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Longevity And Lifetime Education: Global Evidence From 919 Surveys, Mohammad Mainul Hoque, Elizabeth M. King, Claudio M. Montenegro, Peter Orazem 2017 Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies

Longevity And Lifetime Education: Global Evidence From 919 Surveys, Mohammad Mainul Hoque, Elizabeth M. King, Claudio M. Montenegro, Peter Orazem

Economics Working Papers

Data from 919 household surveys conducted between 1960 and 2012 spanning 147 countries are used to evaluate the relationship between rising life expectancy at birth and lifetime years of schooling for successive birth cohorts between 1905 and 1988. We find significant positive effects of increased life expectancy at birth on lifetime completed years of schooling in 95% of the surveys with significant negative effects found in only 2.3%.

Rising life expectancy at birth for a birth cohort has intergenerational benefits in that their children’s schooling also increases. Rising life expectancy at birth since 1905 can explain 70% of ...


Socioeconomic Status, Air Quality And Geographic Variation In Emergency Room Visits For Acute Bronchitis On The California Central Coast, Sean Lang-Brown, Heather W. Starnes, Gary B. Hughes 2017 California Polytechnic State University

Socioeconomic Status, Air Quality And Geographic Variation In Emergency Room Visits For Acute Bronchitis On The California Central Coast, Sean Lang-Brown, Heather W. Starnes, Gary B. Hughes

Symposium

IMPORTANCE: Analysis of geospatial variation in acute bronchitis due to socioeconomic and environmental factors can allow the efficient delivery of resources to populations most at risk.

OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine if small scale variation in socioeconomic factors and emergency room (ER) visits for acute bronchitis are associated in small cities or rural communities. We also modeled the effects of air quality on daily rates of ER visits for acute bronchitis in the context of socioeconomic factors to investigate modifying relationships.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We examined ER visits for acute bronchitis in San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara counties ...


Recurrent Clostridium Difficile Infection Among Medicare Patients In Nursing Homes: A Population-Based Cohort Study, Marya D. Zilberberg, Andrew F. Shorr, William M. Jesdale, Jennifer Tjia, Kate L. Lapane 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Recurrent Clostridium Difficile Infection Among Medicare Patients In Nursing Homes: A Population-Based Cohort Study, Marya D. Zilberberg, Andrew F. Shorr, William M. Jesdale, Jennifer Tjia, Kate L. Lapane

Jennifer Tjia

We explored the epidemiology and outcomes of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) recurrence among Medicare patients in a nursing home (NH) whose CDI originated in acute care hospitals. We conducted a retrospective, population-based matched cohort combining Medicare claims with Minimum Data Set 3.0, including all hospitalized patients age > /=65 years transferred to an NH after hospitalization with CDI 1/2011-11/2012. Incident CDI was defined as ICD-9-CM code 008.45 with no others in prior 60 days. CDI recurrence was defined as (within 60 days of last day of CDI treatment): oral metronidazole, oral vancomycin, or fidaxomicin for > /=3 days ...


Congenital Toxoplasmosis In Austria: Prenatal Screening For Prevention Is Cost-Saving, Andrea-Romana Prusa, David C. Kasper, Larry Sawers, Evelyn Walter, Michael Hayde, Eileen Stillwaggon 2017 Medical University of Vienna

Congenital Toxoplasmosis In Austria: Prenatal Screening For Prevention Is Cost-Saving, Andrea-Romana Prusa, David C. Kasper, Larry Sawers, Evelyn Walter, Michael Hayde, Eileen Stillwaggon

Economics Faculty Publications

Background:

Primary infection of Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy can be transmitted to the unborn child and may have serious consequences, including retinochoroiditis, hydrocephaly, cerebral calcifications, encephalitis, splenomegaly, hearing loss, blindness, and death. Austria, a country with moderate seroprevalence, instituted mandatory prenatal screening for toxoplasma infection to minimize the effects of congenital transmission. This work compares the societal costs of congenital toxoplasmosis under the Austrian national prenatal screening program with the societal costs that would have occurred in a No-Screening scenario.

Methodology/Principal Findings:

We retrospectively investigated data from the Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register for birth cohorts from 1992 to 2008, including ...


State Differences In The Application Of Medical Frailty Under The Affordable Care Act: 2017 Update, Peter Mosbach, Sherry J. Campanelli 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

State Differences In The Application Of Medical Frailty Under The Affordable Care Act: 2017 Update, Peter Mosbach, Sherry J. Campanelli

Commonwealth Medicine Publications

This poster details the effects of Medicaid coverage expansion since the Affordable Care Act began the inclusion of childless adults below the poverty level. This change has created a divide in how different states handle Medicaid coverage and this study examines how states undergoing Medicaid expansion differ in their treatment of individuals who may need the extra benefits offered by traditional Medicaid.

Researchers studied 14 different states and found substantial differences in how each state assessed eligibility for Medicaid coverage. In states like Massachusetts, individuals who were applying for disability-based Medicaid could self-declare that they had special medical needs, while ...


