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Determinants Of Organ Donor Registration Rates Among Young Americans, Syed Umar Farooq 2017 Claremont McKenna College

Determinants Of Organ Donor Registration Rates Among Young Americans, Syed Umar Farooq

CMC Senior Theses

In this paper I examine the factors that affect the likelihood an individual is a registered organ donor. Unlike many studies which focus on subpopulations in specific regions, I utilize national data to get a broader assessment of individuals from around the country across a number of racial and religious classifications. Using a probit model and controlling for a variety of parameters, I find that some racial and religious variables are negatively and significantly associated with organ donor registration rates, while education and being female are positively associated with organ donor registration rates. I conclude by discussing the implications of ...


The Role Of Marriage In Fighting Hiv: A Quantitative Illustration For Malawi, Jeremy Greenwood, Philipp Kircher, Cezar Santos, Michéle Tertilt 2017 University of Pennsylvania

The Role Of Marriage In Fighting Hiv: A Quantitative Illustration For Malawi, Jeremy Greenwood, Philipp Kircher, Cezar Santos, Michéle Tertilt

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

How might policies that promote marriage and/or dissuade divorce help in the fight against HIV/AIDS? This question is addressed employing a choice-theoretic general equilibrium search model, using Malawi as a case study. In the framework developed, individuals can choose between married and single life. A single person can select among abstinence and sex with or without a condom. The results suggest that marriage-friendly policies can help to abate HIV/AIDS. The policy predictions that obtain from general equilibrium analysis are compared with those that arise from simulated synthetic field experiments and epidemiological studies.


How Should We Motivate Effort, Shamima Khan 2016 CUNY Hunter College

How Should We Motivate Effort, Shamima Khan

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

This research uses an experimental design to study if the pattern and positioning of rewards influence the amount of effort participants put in. The three key hypotheses tested here are: 1) are people more likely to complete a task if the incentives are given in more regular intervals, 2) do uncertainty of reward timing hurt or help in maintaining motivation, 3) is intrinsic motivation more influential than the patterns in which incentives are structured? The treatments in this experiment are created by varying the reward structure of candies and pens in exchange of a simple math test completion. Among the ...


Modified Corn—Will Livestock Producers Buy It?, Dermot J. Hayes, Noah Wendt 2016 Iowa State University

Modified Corn—Will Livestock Producers Buy It?, Dermot J. Hayes, Noah Wendt

Dermot J. Hayes

Livestock producers are efficient producers who use feed rations containing the lowest cost (or least-cost) nutritive additives. As a group, they have not shown a willingness to pay a premium for feed grown from specialty seed that has been modified to meet the nutritional needs of different livestock species in different regions of the country. Will these producers ever be prepared to pay the premiums required to pull identity-preserved feed grains through the pipeline?


An Economic Analysis Of Expenditures On State Experiment Station Research, Wallace E. Huffman, John A. Miranowski 2016 Iowa State University

An Economic Analysis Of Expenditures On State Experiment Station Research, Wallace E. Huffman, John A. Miranowski

John Miranowski

The last decade can be characterized by a growing skepticism of the agricultural research establishment. Some have argued that agricultural researchers have been captured by the interests of large farmers or by large private farm input supply firms. Others have argued that the agricultural research establishment has been unresponsive to human resource, environmental, and income distributional issues. Some of these concerns have been expressed in recent changes made in the type of federal support for agricultural research.


The Importance Of Cost And Effectiveness For Attitudes Towards Lifesaving Interventions, Joakim Ramsberg, Lennart Sjöberg 2016 University of New Hampshire

The Importance Of Cost And Effectiveness For Attitudes Towards Lifesaving Interventions, Joakim Ramsberg, Lennart Sjöberg

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Drs. Ramsberg & Sjöberg present the results of a study that evaluates Swedish attitudes about risks and corresponding lifesaving interventions.


