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Effect Of Price Reduction And Increased Service Frequency On Public Transport Travel, Inge Brechan 2017 Institute of Transport Economics, Oslo

Effect Of Price Reduction And Increased Service Frequency On Public Transport Travel, Inge Brechan

Journal of Public Transportation

A random effects meta-analysis of the results from 15 projects involving price reduction and 9 projects involving increased service frequency showed that both price reduction and increased service frequency generated public transport travels. On average, the increased service frequency projects generated more travels by public transport than the price reduction projects. In the increased service frequency projects the proportion of travels generated by the increased frequency was strongly influenced by the size of the frequency increase. In the price reduction projects, we did not find a significant effect of the size of the price reduction on the proportion of travels ...


The Behavioral Paradox Of Boilerplate, Tess Wilkinson-Ryan 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

The Behavioral Paradox Of Boilerplate, Tess Wilkinson-Ryan

Faculty Scholarship

Although assent is the doctrinal and theoretical hallmark of contract, its relevance for form contracts has been drastically undermined by the overwhelming evidence that no one reads standard terms. Until now, most political and academic discussions of this phenomenon have acknowledged the truth of universally unread contracts, but have assumed that even unread terms are at best potentially helpful, and at worst harmless. This Article makes the empirical case that unread terms are not a neutral part of American commerce; instead, the mere fact of fine print inhibits reasonable challenges to unfair deals. The experimental study reported here tests the ...


Readdressing The Fertilizer Problem, Nicholas D. Paulson, Bruce A. Babcock 2017 University of Illinois

Readdressing The Fertilizer Problem, Nicholas D. Paulson, Bruce A. Babcock

Bruce Babcock

The production literature has shown that inputs such as fertilizer can be defined as riskincreasing. However, farmers also consistently overapply nitrogen. A model of optimal input use under uncertainty is used to address this paradox. Using experimental data, a stochastic production relationship between yield and soil nitrate is estimated. Numerical results show that input uncertainty may cause farmers to overapply nitrogen. Survey data suggest that farmers are risk averse, but prefer small chances of high yields compared to small chances of crop failures when expected yields are equivalent. Furthermore, yield risk and yield variability are not equivalent.


A Case Study In Tipping: An Economic Anomaly, Megan Nelson 2017 University of Kansas

A Case Study In Tipping: An Economic Anomaly, Megan Nelson

Crossing Borders: A Multidisciplinary Journal of Undergraduate Scholarship

When dining in a restaurant or having a drink at a bar, do you tip? If yes, what do you base the tip amount on? Is it who you are with? Do men tip more than women? Do you tip less when your actions are masked by a larger group? The answers to these questions are something that economists have struggled to explain. The most difficult question being: Why do people pay an additional amount when they have absolutely no legal obligation to do so? This case study explores the variables that lead to higher or lower tip amounts ...


By Beauty Damned: Millennial Feminism And The Exploitation Of Women's Empowerment In Pop Culture And Corporate Advertising, Maria L. Carreon 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

By Beauty Damned: Millennial Feminism And The Exploitation Of Women's Empowerment In Pop Culture And Corporate Advertising, Maria L. Carreon

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Feminism has become a trendy cultural identity, leaving it open to exploitation by capitalists. Notions relating to “women’s empowerment” are used by capitalists to sell products to women, and yet many of those capitalists fund political campaigns that directly seek to quash or inhibit the advancement of women’s rights. With a little effort, any consumer can find out who their big purveyors are supporting politically. For example, Procter Gamble, who makes many products bought by women, gives the majority of its political contributions to republicans who oppose women’s reproductive rights. The same is true of McAndrews & Forbes ...


Decoding Chinese Foreign Policy, Singapore Management University 2017 Singapore Management University

Decoding Chinese Foreign Policy, Singapore Management University

Perspectives@SMU

States need to understand Beijing’s practice of ‘false dilemmas’ and its revanchist narrative, and stand firm without provoking China unnecessarily


Social Relationships In Young Offenders: Relevance To Peers, Poverty, And Psychological Adjustment, Victoria Sabo 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Social Relationships In Young Offenders: Relevance To Peers, Poverty, And Psychological Adjustment, Victoria Sabo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The increasing influence of peers in adolescence is related to a developing array of skills, aspirations, attitudes, and behaviours. The nature and magnitude of this influence and the potential association of certain youth with deviant peers is among the most prominent risk factors in predicting youth crime. This becomes of greater concern for economically disadvantaged youth, whose neighbourhoods harbour greater susceptibility to negative peer influence. With social affiliations at the forefront of youth development and criminality, research efforts need to further characterize the nature, constitution, and influence of peers on adolescent offending. Two hundred and eighty-one Canadian youth were sampled ...


