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Trust In Cohesive Communities, Felipe Balmaceda Assoc Prof., Juan Escobar Assistant Professor 2017 Diego Portales University

Trust In Cohesive Communities, Felipe Balmaceda Assoc Prof., Juan Escobar Assistant Professor

Felipe Balmaceda

This paper studies which social networks maximize trust and welfare when agreements are implicitly enforced. We study a repeated trust game in which trading opportunities arise exogenously and a social network determines the information each player has. We show that cohesive communities, modeled as social networks of complete components, emerge as the optimal community design. Cohesive communities generate some degree of common knowledge of transpired play that allows players to coordinate their punishments and, as a result, yield relatively high equilibrium payoffs. We also show that when news swiftly travel through the network, Pareto efficient networks are minimally connected: the ...


Partial Disability And Labor Market Adjustment: The Case Of Spain, José Ignacio Silva, Judit Vall 2017 Universitat Pompeu Fabra

Partial Disability And Labor Market Adjustment: The Case Of Spain, José Ignacio Silva, Judit Vall

José Ignacio Silva


Although partially disabled individuals in Spain are allowed to combine disability benefits with a job, the empirical evidence shows that the employment rate of this group of individuals is very low because they have a much lower job finding and a higher job separation rates than nondisabled workers. Moreover, a decomposition analysis of the equilibrium employment rate shows that the differences in the job finding rates explain 85 percent of the disabled employment gap. To explain these facts, we construct a labor market model with search intensity and matching frictions to identify the incentives and disincentives to work in Spain ...


New Evidence On State Fiscal Multipliers: Implications For State Policies, Timothy J. Bartik 2017 W.E. Upjohn Institute

New Evidence On State Fiscal Multipliers: Implications For State Policies, Timothy J. Bartik

Timothy J. Bartik

When state and local governments engage in balanced budget changes in taxes and spending, what fiscal multiplier effects do such policies have on creating local jobs? Traditionally, the view has been that possible job-creation effects of such state and local “demand-side” policies are smaller, second-order effects. Such effects might be worthwhile to take into consideration when a state or local government balances its budget during a recession, but the effects were believed to be of modest magnitude, and not of major importance for more general state and local public policies. However, recent estimates of fiscal multiplier effects of state and ...


Data Improvement And Labor Economics, Kevin F. Hallock 2017 Cornell University

Data Improvement And Labor Economics, Kevin F. Hallock

Kevin F Hallock

The expansion of available data for research has transformed empirical labor economics over the past generation. This paper briefly highlights some of the changes and describes a few examples of papers that illustrate the advances. It also documents the changing ways data have been used in the Journal of Labor Economics over the past 30 years, including a trend toward a higher fraction of papers using any data and, among those papers using any data, a higher fraction using nonpublic data, a higher fraction using international data, and more frequent use of multiple data sources. Finally, this paper describes work ...


Computer Adoption And Returns In Transition, Yemisi Kuku, Peter F. Orazem, Rajesh Singh 2017 Iowa State University

Computer Adoption And Returns In Transition, Yemisi Kuku, Peter F. Orazem, Rajesh Singh

Rajesh Singh

Across nine transition economies, it is the young, educated, English-speaking workers with the best access to local telecommunications infrastructures that work with computers. These workers earn about 25% more than do workers of comparable observable skills who do not use computers. Controlling for likely simultaneity between computer use at work and labor market earnings makes the apparent returns to computer use disappear. These results are corroborated using Russian longitudinal data on earnings and computer use on the job. High costs of computer use in transition economies suppress wages that firms can pay their workers who use computers.


A Discussion Of Social Protection And Private Insurance, Gary S. Fields 2017 Cornell University

A Discussion Of Social Protection And Private Insurance, Gary S. Fields

Gary S Fields

[Excerpt] This is a thoughtful and thought-provoking paper, informative and interesting. I learned a lot from reading this and have already passed it on to others. In my comments, I would like to do four things: highlight the major points and the rationale for them, raise a few quibbles, put forth some additional issues, and propose a possible resolution of a dilemma raised in the paper. But let us first try to be clear about what we are talking about. Professor Pestieau characterizes social insurance as being mandatory, universal, and redistributive. I would define it slightly differently: “Social insurance is ...


[Review Of The Book Employment And Development: A New Review Of Evidence, By David Turnham], Gary S. Fields 2017 Cornell University

[Review Of The Book Employment And Development: A New Review Of Evidence, By David Turnham], Gary S. Fields

Gary S Fields

[Excerpt] I first encountered David Turnham’s work after majoring in labor economics in undergraduate and graduate school and spending a year in Nairobi studying and modeling the labor market there. The atmosphere in Kenya was crackling with intellectual excitement: John Harris and Michael Todaro had just showed how the solution to urban unemployment might be rural development, George Johnson had demonstrated that earnings function analysis ‘worked’ despite doubts about the quality of developing country data and the applicability of developed country concepts, Dharam Ghai was developing the basic human needs approach to development, and Joe Stiglitz was formulating efficiency ...


