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Wage Inequality In The Manufacturing Sector Of The Mexico And Its Regions, According To The Trade Opening, 2005-2015, Reyna E. Rodríguez Pérez, Vicente German-Soto, Crhistian Joel González Cuatianquis 2016 Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila

Wage Inequality In The Manufacturing Sector Of The Mexico And Its Regions, According To The Trade Opening, 2005-2015, Reyna E. Rodríguez Pérez, Vicente German-Soto, Crhistian Joel González Cuatianquis

Vicente German-Soto

This paper analyzes the evolution of wage inequality in the manufacturing sector of the regions of Mexico, according to the grade of exposition to trade opening. The methodology consists in measuring the wage inequality through the Theil index decomposition; it is calculated from data of the Survey of Occupation and Employment (ENOE) 2005 and 2015. The results indicate that wage inequality has decreased in Mexico and in its regions by 2015, especially in those areas with low exposition to trade opening. The gap decomposition shows that the intra-part is the principal source of inequality, which is higher in the sex-classification ...


Winners And Losers: Formula Versus Competitive Funding Of Agricultural Research, Wallace E. Huffman, George Norton, Greg Traxler, George Frisvold, Jeremy Foltz 2016 Iowa State University

Winners And Losers: Formula Versus Competitive Funding Of Agricultural Research, Wallace E. Huffman, George Norton, Greg Traxler, George Frisvold, Jeremy Foltz

Wallace Huffman

State Agricultural Experiment Stations (SAESs) were established with federal formula funding by the Hatch Act of 1887. In 1955, the Hatch Act was amended and a number of subsequent formula funding programs were consolidated under the USDA Cooperative States Research Service (CSRS), which today is known as the Cooperative Research, Education and Extension Service (CSREES). Currently, all of the Hatch funds and a small amount of other formula funds go to SAESs. In 1977, CSRS established its first competitive research grant program. However, this program remained quite small until 1990, when it was re-named the National Research Initiative (NRI) Competitive ...


Public R&D, Private R&D, And U.S. Agricultural Productivity Growth: Dynamic And Long-Run Relationships, Sun Ling Wang, Paul W. Heisey, Wallace E. Huffman, Keith O. Fuglie 2016 United States Department of Agriculture

Public R&D, Private R&D, And U.S. Agricultural Productivity Growth: Dynamic And Long-Run Relationships, Sun Ling Wang, Paul W. Heisey, Wallace E. Huffman, Keith O. Fuglie

Wallace Huffman

If accelerated productivity growth is to be an effective policy response for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture, the appropriate means for raising productivity needs to be addressed. Previous research has shown a close correlation between investments in public agricultural research and total factor productivity (TFP) growth in agriculture (Huffman and Evenson 2006; Alston et al. 2010; Wang et al. 2012, among the most recent, comprehensive studies). Largely neglected from this framework, however, has been the role of the private sector. Private sector spending on agricultural research and development (R&D) has grown more rapidly than public agricultural R&D ...


Intermediation, Bubbles, And Pareto Efficiency In Economies With Production, Mark Pingle, Leigh Tesfatsion 2016 Iowa State University

Intermediation, Bubbles, And Pareto Efficiency In Economies With Production, Mark Pingle, Leigh Tesfatsion

Leigh Tesfatsion

In a recent study, Tirole (1985) extends Diamond's (1965, pp. 1130-1135) well-known overlapping generations model of a private production economy by permitting consumption loans. That is, in addition to financing the capital investment of firms, the savings of one generation can be used to finance the consumption of agents in other generations whose consumption demands are in excess of their endowments. Tirole then shows that the re sulting production-consumption loan economy fails to satisfy the First Welfare Theorem. Specifically, as reviewed in Section 2, below, two stationary competitive equilibria exist for this economy: a Pareto inefficient equilibrium e with ...


Market Power And Efficiency In A Computational Electricity Market With Discriminatory Double-Auction Pricing, James Nicolaisen, Valentin Petrov, Leigh Tesfatsion 2016 Iowa State University

Market Power And Efficiency In A Computational Electricity Market With Discriminatory Double-Auction Pricing, James Nicolaisen, Valentin Petrov, Leigh Tesfatsion

Leigh Tesfatsion

This study reports experimental market power and efficiency outcomes for a computational wholesale electricity market operating In the short run under systematically varied concentration and capacity conditions. The pricing of electricity is determined by means of a clearinghouse double auction with discriminator}- midpoint pricing. Buyers and sellers use a modified Roth-Erev individual reinforcement learning algorithm to determine their price and quantity offers in each auction round. It is shown that high market efficiency is generally attained, and that market microstructure is strongly predictive for the relative market power of buyers and sellers independently of the values set for the reinforcement ...