Structural, Nursing, And Physician Characteristics And 30-Day Mortality For Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery In Pennsylania, Meghan Lane-Fall, Tara Ramaswamy, Sydney E. S Brown, Xu He, Jacob Gutsche, Lee A. Fleisher, Neuman Mark 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Structural, Nursing, And Physician Characteristics And 30-Day Mortality For Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery In Pennsylania, Meghan Lane-Fall, Tara Ramaswamy, Sydney E. S Brown, Xu He, Jacob Gutsche, Lee A. Fleisher, Neuman Mark

Research Briefs

No abstract provided.


Relation Between Narrow Networks And Providers Of Cancer Care, Laura Yasaitis, Justin E. Bekelman, Daniel Polsky 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Relation Between Narrow Networks And Providers Of Cancer Care, Laura Yasaitis, Justin E. Bekelman, Daniel Polsky

Research Briefs

No abstract provided.


The Truck Seat That Breathe, Sajjad Khaksari 2017 Politecnico di Torino

The Truck Seat That Breathe, Sajjad Khaksari

SAJJAD KHAKSARI

On 10 April 2017, Mario Moretti Polegato participated the Top Experiences event which organized by Polytechnic of Turin. The following brief innovative idea has submitted personally to the Dr Mario Moretti by the author. Meanwhile, the author desires to share openly the comparable idea with readers those work to improve the job condition of Heavy Truck Drivers (HTD) concerning the Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS). The history of innovation taught a valuable lesson in which the usage of innovative product a bit later when it survives the fluid phase and enters the transition phase of Innovation’s Dynamic ...


Life Satisfaction And Diet: Evidence From The Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, Sonya Huffman, Marian Rizov 2017 Iowa State University

Life Satisfaction And Diet: Evidence From The Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, Sonya Huffman, Marian Rizov

Sonya Huffman

The goal of this study is to improve our understanding of life satisfaction overall and in Russia in particular by examining the impacts of diet on lifetime satisfaction and correcting for reverse causality using 1994–2005 data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS). Do people with better diets report higher levels of lifestyle satisfaction? Results suggest that calories, fat, and protein consumption, and a more diverse diet have a positive and statistically significant effect on life satisfaction levels of the Russian people. In addition, living in a region with higher per capita income increases life satisfaction of the citizens ...


Producing Energy While Sequestering Carbon? The Relationship Between Biochar And Agricultural Productivity, Nathan Kauffman, Jerome Dumortier, Dermot J. Hayes, Robert C. Brown, David Laird 2017 Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas CIty

Producing Energy While Sequestering Carbon? The Relationship Between Biochar And Agricultural Productivity, Nathan Kauffman, Jerome Dumortier, Dermot J. Hayes, Robert C. Brown, David Laird

Robert C. Brown

A partial solution to problems associated with anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could be the development and deployment of carbon-negative technologies, i.e., producing energy while reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. Biofuels have been considered a possibility but have faced limitations due to competition with food production and GHG emissions through indirect land-use change (ILUC). In this article, we show how emissions from ILUC can potentially be reduced by producing food and bioenergy from biochar amended soils. The possibility of yield improvements from biochar would reduce the land requirement for crop production and thus, lead to a reduction in emissions ...


Crop Residues: The Rest Of The Story, Douglas L. Karlen, Rattan Lal, Ronald F. Follett, John M. Kimble, Jerry L. Hatfield, John A. Miranowski, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Andrew Manale, Robert P. Anex, Charles W. Rice 2017 United States Department of Agriculture

Crop Residues: The Rest Of The Story, Douglas L. Karlen, Rattan Lal, Ronald F. Follett, John M. Kimble, Jerry L. Hatfield, John A. Miranowski, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Andrew Manale, Robert P. Anex, Charles W. Rice

Douglas L Karlen

Synopsis In the February 15, 2009 issue of ES&T Strand and Benford argued that oceanic deposition of agricultural crop residues was a viable option for net carbon sequestration (43 [4], 1000−1007). In reviewing the calculations and bringing their experience to bear, Karlen et al. argue in this Viewpoint that crop residue oceanic permanent sequestration (CROPS) as envisioned by Strand and Benford will not work. They further propose alternative possibilities in agricultural methods to achieve a net decrease of CO2 emissions.


Avian Influenza Economic Impacts In Iowa, David Swenson 2017 Iowa State University

Avian Influenza Economic Impacts In Iowa, David Swenson

David Swenson

The avian influenza (AI) outbreak in Iowa has resulted in the loss of as much as a third of the state’s current egg producing capacity along with smaller, but still significant, losses among some turkey and pullet producers. As with any disaster, there will be losses to those operations, to the suppliers to those operations, and, ultimately, to the regions of the state where those operations are located. This analysis assumes a 34 percent reduction in poultry sector output for one full year.


