to report the endodontic management of an unusual case of a mandibular permanent first molar with four roots (two mesial & two distal) and provide a clinical guideline to detect and manage these variant cases. Case report: A 15-year-old boy reported with a deep carious lesion in the lower left first molar (#36). The apical root contour of #36 on an intraoral periapical radiograph taken in different angulations suggested ...


Effect Of Brushing Time With A Whitening Dentifrice On Surface Roughness Of Anterior Composite Resins, Ahmet Hazar, Sinem Akgül, Sibel Koçak, Mustafa Murat Koçak 2022 Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Zonguldak Bülent Ecevit University, Zonguldak, Turkey

Effect Of Brushing Time With A Whitening Dentifrice On Surface Roughness Of Anterior Composite Resins, Ahmet Hazar, Sinem Akgül, Sibel Koçak, Mustafa Murat Koçak

Journal of Dentistry Indonesia

Objectives: This study aimed to compare the surface roughness of three anterior composite resins with different filler size, rate, and shape after brushing for 5000, 10000, and 20000 cycles with a whitening dentifrice. Methods: 44 disk-shaped specimens of each material (5mm diameter, 2mm depth) G-aenial Anterior, Harmonize, Asteria were prepared and divided into four groups according to the brushing cycles (Initial, 5000, 10000, and 20000 cycles). Initial surface roughness values (Ra-values) were assessed using a profilometer and measurements were repeated after each brushing cycle. 4 specimens from each composite resin were observed by scanning electron microscopy before and after brushing ...


A Comparison Of Four Different Methods Of Prediction Of Mesiodistal Widths Of Unerupted Permanent Canines And Premolars, Waqar Jeelani, Washma Asad, Maheen Ahmed 2022 Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Bakhtawar Amin Medical and Dental College, Multan, Pakistan

A Comparison Of Four Different Methods Of Prediction Of Mesiodistal Widths Of Unerupted Permanent Canines And Premolars, Waqar Jeelani, Washma Asad, Maheen Ahmed

Journal of Dentistry Indonesia

The success of orthodontic treatment depends upon the accurate assessment of mesiodistal widths of unerupted canines and premolars in mixed dentition stage. There are several methods available for mixed dentition analysis with dubious reliability in our population. Objective: To statistically develop new prediction equations for Pakistani subjects to predict the widths of unerupted upper canines and premolars (U345) and lower canine and premolars (L345) using mesiodistal widths of lower incisors (I1I2) and lower incisors and first molars (I1I2M1) and compare their performance with previously established methods of Moyers and Tanaka-Johnston. Methods: Study was conducted using the data from the dental ...


Indie Illness: An Evaluation Of The Orphan Drug Act, Nicholas Castellanos 2022 University of Mississippi

Indie Illness: An Evaluation Of The Orphan Drug Act, Nicholas Castellanos

Honors Theses

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the Orphan Drug Act of 1983 by subtracting the cost of incentives for drug development from the estimated value created by each drug in the form of quality-adjusted life-year gains. Data regarding costs of incentives is retrieved from the FDA as well as a report released by the National Organization for Rare Disorders. Data regarding value created by each drug is retrieved from a Freedom of Information Act request to the FDA, the CEA registry, and a report released by the US Department of Health and Human Sciences. Sufficient data was available ...


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