Nonlocal Automated Comparative Static Analysis, Leigh Tesfatsion 2016 Iowa State University

Nonlocal Automated Comparative Static Analysis, Leigh Tesfatsion

Leigh Tesfatsion

This paper reviews work on the^ development of a program Nasa for the automated comparative static analysis of parametrized nonlinear systems over parameter intervals. Nasa incorporates a fast and efficient algorithm Feed for the automatic evaluation of higher-order partial derivatives, as well as an adaptive homotopy continuation algorithm for obtaining all required iiutial conditions. Applications are envisioned for fields such as economics where models tend to be complex and closed-form solutions are difficult to obtain...


An Evolutionary Trade Network Game With Preferential Partner Selection, Leigh Tesfatsion 2016 Iowa State University

An Evolutionary Trade Network Game With Preferential Partner Selection, Leigh Tesfatsion

Leigh Tesfatsion

An evolutionary trade network game (TNG) is proposed for studying the interplay between evolutionary game dynamics and preferential partner selection in various market contexts with distributed adaptive agents. The modular form of the TNG facilitates experimentation with alternative specifications for trade partner matching, trading, expectation updating, and trade strategy evolution. Experimental results obtained using a C-t-f implementation suggest that the conventional optimal properties used to evaluate agent matching mechanisms in static market contexts may be in an equate measures of optimal from an evolutionary perspective.


How Economists Can Get Alife, Leigh Tesfatsion 2016 Iowa State University

How Economists Can Get Alife, Leigh Tesfatsion

Leigh Tesfatsion

What, is "artificial life," or alife for short? And why should economists cafe?" • -As-detailed in the entertaining, monographs by Levy (1992) and =Sigmund (1993), the roots of-alife go at least as far back as the work-of.John von-Neumann, in.the nineteen forties on self-replicating automata.. The establishment of.alife as a distinct field of inquiry, however, must be traced to the first alife conference,lOrganized in 1987iby'Chris Langton at the Los Alamos NationalrLaboratory; see Langton (1989). •


A C++ Platform For The Evolution Of Trade Networks, David McFadzean, Leigh Tesfatsion 2016 Iowa State University

A C++ Platform For The Evolution Of Trade Networks, David Mcfadzean, Leigh Tesfatsion

Leigh Tesfatsion

This paper presents a general C++ platform for the implementation of a trade network game (TNG) that combines evolutionary game play with preferential partner selection. In the TNG, successive generations of resource constrained traders choose and refuse trade partners on the basis of continually updated expected payoffs^ engage in risky trades modeled as two-person games, and evolve-their trade strategies-over time...


Hospital Closure And Hospital Choice: How Hospital Quality And Availability Will Affect Rural Residents, Deepak Premkumar, Dave Jones, Peter Orazem 2016 University of California, Berkeley

Hospital Closure And Hospital Choice: How Hospital Quality And Availability Will Affect Rural Residents, Deepak Premkumar, Dave Jones, Peter Orazem

Economics Working Papers

This study estimates a model of rural patient hospital choice between the nearest rural hospital, the nearest urban hospital, or the nearest research hospital. We present separate estimates for inpatient and outpatient visits, for different diagnoses, and for emergency and nonemergency admissions. The analyses illustrate the tradeoffs between hospital quality and distance in deciding whether to choose the nearest hospital or to travel farther for an alternative. The model parameters are used to simulate two hospital closing scenarios for both outpatient and inpatient data: 1) closing 25% of lowest quality rural hospitals and 2) closing 15% of the least used ...


Malthusian Stagnation Is Efficient, Juan C. Cordoba, Xiying Liu 2016 Iowa State University

Malthusian Stagnation Is Efficient, Juan C. Cordoba, Xiying Liu

Economics Working Papers

Malthusian economies are generally deemed inefficient: stagnated, highly unequal, and densely populated by a labouring class prone to high fertility. This article defines and characterizes efficient allocations in Malthusian environments of fixed resources and endogenous fertility. We show, that under general conditions, efficient allocations exhibit stagnation in standards of living, inequality, differential fertility, and a high population density of poorer individuals.


East Malaysia In Malaysian Development Planning, David Lim 2016 Technological and Higher Education Institute of Hong Kong, Vocational Training Council

East Malaysia In Malaysian Development Planning, David Lim

Prof. David Lim

Malaysia consists of Peninsular Malaysia and the two East Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak. Development planning in Peninsular Malaysia began as early as 1950, while the first plan for the whole of the Malaysian federation founded in 1963 was published in 1966. Have the two East Malaysian states been integrated properly into the various Malaysian plans? Or have they, with their somewhat different economic, political and social backgrounds, been treated as a nuisance element and appeared in the plans only as an afterthought? In any case, is the planning experience of Peninsular Malaysia relevant for solving the problems of ...


Integrating Evaluative Thinking Into Organisational Practice: A Case Study Of Lutino Adunu In Uganda, Shilla Adyero 2016 SIT Graduate Institute

Integrating Evaluative Thinking Into Organisational Practice: A Case Study Of Lutino Adunu In Uganda, Shilla Adyero

Capstone Collection

Northern Uganda is still recovering from over two decades of civil war between the Government of Uganda and the Lord Resistance Army (LRA). The conflict created over 1.8 million Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) who sought refuge in camps for 23 years. Around 80% of the affected population are mainly women and children. The displacement in the region caused large-scale loss of social and economic infrastructure, together with the productive resources. This contributed to the erosion of the social and financial capital of the affected areas population, forcing the population to depend on non-sustainable aid and relief services provided by ...