The Economic Value Of The University Of Iowa Hospitals And Clinics, David Swenson 2017 Iowa State University

The Economic Value Of The University Of Iowa Hospitals And Clinics, David Swenson

David Swenson

This analysis measures the regional economic value of The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (hereafter, UIHC). The assessment looks at UIHC operational expenditures using a properly specified regional input-output model that accurately reflects its major spending categories and its primary territory of economic influence. This analysis does not contain an estimate of the regional economic boost attributable to patients or the families of patients traveling to the Iowa City metropolitan area for services or other visits. An estimate of those values would require a scientifically valid survey of visitors and patients that details average duration of stay and the ...


An Insurance Approach To Risk Management In The Ethanol Industry, Nicholas D. Paulson, Bruce Babcock, Chad E. Hart, Dermot J. Hayes 2017 University of Illinois

An Insurance Approach To Risk Management In The Ethanol Industry, Nicholas D. Paulson, Bruce Babcock, Chad E. Hart, Dermot J. Hayes

Chad Hart

The vast majority of crop and revenue insurance policies sold in the United States are single-crop policies that insure against low yields or revenues for each crop grown on the farm. But, increasingly, producer income is based more on the value of crops that have been converted into a value-added product such as ethanol. Moreover, the recent increases in energy and commodity price levels and volatilities emphasize the importance of risk management to ethanol investors. This paper uses an insurance approach to outline a risk management tool which mimics the gross margin level of a typical corn-based ethanol plant. The ...


Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs: Evolution And Evidence, Janet Weiner, Yuhua Bao, Zachary Meisel 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs: Evolution And Evidence, Janet Weiner, Yuhua Bao, Zachary Meisel

Issue Briefs

This Issue Brief reviews the current status and characteristics of PDMPs, their use, and evidence of their effectiveness. It summarizes best practices for PDMPs and the needs for further research and evaluation.


Do Medical Marijuana Laws Reduce Addictions And Deaths Related To Pain Killers?, David Powell, Rosalie Pacula, Mireille Jacobson 2017 Rand Corporation

Do Medical Marijuana Laws Reduce Addictions And Deaths Related To Pain Killers?, David Powell, Rosalie Pacula, Mireille Jacobson

David Powell

Recent work finds that medical marijuana laws reduce the daily doses filled for opioid analgesics among Medicare Part-D and Medicaid enrollees, as well as population-wide opioid overdose deaths. We replicate the result for opioid overdose deaths and explore the potential mechanism. The key feature of a medical marijuana law that facilitates a reduction in overdose death rates is a relatively liberal allowance for dispensaries.  As states have become more stringent in their regulation of dispensaries, the protective value generally has fallen. These findings suggest that broader access to medical marijuana facilitates substitution of marijuana for powerful and addictive opioids. 


The Strength Of Multi-Sector Delivery Systems For Population Health, Glen P. Mays 2017 University of Kentucky

The Strength Of Multi-Sector Delivery Systems For Population Health, Glen P. Mays

Glen Mays

Landmark research by Raj Chetty and colleagues finds wide geographic and intertemporal variation in the relationship between income and life expectancy in the U.S., using 1.4 billion administrative tax records from the IRS linked to nearly 7 million federal death records.1 Many questions remain about the underlying causes of these findings and their implications for policy.  Another longitudinal data source, the National Longitudinal Survey of Public Health Systems, has followed more than 350 U.S. communities over more than 15 years to measure the types of population health activities implemented in these areas and the networks of ...


Do Marketing Strategies Impact Condom Sales In Uganda?, Meyhar Mohammed 2017 The University of San Francisco

Do Marketing Strategies Impact Condom Sales In Uganda?, Meyhar Mohammed

Master's Theses

What attracts people to buy condoms? HIV/AIDS remain one of the biggest health dangers of the world, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. A lot of efforts have been pursued in the past two decades to drastically reduce prevalence of HIV and increase awareness about preventive mechanisms. In order to prevent relapse of success achieved so far, it is important to recognize transformation of consumer behavior due to growth in social networks, education and awareness over time. There are a lot of behavioral triggers captured by social marketing interventions in the field of public health. In an attempt to investigate the ...


Demonstrating Return On Investment For Community Health Worker Services: Translating Science Into Practice, Katharine London, Kelly Love, Roosa Tikkanen 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Demonstrating Return On Investment For Community Health Worker Services: Translating Science Into Practice, Katharine London, Kelly Love, Roosa Tikkanen

Commonwealth Medicine Publications

Learn about interventions that employ community health workers to improve health outcomes for select patient groups while containing costs. UMass staff constructed models to focus on specific health issues, such as diabetes and asthma, in particular regions in Maine. The models are designed to promote widespread adoption of payment models and mechanisms that support CHWs’ work.


Accountable Care Organizations And Alternative Payment Methods: Opportunities For Community Health Workers, Katharine London 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Accountable Care Organizations And Alternative Payment Methods: Opportunities For Community Health Workers, Katharine London

Commonwealth Medicine Publications

Learn the different care delivery systems and alternative payment methods that can support community health worker (CHW) services, including approaches used by the Massachusetts Medicaid program, MassHealth. The benefits of reform include improved health outcomes for patients by utilizing CHWs, and more financial flexibility for accountable care organizations through new funding mechanisms. These methods give providers and payers the flexibility to develop new approaches on their own in order to improve health outcomes.


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