Some New Ethanol Technology: Cost Competition And Adoption Effects In The Petroleum Market, Paul Gallagher, Donald L. Johnson 2016 Iowa State University

Some New Ethanol Technology: Cost Competition And Adoption Effects In The Petroleum Market, Paul Gallagher, Donald L. Johnson

Paul Gallagher

Growing dependence on imported oil has been a source of concern in the United States, despite potential consumer benefits from low cost imports. Much attention has focused on exposure to the instability of the world petroleum markets. Disadvantages that are associated with an embargo include incomplete adjustment with asset-fixity and unemployment (Tolly and Wilman, Broadman and Bruce). Offsetting use of policy instruments, such as import tax increases that reduce demand while acquiring strategic petroleum reserve (SPR), are effective at improving consumer welfare when embargo uncertainty is present (Teisburg, T.J.). Similarly, Yucell demonstrated the effectiveness of a combined gasoline tax ...


Public Acceptance Of And Benefits From Agricultural Biotechnology: A Key Role For Verifiable Information, Wallace E. Huffman, Abebayehu Tegene 2016 Iowa State University

Public Acceptance Of And Benefits From Agricultural Biotechnology: A Key Role For Verifiable Information, Wallace E. Huffman, Abebayehu Tegene

Wallace Huffman

The on-going genetically modified (GM) food and genetically modified organism (GMO) conaovccsy threaten to destroy the near-term market for agbiotech food and inputs and alter greatly the net social benefits that are potentially attainable from agriculcural biotechnology. For example, consider:

1. In February 2000 Greenpeace filed a lawsuit challenging the US Environmental Protection Agency's decision co allow the release of GM insect resistant (Bt) crops. In their news release they stated 'The EPA should stop [GE] polluters before the environment is threatened' (Greenpeace, 2000a).

2. During the week of 23 March 2000 Greenpeace joined over 50 other organizations in ...


Optimal Pricing Strategies For A Cluster Of Goods: Own- And Cross-Price Effects With Correlated Tastes, Francisco Rosas, Santiago Acerenza, Peter Orazem 2016 Universidad ORT Uruguay and Centro de Investigaciones Económicas (CINVE)

Optimal Pricing Strategies For A Cluster Of Goods: Own- And Cross-Price Effects With Correlated Tastes, Francisco Rosas, Santiago Acerenza, Peter Orazem

Peter Orazem

gent valuation methods are used to identify observed and unobserved preferences of goods and services. We apply these methods to compute willingness to pay (WTP) for a product conditional on having purchased another offered product. We provide a derivation for own-price and compensated cross-price elasticities whose results suggest a pricing strategy considering all offered goods simultaneously. Therefore, we solve the social planner’s problem maximizing a weighted function of producer’s revenues and consumer’s utility for the set of optimal prices. We show an application to collegiate sports, but these methods can be extended in a straightforward fashion to ...


Household Production And The Demand For Food And Other Inputs: U.S. Evidence, Wallace E. Huffman 2016 Iowa State University

Household Production And The Demand For Food And Other Inputs: U.S. Evidence, Wallace E. Huffman

Wallace Huffman

The paper develops a new productive household model and a consistent household fullincome/ expenditure demand system for inputs and leisure of U.S. households. The demand system is fitted to U.S. annual aggregate data over the last half of the 20th century and findings include that the price and income elasticity of demand for food-at-home are roughly two times larger than for food-away-from-home and that food-at-home and away-from-home are substitutes. The price and income elasticity of demand for men’s unpaid housework are twice as large as for women’s unpaid housework and women’s and men’s unpaid ...


Consumer Demand For Potato Products And Willingness-To-Pay For Low-Acrylamide, Sulfite-Free Fresh Potatoes And Dices: Evidence From Lab Auctions, Katie Lacy, Wallace E. Huffman 2016 Iowa State University

Consumer Demand For Potato Products And Willingness-To-Pay For Low-Acrylamide, Sulfite-Free Fresh Potatoes And Dices: Evidence From Lab Auctions, Katie Lacy, Wallace E. Huffman

Wallace Huffman

We assess consumer demand for traditional fresh potatoes and processed potato products and willingness to pay for new experimental low-acrylamide and sulfite-free potato products. Demand for fresh potatoes, potato chips, and fries is unaffected by household income or education, but demand for chips and fries is affected by consumer age and exercise habits. Subjects display increased willingness to pay for new potato products after receiving a private company perspective about the technology and risks associated with exposure to acrylamide, a carcinogen, in fried conventional potatoes and a new product, potato dices. We find that consumers are willing to pay for ...


