Cooperation And Reciprocity In Anonymous Interactions: Other-Regarding Preferences And Quasi-Magical Thinking, Gregory Klevans
School of Arts & Sciences Theses
In economic experiments, players often demonstrate concerns for the relative payoffs between themselves and other subjects, in addition to their own payoffs. In addition, they appear to do their parts to achieve efficient outcomes, particularly when they are ignorant of the opponent's decision. I present a parsimonious model of other-regarding preferences and quasi-magical thinking that explains such behavior, and I apply it to four games: the prisoner's dilemma, the traveler's dilemma, the ultimatum game, and the trust game.
In Search Of Homo Sociologicus, 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
In Search Of Homo Sociologicus, Yunqi Xue
All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
The subject of this dissertation is to build an epistemic logic system that is able to show the spreading of knowledge and beliefs in a social network that contains multiple subgroups. Epistemic logic is the study of logical systems that express mathematical properties of knowledge and belief. In recent years, there have been increasing number of new epistemic logic systems that are focused on community properties such as knowledge and belief adoption among friends.
We are interested in revisable and actionable social knowledge/belief that leads to a large group action. Instead of centralized coordination, bottom-up approach is our focus ...
The Efficacy Of Public Health Interventions Aimed At Curbing Gun Violence: An Integrative Review, 2017 DePaul University
The Efficacy Of Public Health Interventions Aimed At Curbing Gun Violence: An Integrative Review, Brian Cook
Grace Peterson Nursing Research Colloquium
Background: Gun violence is a pressing public health issue in the United States. Homicide is the second-leading cause of death for 15 to 24 year-old Americans, and the third-leading cause of death for 25 to 34 year-old Americans, and 80% of these homicides are committed via firearm. In recent years, the field of criminology has studied the efficacy of a variety of policing, public health, and public policy interventions that aim to reduce the incidence of gun violence, but many of their findings have yet to be incorporated into the body of nursing literature.
Objective: This project’s objective ...
The Effects Of Service Charges Versus Service-Included Pricing On Deal Perception, 2017 The Chinese University of Hong Kong
The Effects Of Service Charges Versus Service-Included Pricing On Deal Perception, Shuo Wang, Michael Lynn
Study participants rated menu prices with an automatic percentage service gratuity as better deals than equivalent service-included prices when the service component of price was below the standard 15 percent tipping rate. However, the reverse was true when the service component of price was above 15 percent. Furthermore, a move from percentage service gratuity toward dollar service gratuity impeded participants’ menu price judgment. These findings provide some insights regarding which pricing alternative to tipping should be implemented if and when restaurateurs decide to abandon voluntary tipping.
The Role Of Safety First Risk Preferences In Grain Marketing: A Laboratory Economic Experiment Using A Grain Marketing Simulation Game, 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
The Role Of Safety First Risk Preferences In Grain Marketing: A Laboratory Economic Experiment Using A Grain Marketing Simulation Game, Stamatina Kotsakou
Dissertations and Theses in Agricultural Economics
In this study, the Marketing in a New Era (MINE) grain marketing simulation game is used to carry out a context-rich economic experiment to evaluate the role of risk preferences in grain marketing decisions. The model of risk preferences that we consider is an improved Safety First decision rule model proposed by Levy and Levy (2009). We experimentally test if Safety First decision rule describes individuals’ post-harvest marketing decisions. In our experiment, we incorporate real-world features which are usually omitted in marketing studies such as: multiple storage decisions, storage cost, actual price series and multiple contract frequency. MINE plays a ...
Mapping The Ecology Of Information: Hierarchical Habitat Selection By Nebraska Pheasant Hunters, 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Mapping The Ecology Of Information: Hierarchical Habitat Selection By Nebraska Pheasant Hunters, Lyndsie Wszola
Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources
Hunting regulations are assumed to moderate the effects of hunting consistently across a game population. A growing body of evidence suggests that hunter effort varies temporally and spatially, and that variation in effort at multiple spatial scales can affect game populations in unexpected ways. We set out to determine the causes of variation in hunting effort among ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) hunters at four spatial scales: among regions within the state of Nebraska, among sites within a given region, among access points at a given site, and among habitat patches within a site. At each scale, pheasant hunters used direct ...
On Random Assignment Problems, 2017 Singapore Management University
On Random Assignment Problems, Peng Liu
Dissertations and Theses Collection
This dissertation studies the standard random assignment problem (Bogomolnaia and Moulin (2001)) and investigates the scope of designing a desirable random assignment rule. Specifically, I ask the following two questions:
1. Is there a reasonably restricted domain of preferences on which there exists an strategy-sd-efficient proof, sd-efficient and sd-envy-free or equal-treatment-of-equals rule?
2. Moreover, if the answer is in the affirmative, what is that rule?
As a starting point, attention is restricted to the connected domains (Monjardet (2009)). It is shown that if a connected domain admits a desirable random assignment rule, it is structured in a specific way: a ...