Family Economics Writ Large, Jeremy Greenwood, Nezih Guner, Guillaume Vandenbroucke 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Family Economics Writ Large, Jeremy Greenwood, Nezih Guner, Guillaume Vandenbroucke

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Powerful currents have reshaped the structure of families over the last century. There has been (i) a dramatic drop in fertility and greater parental investment in children; (ii) a rise in married female labor-force participation; (iii) a decline in marriage and a rise in divorce; (iv) a higher degree of positive assortative mating; (v) more children living with a single mother; (vi) shifts in social norms governing premarital sex and married women's roles in the labor market. Macroeconomic models explaining these aggregate trends are surveyed. The relentless flow of technological progress and its role in shaping family life are ...


The Role Of Marriage In Fighting Hiv: A Quantitative Illustration For Malawi, Jeremy Greenwood, Philipp Kircher, Cezar Santos, Michéle Tertilt 2017 University of Pennsylvania

The Role Of Marriage In Fighting Hiv: A Quantitative Illustration For Malawi, Jeremy Greenwood, Philipp Kircher, Cezar Santos, Michéle Tertilt

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

How might policies that promote marriage and/or dissuade divorce help in the fight against HIV/AIDS? This question is addressed employing a choice-theoretic general equilibrium search model, using Malawi as a case study. In the framework developed, individuals can choose between married and single life. A single person can select among abstinence and sex with or without a condom. The results suggest that marriage-friendly policies can help to abate HIV/AIDS. The policy predictions that obtain from general equilibrium analysis are compared with those that arise from simulated synthetic field experiments and epidemiological studies.


Robert Parker’S Wine Advocate And The Consequential Pricing Of Provençal Wines, Gweneth Marter 2017 Scripps College

Robert Parker’S Wine Advocate And The Consequential Pricing Of Provençal Wines, Gweneth Marter

Scripps Senior Theses

Robert Parker is an esteemed, somewhat controversial wine-critic. Since 1978, Parker has assigned every wine he tastes a score between 50 and 100. He uses this method to communicate to both consumers and producers his opinion of the quality, taste, and aging potential of the wine. Between the years 2005 and 2015, Robert Parker graded 115 wines from the French region of Provence. The goal of this thesis is to determine whether and to what extent Robert Parker’s grades affect the price of wine. Through descriptive statistics and regression analysis of Robert Parker’s grade and year of production ...


The Economics Of Healthcare Rationing, Michael D. Frakes, Matthew B. Frank, Kyle Rozema 2017 Duke Law School

The Economics Of Healthcare Rationing, Michael D. Frakes, Matthew B. Frank, Kyle Rozema

Faculty Scholarship

This article examines the economics of healthcare rationing. We begin with an overview of the various dimensions across which healthcare rationing operates, or at least has the potential to operate, in the first place. We then describe the types of economic analyses used in healthcare rationing decision-making, with particular reference to cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis. We also discuss healthcare rationing in practice, such as how economic analyses inform decisions regarding which services to cover, and conclude by discussing various practical and conceptual challenges that may arise with economic analyses and that span both economics and ethics.


Determinants Of Organ Donor Registration Rates Among Young Americans, Syed Umar Farooq 2017 Claremont McKenna College

Determinants Of Organ Donor Registration Rates Among Young Americans, Syed Umar Farooq

CMC Senior Theses

In this paper I examine the factors that affect the likelihood an individual is a registered organ donor. Unlike many studies which focus on subpopulations in specific regions, I utilize national data to get a broader assessment of individuals from around the country across a number of racial and religious classifications. Using a probit model and controlling for a variety of parameters, I find that some racial and religious variables are negatively and significantly associated with organ donor registration rates, while education and being female are positively associated with organ donor registration rates. I conclude by discussing the implications of ...


How Should We Motivate Effort, Shamima Khan 2016 CUNY Hunter College

How Should We Motivate Effort, Shamima Khan

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

This research uses an experimental design to study if the pattern and positioning of rewards influence the amount of effort participants put in. The three key hypotheses tested here are: 1) are people more likely to complete a task if the incentives are given in more regular intervals, 2) do uncertainty of reward timing hurt or help in maintaining motivation, 3) is intrinsic motivation more influential than the patterns in which incentives are structured? The treatments in this experiment are created by varying the reward structure of candies and pens in exchange of a simple math test completion. Among the ...


Sperner's Lemma, The Brouwer Fixed Point Theorem, The Kakutani Fixed Point Theorem, And Their Applications In Social Sciences, Ayesha Maliwal 2016 The University of Maine

Sperner's Lemma, The Brouwer Fixed Point Theorem, The Kakutani Fixed Point Theorem, And Their Applications In Social Sciences, Ayesha Maliwal

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Can a cake be divided amongst people in such a manner that each individual is content with their share? In a game, is there a combination of strategies where no player is motivated to change their approach? Is there a price where the demand for goods is entirely met by the supply in the economy and there is no tendency for anything to change? In this paper, we will prove the existence of envy-free cake divisions, equilibrium game strategies and equilibrium prices in the economy, as well as discuss what brings them together under one heading.

