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How Does The Elimination Of State Aid To For-Profit Colleges Affect Enrollment? Evidence From California’S Reforms, Oded Gurantz, Ryan Sakoda, Shayak Sarkar 2021 University of Missouri

How Does The Elimination Of State Aid To For-Profit Colleges Affect Enrollment? Evidence From California’S Reforms, Oded Gurantz, Ryan Sakoda, Shayak Sarkar

Upjohn Institute Policy and Research Briefs

No abstract provided.


How Does The Elimination Of State Aid To For-Profit Colleges Affect Enrollment? Evidence From California’S Reforms, Oded Gurantz, Ryan Sakoda, Shayak Sarkar 2021 University of Missouri

How Does The Elimination Of State Aid To For-Profit Colleges Affect Enrollment? Evidence From California’S Reforms, Oded Gurantz, Ryan Sakoda, Shayak Sarkar

Upjohn Institute Working Papers

This paper examines how financial aid reform based on postsecondary institutional performance impacts student choice. Federal and state regulations often reflect concerns about the private, for-profit sector’s poor employment outcomes and high loan defaults, despite the sector’s possible theoretical advantages. We use student-level data to examine how eliminating public subsidies to attend low-performing for-profit institutions impacts students’ college enrollment and completion behavior. Beginning in 2011, California tightened eligibility standards for their state aid program, effectively eliminating most for-profit eligibility. Linking data on aid application to administrative payment and postsecondary enrollment records, this paper utilizes a difference-in differences strategy ...


Reemployment Services And Eligibility Assessments (Resea) In Maryland: Process Analysis Report, Christopher J. O'Leary, Gabrielle Pepin, Ting Zhang, Conrad Helms 2021 W.E. Upjohn Insitute for Employment Research

Reemployment Services And Eligibility Assessments (Resea) In Maryland: Process Analysis Report, Christopher J. O'Leary, Gabrielle Pepin, Ting Zhang, Conrad Helms

Upjohn Institute Technical Reports

No abstract provided.


Black Suburbanization And The Evolution Of Spatial Inequality Since 1970, Alexander W. Bartik, Evan Mast 2021 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Black Suburbanization And The Evolution Of Spatial Inequality Since 1970, Alexander W. Bartik, Evan Mast

Upjohn Institute Working Papers

Since 1970, the share of Black individuals living in suburbs of larger cities has risen from 16 to 36 percent. We present three facts illustrating how this suburbanization has changed spatial inequality. First, suburbanization entirely accounts for Black households’ relative improvements in several key neighborhood characteristics, while Black city dwellers saw declines. Second, suburbanization accounts for over half of the increase in within-Black income segregation. Selective Black migration and muted suburban “White flight” both contribute to these patterns. Third, total Black population in central cities has plummeted since 2000, driven by young people and declines in high-poverty, majority-Black neighborhoods.


Long-Term Effects Of In Utero Exposure To “The Year Without A Summer”, Hamid Noghanibehambari, Farzaneh Noghani, Nahid Tavassoli, Mostafa Toranji 2021 Texas Tech University, Department of Economics, Lubbock, USA

Long-Term Effects Of In Utero Exposure To “The Year Without A Summer”, Hamid Noghanibehambari, Farzaneh Noghani, Nahid Tavassoli, Mostafa Toranji

Economic and Business Review

This paper uses the aftermath of the great Tambora eruption in 1815 as a natural experiment to explore the long-term effects of a nutritional shock during prenatal development. The volcanic explosion of Tambora formed substantial ash columns which hampered sunlight, cooled down the surface temperature, reduced the length of the growing season, and led to a severe harvest failure during summer and winter of 1816 in Europe and northeastern states of America. US decennial census 1850 provides evidence that cohorts in utero during the climate anomaly revealed lower literacy rates, lower labor force participation rates, a fewer number of own ...


Place-Based Consequences Of Person-Based Transfers, Brad J. Hershbein 2021 W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research

Place-Based Consequences Of Person-Based Transfers, Brad J. Hershbein

Employment Research Newsletter

No abstract provided.


Economic Costs And Benefits Of Tuition-Free College In Illinois, Timothy J. Bartik, Michelle Miller-Adams, Brian Pittelko, Bridget F. Timmeney 2021 W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research

Economic Costs And Benefits Of Tuition-Free College In Illinois, Timothy J. Bartik, Michelle Miller-Adams, Brian Pittelko, Bridget F. Timmeney

Employment Research Newsletter

No abstract provided.