Three Essays On The Effect Of Overconfidence On Economic Decision Making, 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Three Essays On The Effect Of Overconfidence On Economic Decision Making, Klajdi Bregu
Theses and Dissertations
This dissertation uses experimental evidence to explore the effects of overconfidence on economic decision making. In Chapter 1 I provide experimental evidence of the effects of alcohol on overconfidence and several other important tasks. I also explore the relationship between overconfidence and the behavior in the other tasks. The data from this experiment show that an alcohol level of 0.08 does not have a systemic effect on behavior and more importantly it does not affect one’s level of overconfidence. I also show that overconfidence is not significantly correlated with risk preferences, math, strategic behavior, anchoring, altruism, and food ...
An Empirical Application Of Laboratory Experimental Auctions In Marketing Research, 2017 University of Wyoming
An Empirical Application Of Laboratory Experimental Auctions In Marketing Research, Dale J. Menkhaus, George W. Borden, Glen D. Whipple, Elizabeth Hoffman, Ray A. Field
A laboratory experimental auction was used to determine factors influencing the relative value consumers place on alternative retail beef packaging. Results indicate information is very important for the successful introduction and marketing of the vacuum skin package. Physical appearance of the beef plays a major role in purchasing decisions by consumers, with fat and shape significantly decreasing the value of beef in the vacuum skin package relative to beef in the overwrapped styrofoam tray package. Experimental economics procedures, when combined with traditional marketing research techniques, can provide useful information for marketing decisions and economic analyses.
Spatial And Temporal Intricacies Of Natural Resource Use: Studies In Water, Forests, And Hydrocarbons, 2017 The University of New Mexico
Spatial And Temporal Intricacies Of Natural Resource Use: Studies In Water, Forests, And Hydrocarbons, Dadhi Adhikari
This dissertation examines spatial and temporal impacts of natural resource use. The second chapter integrates hydrological and economic systems to examine the impact of drought on these two systems and explores the spatial impact of policies aimed to mitigate the drought impact. The systems dynamics model developed for this chapter simultaneously considers the physical hydrology in the Middle Rio Grande water basin in New Mexico, the engineered water management system, and a behavioral model of residential water demand for three cities: Albuquerque, Rio Rancho, and Santa Fe, New Mexico. The simulation results showed that droughts that occur in later periods ...
Modeling Economic Systems As Locally-Constructive Sequential Games, 2017 Iowa State University
Modeling Economic Systems As Locally-Constructive Sequential Games, Leigh Tesfatsion
Economics Working Papers
Real-world economies are open-ended dynamic systems consisting of heterogeneous interacting participants. Human participants are decision-makers who strategically take into account the past actions and potential future actions of other participants. All participants are forced to be locally constructive, meaning their actions at any given time must be based on their local states; and participant actions at any given time affect future local states. Taken together, these properties imply real-world economies are locally-constructive sequential games. This study discusses a modeling approach, agent-based computational economics (ACE), that permits researchers to study economic systems from this point of view. ACE modeling principles and ...
Rationality Of Choices In Subsidized Crop Insurance Markets, 2017 University of Wisconsin–Madison
Rationality Of Choices In Subsidized Crop Insurance Markets, Xiaodong Du, Hongli Feng, David A. Hennessy
The U.S. crop insurance market has several features that set it apart from other insurance markets. These include:(a) explicit government subsidies with an average premium subsidy rate of about 60% in recent years; and (b) the legislative requirement that premium rates be set at actuarially fair levels, where the federal government sets rates and pays all costs related to insurance policy sales and services. Bearing these features in mind, we examine to what extent farmers’ crop insurance choices conform to economic theory. A standard expected utility maximization framework is set up to analyze tradeoffs between higher risk protection ...
Investigating A Modern Midwestern Crisis: The Economy And Opioid Overdose Death In Ohio, 2017 George Washington University
Investigating A Modern Midwestern Crisis: The Economy And Opioid Overdose Death In Ohio, Anna M. Gagliardo
Undergraduate Economic Review
This paper examines the effect of local economic factors on the amount of opioid overdose deaths across counties in Ohio. Ohio leads the nation in opioid overdose deaths. The data examined spans all 88 counties of Ohio and compares 2009 and 2013 data, relying predominantly on Ohio Department of Health and US Census American Community Survey data. Using two linear regression models, I demonstrate that there is a significant correlation between insured rates and opioid overdose deaths in 2009 as well as a significant correlation between poverty rates and opioid overdose death rates in Ohio in 2013. Additionally, I show ...