The Value Of Verifiable Information In A Controversial Market: Evidence From Lab Auctions Of Genetically Modified Food, Matthew Rousu, Wallace Huffman, Jason F. Shogren, Abebayehu Tegene 2016 Iowa State University

The Value Of Verifiable Information In A Controversial Market: Evidence From Lab Auctions Of Genetically Modified Food, Matthew Rousu, Wallace Huffman, Jason F. Shogren, Abebayehu Tegene

Wallace Huffman

Two interested parties dominate the current debate on genetically modified (GM) foods: environmental groups and agribusiness companies. For the average consumer to arrive at an informed decision on these new foods, they must rely on information from interested parties. Unfortunately, information from interested parties does not provide an accurate picture of the benefits and risks of new products. This paper examines the effects of information on consumers’ demand for new food products, GM-foods, in an environment where information from one or more interested parties is provided. We design and conduct laboratory auction experiments using randomly chosen adult consumers from two ...


Who Do Consumers Trust For Information: The Case Of Genetically Modified Foods?, Wallace Huffman, Matthew Rousu, Jason Shogren, Abebayehu Tegene 2016 Iowa State University

Who Do Consumers Trust For Information: The Case Of Genetically Modified Foods?, Wallace Huffman, Matthew Rousu, Jason Shogren, Abebayehu Tegene

Wallace Huffman

To be effective, groups that disseminate information need trust. When different groups provide conflicting information on a new product or process like genetically modified (GM) foods, we hypothesize that consumers place different levels of trust in the sources and trust is related to their income, personal and social capital, and prior beliefs. A random sample of adults was asked to state their preferences for sources they would trust to provide verifiable (i.e., objective) information on genetic modification. Their responses were grouped into six categories, and a multinominal logit model used to explain relative trust in information sources. Relative trust ...


The Effects Of Prior Beliefs And Learning On Consumers’ Acceptance Of Genetically Modified Foods, Wallace E. Huffman, Matthew Rousu, Jason F. Shogren, Abebayehu Tegene 2016 Iowa State University

The Effects Of Prior Beliefs And Learning On Consumers’ Acceptance Of Genetically Modified Foods, Wallace E. Huffman, Matthew Rousu, Jason F. Shogren, Abebayehu Tegene

Wallace Huffman

New food products using genetically modified crops appeared in U.S. supermarkets starting in 1996, and consumers’ perceived some risks. This paper examines the role of consumers prior beliefs about genetic modification and of diverse, new information on their willingness to pay for foods that might be genetically modified. We use data from economics experiments and show that participants who had informed prior beliefs discounted GM-labeled food products more highly than those who had uninformed prior beliefs. Uninformed participants were especially susceptible to information from interested and third parties. In contrast, informed participants were generally not affected significantly by new ...


Should The United States Regulate Mandatory Labeling For Genetically Modified Foods?, Wallace Huffman, Matthew Rousu, Jason F. Shogren, Abebayehu Tegene 2016 Iowa State University

Should The United States Regulate Mandatory Labeling For Genetically Modified Foods?, Wallace Huffman, Matthew Rousu, Jason F. Shogren, Abebayehu Tegene

Wallace Huffman

Public debate continues over whether the United States should regulate genetically modified (GM) foods by imposing a mandatory labeling policy. This paper develops a model that shows that a voluntary GM- labeling policy results in higher welfare than a regulated mandatory GMlabeling policy, if consumers can accurately read the signals in each market. We then develop an experiment that shows consumers behave as if they can accurately identify signals for GM foods. Our model and results support the perspective that the United States has been prudent in fending off calls for regulations demanding a mandatory GM- labeling policy.