Labor Market Consequences Of Antitax Avoidance Policies, Katarzyna Bilicka 2021 Utah State University, NBER, and CEPR

Labor Market Consequences Of Antitax Avoidance Policies, Katarzyna Bilicka

Upjohn Institute Working Papers

In this paper, I analyze the local labor market consequences of multinational firms reallocating employees across their affiliates in response to antitax avoidance policies. I leverage the introduction of a worldwide debt cap in 2010 in the United Kingdom as a quasi-natural experiment that limited one of the forms of profit shifting—debt shifting—for a group of multinational corporations (MNCs). Multinationals affected by the reform reallocated their employees from the United Kingdom to foreign locations. This affected London-based service sector firms the most. I show that this led to a reduction in the number of jobs available in regions ...


Care Work In Chile’S Segregated Cities, Manuel Garcia 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Care Work In Chile’S Segregated Cities, Manuel Garcia

Doctoral Dissertations

This project combines diverse theoretical and methodological tools to examine the relationship between space and care work in Chile. The chapters are stand-alone articles that come together to tell a single story. The social production of urban space has marginalized thousands of female caregivers from the labor market as Chile’s care system unravels. I argue that community caregiving could simultaneously improve the conditions of caregivers and dependents.

Chapter 1 examines the role of residential segregation in reproducing Chile’s meager female labor market participation rates. I use spatial and econometric analysis to show that the social forces that segregate ...


How Illinois Manufacturers Are Adopting Advanced Technologies: An Insight Report On Automation, Workforce, And Productivity, Kathleen Bolter, Nicholas Martens, Kenneth Voytek, Jim Robey 2021 W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research

How Illinois Manufacturers Are Adopting Advanced Technologies: An Insight Report On Automation, Workforce, And Productivity, Kathleen Bolter, Nicholas Martens, Kenneth Voytek, Jim Robey

Reports

No abstract provided.


When Labor Enforcement And Immigration Enforcement Collide: Deterring Worker Complaints Worsens Workplace Safety, Amanda M. Grittner, Matthew S. Johnson 2021 Abt Associates

When Labor Enforcement And Immigration Enforcement Collide: Deterring Worker Complaints Worsens Workplace Safety, Amanda M. Grittner, Matthew S. Johnson

Upjohn Institute Working Papers

Regulatory agencies overseeing the labor market often rely on worker complaints to direct their enforcement. However, if workers face differential barriers to complain, this system could result in ineffective targeting and create disparities in working conditions. To investigate these implications, we examine how the onset of Secure Communities—a localized immigration enforcement program—affected occupational safety and health. Counties’ participation in Secure Communities substantially reduced complaints to government safety regulators, but increased injuries, at workplaces with Hispanic workers. We show that these effects are most consistent with employers reducing safety inputs in response to workers’ decreased willingness to complain.


The Impact Of The Pandemic On U.S. Labor Markets: Past, Present And Future Concerns, Michael Horrigan 2021 W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research

The Impact Of The Pandemic On U.S. Labor Markets: Past, Present And Future Concerns, Michael Horrigan

Presentations

No abstract provided.


The Dynamics Of Referral Hiring And Racial Inequality: Evidence From Brazil, Conrad Miller, Ian Schmutte 2021 University of California - Berkeley

The Dynamics Of Referral Hiring And Racial Inequality: Evidence From Brazil, Conrad Miller, Ian Schmutte

Upjohn Institute Working Papers

We study how referral hiring contributes to racial inequality in firm-level labor demand over the firm’s life cycle using data from Brazil. We consider a search model where referral networks are segregated, firms are more informed about the match quality of referred candidates, and some referrals are made by nonreferred employees. Consistent with the model, we find that firms are more likely to hire candidates and less likely to dismiss employees of the same race as the founder, but these differences diminish as firms’ cumulative hires increase. Referral hiring helps to explain racial differences in dismissals, seniority, and employer ...


Increasing Consumer Opportunities For Self-Employment In Vocational Rehabilitation, University of Montana Rural Institute 2021 RTC:Rural

Increasing Consumer Opportunities For Self-Employment In Vocational Rehabilitation, University Of Montana Rural Institute

Employment

Self-employment is an important option for people with disabilities, especially for those living in rural communities where economic choice and opportunity may be more limited. Although people with disabilities are self-employed at higher rates than people without disabilities, few vocational rehabilitation (VR) consumers become self-employed partly due to lack of knowledge and barriers within VR systems. This research report explains some reasons for low rates of self-employment within the VR system, and presents the Vocational Rehabilitation Self-Employment Guide-an online resource providing guidance and tools to assist people with disabilities and VR counselors with the self-employment process. This guide was ...