Advancing Rationality With Sustainability: An Analysis Of Agent-Based Simulation, 2017 Portland State University
Advancing Rationality With Sustainability: An Analysis Of Agent-Based Simulation, Osman Goktug Tanrikulu
Hatfield Graduate Journal of Public Affairs
This paper tests the basic premise of rationality and introduces sustainability as a new dimension. In this regard, the behavioral consequences of the classic rational mindset and a sustainable mindset are compared under depletion of environmental resources. By utilizing agent-based modeling, both rational and sustainable mindsets are modeled and their relative behavior are put into action in computer simulation. The experiment results reveal that the classic understanding of rationality is not always going to maximize the utility of agents. Instead, there might be environmental conditions where having a sustainable mindset generates more wealth. In a scenario of resource depletion, the ...
The Market Transfer Effect In The Hawaiian Longline Fishery: Why Correlation Does Not Imply Causation, 2017 Middlebury Institute of International Studies
The Market Transfer Effect In The Hawaiian Longline Fishery: Why Correlation Does Not Imply Causation, Jason D. Scorse, Shaun Richards, Philip King
Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics
A lot of discussion and controversy has surrounded whether the “market transfer” effect in the Hawaii longline swordfish fishery occurred during the swordfish closure of 2001-2004, because of its potential impacts on sea turtle mortality. The primary academic work in support of the market transfer effect during the closure is a paper by Rausser et al. (2009): “Unintended Consequences: The Spillover Effects of Common Property Regulations.” In this paper, the authors claim to find evidence in support of the market transfer hypothesis.To our knowledge, no analysis has yet been undertaken to assess whether this analysis is sound, and yet ...
Using Implan To Evaluate Public Universities Regional Economic Inpacts, 2017 Iowa State University
Using Implan To Evaluate Public Universities Regional Economic Inpacts, David Swenson
This is a how-to manual for utilizing the IMPLAN impact analysis program when measuring the worth of public universities to regional economies. This paper describes four approaches to measuring university economic values ranging from simple modification to the elements of value added to producing highly itemized "bill of goods" types of specifications. It compares the four methods to one another as well as to a formal RIMS II analysis of the same institution by the U.S. BEA.
Everybody Wants To Belong: Comparing The Relative Impact Of Social Capital On Happiness At An International Level, Elana Lambert
Lawrence University Honors Projects
Subjective well-being has become increasingly more important as a guide for policy and welfare. This paper uses data from the World Bank Indicators and the World Values Survey to look at the intricate relationship between subjective well-being data, social capital, and the relative nature of human happiness. Subjective well-being data has recently become widely accepted in economics research and analyzed using econometric methods. In this study, I look at specific aspects of social capital across countries to easily compare individuals within countries with a standardized scale. I look at economic determinants and social capital determinants and their impact on happiness ...
Aspirations As A Component Of Life Satisfaction: A Look At Female Microfinance Borrowers In Oaxaca, Mexico, 2017 University of San Francisco
Aspirations As A Component Of Life Satisfaction: A Look At Female Microfinance Borrowers In Oaxaca, Mexico, Joseph E. Kemler
This research is an extension to the Oaxaca Hope Project by B. Wydick and T.J. Lybbert. How does an individual gauge her own satisfaction with life? Previous research has noted that many domains make up overall life satisfaction, i.e. career satisfaction, family life satisfaction & social life satisfaction. A burgeoning topic in this regard is the role that aspirations play in life satisfaction. Using survey data from female microfinance borrowers in Oaxaca, Mexico this project attempts to analyze the affect previous aspirations have on life satisfaction. By creating an “aspirational window” we objectively attempt to gauge the relationship between ...
Goal Effectiveness In Achieving Educational Outcomes: Experimental Evidence From 9th Graders In Medellin, Colombia, 2017 University of San Francisco
Goal Effectiveness In Achieving Educational Outcomes: Experimental Evidence From 9th Graders In Medellin, Colombia, Daniel Salicath, Alessandra Cassar
Does goal setting among low-income ninth graders leads to higher average goal achievements of educational outcomes? This question is explored by a field experiment motivated by the acknowledged California-based Family Independence Initiative (FII), to analyze the effectiveness of individual goal setting, incentives and self-help groups on the achievement of educational goals. By randomizing treatments and control with the cooperation of the Secretary of Education in Medellin, different classrooms were assigned to five different experimental groups that met systematically for five months. The results show that goal setting is a cost-effective method to help low-income students achieve educational outcomes. Setting a ...
Do Marketing Strategies Impact Condom Sales In Uganda?, 2017 The University of San Francisco
Do Marketing Strategies Impact Condom Sales In Uganda?, Meyhar Mohammed
What attracts people to buy condoms? HIV/AIDS remain one of the biggest health dangers of the world, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. A lot of efforts have been pursued in the past two decades to drastically reduce prevalence of HIV and increase awareness about preventive mechanisms. In order to prevent relapse of success achieved so far, it is important to recognize transformation of consumer behavior due to growth in social networks, education and awareness over time. There are a lot of behavioral triggers captured by social marketing interventions in the field of public health. In an attempt to investigate the ...