Lifetime Migration In Colombia: Tests Of The Expected Income Hypothesis, Gary S. Fields 2017 Cornell University

Lifetime Migration In Colombia: Tests Of The Expected Income Hypothesis, Gary S. Fields

Gary S Fields

[Excerpt] People migrate and areas gain or lose population for a variety of reasons: differences in potential earnings, in job availability, in schooling opportunities, in quality of life, proximity to friends and relatives, and so on. The economic model of migration holds that the central factor determining individual migration decisions is the perceived opportunity to attain higher economic status. Area populations are expected to change differentially according to the economic opportunities offered. In empirical research in developed countries, economic factors have been shown to underlie most migration decisions. In developing countries, where the economic situation of the populace is far ...


Merger & Acquisition And Capital Expenditure In Health Care: Information Gleaned From Stock Price Variation, Wenjing Ouyang, Peter E. Hilsenrath 2017 University of the Pacific

Merger & Acquisition And Capital Expenditure In Health Care: Information Gleaned From Stock Price Variation, Wenjing Ouyang, Peter E. Hilsenrath

Peter E. Hilsenrath

Investment, especially through merger and acquisition (M&A), is a leading topic of concern among health care managers. In addition, the implications of this activity for organization and market concentration are of great interest to policy makers. Using a sample of 2256 firm-year observations in the health care industry during the period from 1985 to 2011, this article provides novel evidence that managers learn from financial markets in making capital expenditure (CAPEX) and M&A investment decisions. Within the industry, managers in the Drugs subsector are most likely to do so, whereas managers in the Medical Equipment and Supplies are ...


Economic Impacts Of Wind Energy Development In Iowa: Four Scenarios, David Swenson 2017 Iowa State University

Economic Impacts Of Wind Energy Development In Iowa: Four Scenarios, David Swenson

David Swenson

The deployment of additional wind energy capacity in Iowa will yield discernible short-term and longer-term economic impacts for Iowa. The short-term and temporary economic gains are from the annual purchases and deliveries of Iowa-supplied wind energy generating equipment like blades, towers, nacelles and other critical components, and all construction-related activity associated with erecting and making operational wind energy arrays The long-term and permanent gains to the Iowa economy are driven by the on-going increments to statewide productivity associated with the operation and maintenance of the built wind energy systems, and the incremental increase in lease payments made to landowners for ...


Economic Profile Of Fabricated Metals Manufacturing In Iowa, Liesl Eathington, David Swenson 2017 Iowa State University

Economic Profile Of Fabricated Metals Manufacturing In Iowa, Liesl Eathington, David Swenson

David Swenson

The fabricated metals industry in Iowa is a major durable goods industry which produced $1.68 billion in GDP in 2013 and accounted for 5 percent of manufacturing GDP. The sector employed 20,611 persons, or around 9.5 percent of the state's manufacturing workforce. This technical study profiles the industry's structural and economic characteristics. This study was done for the Center for Industrial Research and Service (CIRAS) at Iowa State University.


The Economic Impact Of Iowa’S Major Industries In 2014, David Swenson 2017 Iowa State University

The Economic Impact Of Iowa’S Major Industries In 2014, David Swenson

David Swenson

This report compares and contrasts two methods of discerning industrial importance: (1) evaluating industrial information as conventionally reported by government agencies, and (2) using input-output techniques to allocate all indirect economic activity into industries producing for final demand. The advantage of the final demand apportioning procedure is that it allows for a determination of total job linkages to Iowa's key industries like agriculture, ag-related manufacturing, all other manufacturing, and to banking and finance.


Investigating Iowa’S Industrial Vulnerability To Reductions In Water Resources, David Swenson, Liesl Eathington 2017 Iowa State University

Investigating Iowa’S Industrial Vulnerability To Reductions In Water Resources, David Swenson, Liesl Eathington

David Swenson

This report investigates degrees of water dependence across various sectors of Iowa’s economy and the possible direct and indirect consequences of drought events on Iowa’s industries. The report is organized into five sections. Part 1 describes patterns of water use by broad economic sector, as measured in gallons of water withdrawn from surface and groundwater sources. Part 2 addresses the importance of water as a means of transportation, examining the types of commodities shipped to and from Iowa by river. Part 3 discusses the consequences of drought on grain and livestock production. Part 4 explores how reductions in ...