The Meaning And Measurement Of Income Mobility, Gary S. Fields, Efe A. Ok 2016 Cornell University

The Meaning And Measurement Of Income Mobility, Gary S. Fields, Efe A. Ok

Gary S Fields

Income mobility may be seen as arising from two sources: (i) the transfer of income among individuals with total income held constant, and (ii) a change in the total amount of income available. In this paper, we propose several sensible properties defining the concept of income mobility and show that an easily applicable measure of mobility is uniquely implied by these properties. We also show that the resulting measure is additively decomposable into the two sources listed above, namely, mobility due to the transfer of income within a given structure and mobility due to economic growth or contraction. Finally, these ...


Income-Generating Functions In A Low Income Country: Colombia, Gary S. Fields, T. Paul Schultz 2016 Cornell University

Income-Generating Functions In A Low Income Country: Colombia, Gary S. Fields, T. Paul Schultz

Gary S Fields

Income generating functions are statistical tools used to explain income inequality and other economic outcomes and behavior. These functions are often associated with a strict human capital framework, but they need not be. Instead, they may be viewed as a reduced form equation summarizing the relationship between income and various personal and locational characteristics. Following this latter interpretation, we develop the regression and analysis of variance approaches to income generating functions and estimate them empirically using micro-economic data from one low income country, Colombia. Proceeding to increasingly parsimonious specifications of income generating functions, insights are gained into the structure of ...


Employment, Income Distribution And Economic Growth In Seven Small Open Economies, Gary S. Fields 2016 Cornell University

Employment, Income Distribution And Economic Growth In Seven Small Open Economies, Gary S. Fields

Gary S Fields

[Excerpt] Resurgent interest has been manifested among development economists in trickle-down, i.e., the view that the more rapid the rate of economic growth, the more rapid the improvement in employment and income distribution. Throughout this paper, the term ‘income distribution’ will refer to the location and dispersion of the pattern of incomes, i.e., to ‘absolute incomes and poverty’ and to ‘relative income inequality’. Empirical evidence supports trickle-down in some cases, but the evidence is contrary to trickle-down in others.

These data indicate:

  1. A high rate of economic growth is neither necessary nor sufficient for inequality to decline.
  2. A ...


Income Distribution And Economic Growth, Gary S. Fields 2016 Cornell University

Income Distribution And Economic Growth, Gary S. Fields

Gary S Fields

[Excerpt] Who benefits how much from economic growth and why? This question is fundamental to today’s development economics. This chapter reviews some of the major lessons learned and major directions for future research in the study of income distribution and economic development.


Employment And Economic Growth In Costa Rica, Gary S. Fields 2016 Cornell University

Employment And Economic Growth In Costa Rica, Gary S. Fields

Gary S Fields

Costa Rica’s economic growth in the last 25 years has had favorable labor market and income distribution consequences. Overall, employment growth kept pace with labor force growth, the mix of jobs improved, real wages rose, and relative inequality and absolute poverty fell. But during the economic crisis of 1980-82, when real per capita income plummeted, labor market conditions deteriorated markedly: unemployment doubled, employment composition worsened, and real wages fell by 40%. Growth, labor market conditions, and income distribution have moved together.


Food Cost And Nutrient Availability In Urban Indonesia: Estimates For Food Policy Analysis, Tesfaye Teklu, Helen H. Jensen 2016 International Food Policy Research Institute

Food Cost And Nutrient Availability In Urban Indonesia: Estimates For Food Policy Analysis, Tesfaye Teklu, Helen H. Jensen

Helen Jensen

Evaluating the effects of economic growth and the effectiveness of targeted government intervention requires identification of tarket groups and information on food and nutrient consumption patterns. A model of nutrient consumption linked to food choice behaviour is used to evaluate nutrient availability in urban Indonesia. Nutrient demand responses varied significantly across income levels


Measuring The Impact Of Meat Packing And Processing Facilities In The Nonmetropolitan Midwest: A Difference-In-Differences Approach, Georgeanne M. Artz, Peter F. Orazem, Daniel M. Otto 2016 University of Missouri

Measuring The Impact Of Meat Packing And Processing Facilities In The Nonmetropolitan Midwest: A Difference-In-Differences Approach, Georgeanne M. Artz, Peter F. Orazem, Daniel M. Otto

Peter Orazem

Considerable controversy exists regarding the costs and benefits of growth in the meat packing and processing industry in the rural Midwest. This study uses proprietary data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Longitudinal Database (LDB) to investigate the effects of this industry on social and economic outcomes in non-metropolitan counties of twelve Midwestern states from 1990-2000. A difference-in-differences specification is used to measure how local growth in meatpacking and processing affects growth in local economies, government expenditures, and crime rates. Propensity score matching is used as a check on possible non-random placement of meatpacking and processing plants. Results suggest that ...


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