Effects And Value Of Verifiable Information In A Controversial Market: Evidence From Lab Auctions Of Genetically Modified Food, Matthew Rousu, Wallace Huffman, Jason F. Shogren, Abebayehu Tegene 2016 Susquehanna University

Effects And Value Of Verifiable Information In A Controversial Market: Evidence From Lab Auctions Of Genetically Modified Food, Matthew Rousu, Wallace Huffman, Jason F. Shogren, Abebayehu Tegene

Wallace Huffman

Food products containing genetically modified (GM) ingredients have entered the market over the past decade. The biotech industry and environmental groups have disseminating conflicting private information about GM foods. This paper develops a unique methodology for valuing independent third-party information in such a setting and applies this method to consumers’ willingness to pay for food products that might be GM. Data are collected from real consumers in an auction market setting with randomized information and labeling treatments. The average value of third-party information per lab participant is small, but the public good value across U.S. consumers is shown to ...


Estimating The Public Value Of Conflicting Information: The Case Of Genetically Modified Foods, Matthew C. Rousu, Wallace E. Huffman, Jason F. Shogren, Abebayehu Tegene 2016 RTI International

Estimating The Public Value Of Conflicting Information: The Case Of Genetically Modified Foods, Matthew C. Rousu, Wallace E. Huffman, Jason F. Shogren, Abebayehu Tegene

Wallace Huffman

Environmental groups have become the chief antagonists toward agricultural biotechnology innovations. They demonstrate and disseminate private information with the objective of changing the behavior of consumers and producers. We use experimental auctions with adult U.S. consumers and show that this information reduces significantly the demand for genetically modified (GM)-food products and that it has significant public good value—an average of 3 cents per product purchased, or roughly $2 billion annually. We also show that the dissemination of independent third-party information about agricultural biotechnology dissipates most of the public good value of negative GM-product information.


Are U.S. Consumers Tolerant Of Gm Foods?, Matthew Rousu, Wallace E. Huffman, Jason F. Shogren, Abebayehu Tegene 2016 RTI International

Are U.S. Consumers Tolerant Of Gm Foods?, Matthew Rousu, Wallace E. Huffman, Jason F. Shogren, Abebayehu Tegene

Wallace Huffman

Genetically modified (GM) foods have caused many controversies. One important controversy relates to tolerance—the impurity rate that is tolerated before a commodity must be labeled as genetically modified. Currently, the United States does not have a specific tolerance or threshold level for GM foods. This paper uses experimental auctions to determine consumers’ acceptance of non-GM foods with zero, 1 percent, and 5 percent tolerance for genetically modified material. Our results indicate that consumers would pay less for food that tolerates GM material, but the discount is not significantly different for foods with 1-percent and 5-percent GM content.


Optimal Pricing Strategies For A Cluster Of Goods: Own- And Cross-Price Effects With Correlated Tastes, Francisco Rosas, Santiago Acerenza, Peter Orazem 2016 Universidad ORT Uruguay and Centro de Investigaciones Económicas (CINVE)

Optimal Pricing Strategies For A Cluster Of Goods: Own- And Cross-Price Effects With Correlated Tastes, Francisco Rosas, Santiago Acerenza, Peter Orazem

Economics Working Papers

gent valuation methods are used to identify observed and unobserved preferences of goods and services. We apply these methods to compute willingness to pay (WTP) for a product conditional on having purchased another offered product. We provide a derivation for own-price and compensated cross-price elasticities whose results suggest a pricing strategy considering all offered goods simultaneously. Therefore, we solve the social planner’s problem maximizing a weighted function of producer’s revenues and consumer’s utility for the set of optimal prices. We show an application to collegiate sports, but these methods can be extended in a straightforward fashion to ...


Structure, Behavior, And Market Power In An Evolutionary Labor Market With Adaptive Search, Leigh Tesfatsion 2016 Iowa State University

Structure, Behavior, And Market Power In An Evolutionary Labor Market With Adaptive Search, Leigh Tesfatsion

Leigh Tesfatsion

This study uses an agent-based computational labor market framework to undertake a systematic experimental investigation of the relationship between job capacity, job concentration, and market power. Job capacity is measured by the ratio of total potential job openings to total potential work offers, and job concentration is measured by the ratio of work suppliers to employers. For each setting of the capacity and concentration treatment factors, work suppliers and employers repeatedly seek V- preferred worksite partners based on continually updated expected utility, engage in efficiency-wage worksite interactions mmodeledas prisoner's dilemma games, and evolve their worksite behaviors over time. The ...


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