Covid-19 And Nevada Counties: Employment Data, May 2019 And May 2021, Joshua Padilla, Katie M. Gilbertson, William E. Brown Jr. 2021 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Covid-19 And Nevada Counties: Employment Data, May 2019 And May 2021, Joshua Padilla, Katie M. Gilbertson, William E. Brown Jr.

Economic Development & Workforce

This fact sheet displays county-level employment data and unemployment rates for 17 counties in Nevada, as reported by The Daily Yonder article “Rural Employment Grew in May, but Fewer People Are Seeking Jobs” in July 2021. Bill Bishop and Tim Marema compiled data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) for each county in the United States for May 2019 and May 2021.


Place-Based Jobs Policies: We Need To Boost Employment Rates In Distressed Places, But: One Size Does Not Fit All, Timothy J. Bartik 2021 W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research

Place-Based Jobs Policies: We Need To Boost Employment Rates In Distressed Places, But: One Size Does Not Fit All, Timothy J. Bartik

Presentations

No abstract provided.


Rent Control In California: Policy Review, Brian J. Asquith, Shane M. Reed 2021 W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research

Rent Control In California: Policy Review, Brian J. Asquith, Shane M. Reed

Reports

The largest number of housing units subject to rent control can be found in California, but the policy environment is quite complex and is characterized by a series of interacting state and local laws. This complexity represents a significant barrier for researchers and policymakers seeking a clear and accurate picture of how rent control works in California, and how it incentivizes different behaviors among landlords and tenants alike. This technical report surveys rent control rules in California, with special attention paid to the recent statewide rent caps, historic developments, and the systems in Los Angeles and San Francisco. This report ...


A Model Of Occupational Licensing And Statistical Discrimination, Peter Q. Blair, Bobby W. Chung 2021 Harvard University and NBER

A Model Of Occupational Licensing And Statistical Discrimination, Peter Q. Blair, Bobby W. Chung

Upjohn Institute Working Papers

We develop a model of statistical discrimination in occupational licensing. In the model, there is endogenous occupation selection and wage determination that depends on how costly it is to obtain the license and the productivity of the human capital that is bundled with the license. Under these assumptions, we find a unique equilibrium with sharp comparative statics for the licensing premiums. The key theoretical result in this paper is that the licensing premium is higher for workers who are members of demographic groups that face a higher cost of licensing. The intuition for this result is that the higher cost ...


The Effects Of Recent Minimum Wage Increases On Self-Reported Health In The United States, Liam Sigaud 2021 University of Maine

The Effects Of Recent Minimum Wage Increases On Self-Reported Health In The United States, Liam Sigaud

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A sharp income-health gradient exists in the United States. Lower levels of income are associated with higher rates of mortality, morbidity, and risky health behaviors, as well as decreased access to health care. Growing evidence of a causal link between income and health suggests that government income-support policies may be an effective strategy for improving health outcomes among poor Americans. One such policy – the minimum wage – has experienced a surge in popularity in recent years. In 2019, twenty-five states and the District of Columbia increased their minimum wage, up from only eight states in 2011. Yet the literature on the ...


How The Past Of Outsourcing And Offshoring Is The Future Of Post-Pandemic Remote Work: A Typology, A Model, And A Review*, Peter Norlander, Chris Erickson 2021 Loyola University Chicago

How The Past Of Outsourcing And Offshoring Is The Future Of Post-Pandemic Remote Work: A Typology, A Model, And A Review*, Peter Norlander, Chris Erickson

School of Business: Faculty Publications and Other Works

Information and communication technology (ICT) challenges traditional assumptions about the capacity to manage workers beyond organizational and physical boundaries. A typology connects a variety of non-traditional work organizations made possible by ICT, including offshoring, outsourcing, remote work, virtual companies, and platforms. A model illustrates how new technology serves as a proximate cause for a revision of social contracts between capital, labor and government reached through bargaining, and how external shocks such as the COVID-19 pandemic, the institutional environment, and limitations in practice influence how technology changes the organization of work. An historical case illustrates the general features of the model ...


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