Economic Profile Of Fabricated Metals Manufacturing In Iowa, Liesl Eathington, David Swenson 2017 Iowa State University

Economic Profile Of Fabricated Metals Manufacturing In Iowa, Liesl Eathington, David Swenson

David Swenson

The fabricated metals industry in Iowa is a major durable goods industry which produced $1.68 billion in GDP in 2013 and accounted for 5 percent of manufacturing GDP. The sector employed 20,611 persons, or around 9.5 percent of the state's manufacturing workforce. This technical study profiles the industry's structural and economic characteristics. This study was done for the Center for Industrial Research and Service (CIRAS) at Iowa State University.


Economic Impacts Of Wind Energy Development In Iowa: Four Scenarios, David Swenson 2017 Iowa State University

Economic Impacts Of Wind Energy Development In Iowa: Four Scenarios, David Swenson

David Swenson

The deployment of additional wind energy capacity in Iowa will yield discernible short-term and longer-term economic impacts for Iowa. The short-term and temporary economic gains are from

  • the annual purchases and deliveries of Iowa-supplied wind energy generating equipment like blades, towers, nacelles and other critical components, and
  • all construction-related activity associated with erecting and making operational wind energy arrays

The long-term and permanent gains to the Iowa economy are driven by

  • the on-going increments to statewide productivity associated with the operation and maintenance of the built wind energy systems, and
  • the incremental increase in lease payments made to landowners for ...


Essays In Entrepreneurship, Innovation And Labor, Andres Gonzalo Hincapie Norena 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Essays In Entrepreneurship, Innovation And Labor, Andres Gonzalo Hincapie Norena

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

I explore the role of experimentation on the career choices of individuals deciding whether to be paid employees or entrepreneurs, and on the decisions of consumers deciding what medical treatment to buy. In the labor market, experimentation entails the accumulation of information that allows individuals to improve their occupational choices. In the product market, experimentation entails discovering the quality of new products and it may have an effect on the evolution of technology: less experimentation by individuals may slow down the process of innovation.I start in Chapter 2 with the observation that most individuals do not start a business ...


Disrespecting The Minimum Wage: How States Limit The Opportunity For Restaurant Workers To Support Themselves, Samantha Pereira 2017 San Jose State University

Disrespecting The Minimum Wage: How States Limit The Opportunity For Restaurant Workers To Support Themselves, Samantha Pereira

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

This paper examines the inequality in the restaurant industry in America. It focuses specifically on the tipped minimum wages in different states compared to the real minimum wage and looks into the gender and racial inequality present in restaurants. The first section analyzes the history of tipping and what it has become in the United States. The paper then moves to describe different struggles that tipped workers in the restaurant industry have to face. The paper also discusses different arguments to raising the tipped minimum wage and compares states with a tipped minimum wage and states without a tipped minimum ...


Race And The Labor Market: A Call For Counteractive Affirmative Action, Anthony J. Farmer 2017 University of Wyoming

Race And The Labor Market: A Call For Counteractive Affirmative Action, Anthony J. Farmer

Honors Theses AY 16/17

Minorities tend to experience higher rates of unemployment than those of white individuals (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2017). Controlling for pre-labor market skills, data shows a wage discrepancy resulting solely from race (Antonji and Blank, 1999), which suggests that race plays a role in labor market interactions. In an attempt to understand the causal mechanisms behind this disparate treatment one must turn to the theory of statistical discrimination, which states that the combination employer prior beliefs and imperfect information leads to discriminant hiring behavior (Coate and Loury, 1993).

This model of labor market discrimination creates a negative feedback loop that ...


A Comparative Analysis Of Regional Production Costs Of Fed Beef Produced For The U.S. And Japanese Markets, Lee Sankey, Dermot J. Hayes, Roxanne L. B. Clemens 2017 Iowa State University

A Comparative Analysis Of Regional Production Costs Of Fed Beef Produced For The U.S. And Japanese Markets, Lee Sankey, Dermot J. Hayes, Roxanne L. B. Clemens

Dermot J. Hayes

This study compared and analyzed actual 1989 production costs for representative regional feedlots in the U.S. The results show that grain surplus regions have lower total costs and poorer feeding efficiencies. The analysis suggest that Iowa has a comparative advantage in producing heavily marbled beef required by the Japanese market. Southwestern states have an advantage in producing leaner beef and stand to benefit if U.S. consumers develop a taste for Select-quality beef.


Pride And Prejudice In U.S. Trade, Lan Cao 2017 Chapman University School of Law

Pride And Prejudice In U.S. Trade, Lan Cao

Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law

The purpose of this Article is to provide a micro evaluation of trade in two particularly thorny areas: (1) job loss; and (2) import vs. export and the trade deficit in a trading system of globally fragmented production. This Article also provides a broad, macro view of trade and its relationship with other parts of the international order—security and finance. This is because trade is a vital component of an integrated international system. Looking at trade in isolation will result in even more incoherence and disequilibrium, perhaps creating unintended consequences in ways that impact negatively on U.S. security ...


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