This paper examines three ...


The Importance Of Cost And Effectiveness For Attitudes Towards Lifesaving Interventions, Joakim Ramsberg, Lennart Sjöberg 2016 University of New Hampshire

The Importance Of Cost And Effectiveness For Attitudes Towards Lifesaving Interventions, Joakim Ramsberg, Lennart Sjöberg

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Drs. Ramsberg & Sjöberg present the results of a study that evaluates Swedish attitudes about risks and corresponding lifesaving interventions.


Targeted Enforcement Against Illicit Trade In Tobacco Products, James Prieger, Jonathan D. Kulick, Mark A. R. Kleiman 2016 Pepperdine University

Targeted Enforcement Against Illicit Trade In Tobacco Products, James Prieger, Jonathan D. Kulick, Mark A. R. Kleiman

School of Public Policy Working Papers

Illicit trade in tobacco is a substantial and growing problem in the U.S., causing loss of tax revenue, damage to public health, and threats to public safety. Decisions about enforcement against ITTP involve tradeoffs among competing objectives. Good policy design can improve the terms of those tradeoffs but cannot eliminate them. We examine questions about the allocation of enforcement resources against ITTP, and its distribution across activities, individuals, and organizations: in particular, whether and how to differentially target ITTP that involves violence or support for terrorism. We consider the problem of developing effective strategies for enforcement, applying both lessons ...


Optimal Pricing Strategies For A Cluster Of Goods: Own- And Cross-Price Effects With Correlated Tastes, Francisco Rosas, Santiago Acerenza, Peter Orazem 2016 Universidad ORT Uruguay and Centro de Investigaciones Económicas (CINVE)

Optimal Pricing Strategies For A Cluster Of Goods: Own- And Cross-Price Effects With Correlated Tastes, Francisco Rosas, Santiago Acerenza, Peter Orazem

Economics Working Papers

gent valuation methods are used to identify observed and unobserved preferences of goods and services. We apply these methods to compute willingness to pay (WTP) for a product conditional on having purchased another offered product. We provide a derivation for own-price and compensated cross-price elasticities whose results suggest a pricing strategy considering all offered goods simultaneously. Therefore, we solve the social planner’s problem maximizing a weighted function of producer’s revenues and consumer’s utility for the set of optimal prices. We show an application to collegiate sports, but these methods can be extended in a straightforward fashion to ...


Income Distribution, Export Instability, And Savings Behavior, David Lim 2016 Technological and Higher Education Institute of Hong Kong, Vocational Training Council

Income Distribution, Export Instability, And Savings Behavior, David Lim

Prof. David Lim

This paper examines the effects of income distribution and export instability on the savings ratios of a group of 12 developed and 52 less developed countries (DCs and LDCs) for 1968-73. The effect of income distribution on savings has been studied before but not on as comprehensive a group of countries as presented here. The effect of export instability on savings has not been examined before in the literature on the determinants of savings behavior. It has, however, been discussed in the literature on the relationship between export instability and economic growth and part of the purpose of this paper ...


A Nudge Towards Excellence: The Application Of Behavioral Economics In Education Policy, Jack DiMatteo 2016 La Salle University

A Nudge Towards Excellence: The Application Of Behavioral Economics In Education Policy, Jack Dimatteo

HON499 projects

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the potential for the application of behavioral economics to the field of education policy through “nudges.” Given the difficulty of passing effective comprehensive education reform legislation, the application of nudges represents a low-cost, high-impact approaching to improve student outcomes. This paper offers definitions of several key concepts in the fields of behavioral economics and education: education reform, behavioral economics, choice architecture, nudges, and why behavioral economics is particularly relevant to education reform. Also, the paper describes past education reform attempts, including two that incorporated behavioral economics and two that did not, and ...


Empirical Probabilities Of (Non)Optimal Healthcare Choice Conditional On Socio-Economic Status And Time Consumption, Quan-Hoang Vuong 2016 Universite Libre de Bruxelles

Empirical Probabilities Of (Non)Optimal Healthcare Choice Conditional On Socio-Economic Status And Time Consumption, Quan-Hoang Vuong

Quan-Hoang Vuong

Background: Patients need healthcare information for making good decisions in choosing health service provider, but data sufficiency and quality have constantly been a major obstacle. Non-optimal decisions are common. The problem persists even with the growing power of the Internet and ICT-based facilities. In a sense, asymmetric information in this sector exacerbates the problem of economic inequality, worsening the situation of community health.

Aims & Objectives: The study reports the analysis and results that help answer the questions about existence of empirical relations between such factor as socioeconomic status, consumption of time and outcome of healthcare provider choice by Vietnamese patients ...


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