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A Case Study In Tipping: An Economic Anomaly, Megan Nelson 2017 University of Kansas

A Case Study In Tipping: An Economic Anomaly, Megan Nelson

Crossing Borders: A Multidisciplinary Journal of Undergraduate Scholarship

When dining in a restaurant or having a drink at a bar, do you tip? If yes, what do you base the tip amount on? Is it who you are with? Do men tip more than women? Do you tip less when your actions are masked by a larger group? The answers to these questions are something that economists have struggled to explain. The most difficult question being: Why do people pay an additional amount when they have absolutely no legal obligation to do so? This case study explores the variables that lead to higher or lower tip amounts ...


Performance Pay, The Marriage Market And Rising Income Inequality In Taiwan, Shao-Hsun Keng, Peter F. Orazem 2017 National University of Kaohsiung

Performance Pay, The Marriage Market And Rising Income Inequality In Taiwan, Shao-Hsun Keng, Peter F. Orazem

Economics Working Papers

Taiwan expanded its college access significantly over the past two decades by converting 2-year junior colleges to 4-year colleges and relaxing entrance standards. The share of college graduates in the 22-24 years old population rose from 12% to 71% between 1990 and 2014. This should have suppressed returns to schooling and lowered inequality, but Taiwan’s Gini coefficient rose steadily over that period. We show that rising use of performance pay and positive assortative mating in the marriage market combine to explain the rising inequality. The presence of performance pay and positive assortative mating jointly increase the household income inequality ...


The Effect Of Single-Sex Education On Test Scores, School Completion, Arrests, And Teen Motherhood: Evidence From School Transitions, C. Kirabo Jackson 2017 Northwestern University

The Effect Of Single-Sex Education On Test Scores, School Completion, Arrests, And Teen Motherhood: Evidence From School Transitions, C. Kirabo Jackson

C. Kirabo Jackson

In 2010, the Ministry of Education in Trinidad and Tobago converted 20 low-performing secondary schools from coeducational to single-sex. I exploit these conversions to identify the causal effect of single-sex schooling holding other school inputs constant. After also accounting for student selection, single-sex cohorts at conversion schools score higher on national exams and are four percentage points more likely to complete secondary school. There are also important non-academic effects; all-boys cohorts have fewer arrests as teens, and all-girls cohorts have lower teen pregnancy rates. These benefits are achieved at zero financial cost. Survey evidence suggests that these single-sex effects reflect ...


Net Impact And Benefit-Cost Estimates Of The Workforce Development System In Washington State, Kevin Hollenbeck, Wei-Jang Huang 2017 W.E. Upjohn Institute

Net Impact And Benefit-Cost Estimates Of The Workforce Development System In Washington State, Kevin Hollenbeck, Wei-Jang Huang

Kevin Hollenbeck

No abstract provided.


Partial Disability And Labor Market Adjustment: The Case Of Spain, José Ignacio Silva, Judit Vall 2017 Universitat Pompeu Fabra

Partial Disability And Labor Market Adjustment: The Case Of Spain, José Ignacio Silva, Judit Vall

José Ignacio Silva


Although partially disabled individuals in Spain are allowed to combine disability benefits with a job, the empirical evidence shows that the employment rate of this group of individuals is very low because they have a much lower job finding and a higher job separation rates than nondisabled workers. Moreover, a decomposition analysis of the equilibrium employment rate shows that the differences in the job finding rates explain 85 percent of the disabled employment gap. To explain these facts, we construct a labor market model with search intensity and matching frictions to identify the incentives and disincentives to work in Spain ...


The Economic Impacts Of California’S Major Climate Programs On The San Joaquin Valley, Betony Jones, Ethan Elkind, Kevin Duncan, Marilee Hanson 2017 Donald Vial Center on Employment in the Green Economy

The Economic Impacts Of California’S Major Climate Programs On The San Joaquin Valley, Betony Jones, Ethan Elkind, Kevin Duncan, Marilee Hanson

Center for Law, Energy & the Environment Publications

The San Joaquin Valley plays a critical role in shaping California’s climate policy and is worthy of study due to its function as a bellwether of the state’s transition to a low-carbon economy. Reducing emissions is vitally important for the San Joaquin Valley. The Valley’s topography traps pollution, and air quality and the resulting health conditions are far worse in the Valley than in other region of the state. The region also faces more socioeconomic challenges than the state as a whole. Thus the Valley is vulnerable to both climate change and to climate policy. If policymakers ...


Family Economics Writ Large, Jeremy Greenwood, Nezih Guner, Guillaume Vandenbroucke 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Family Economics Writ Large, Jeremy Greenwood, Nezih Guner, Guillaume Vandenbroucke

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Powerful currents have reshaped the structure of families over the last century. There has been (i) a dramatic drop in fertility and greater parental investment in children; (ii) a rise in married female labor-force participation; (iii) a decline in marriage and a rise in divorce; (iv) a higher degree of positive assortative mating; (v) more children living with a single mother; (vi) shifts in social norms governing premarital sex and married women's roles in the labor market. Macroeconomic models explaining these aggregate trends are surveyed. The relentless flow of technological progress and its role in shaping family life are ...


Net Impact And Benefit-Cost Estimates Of The Workforce Development System In Washington State, Kevin Hollenbeck, Wei-Jang Huang 2017 W.E. Upjohn Institute

Net Impact And Benefit-Cost Estimates Of The Workforce Development System In Washington State, Kevin Hollenbeck, Wei-Jang Huang

Employment Research Newsletter

No abstract provided.


Wage Shocks And The Technological Substitution Of Low-Wage Jobs, Daniel Aaronson, Brian Phelan 2017 Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago

Wage Shocks And The Technological Substitution Of Low-Wage Jobs, Daniel Aaronson, Brian Phelan

Upjohn Institute Working Papers

We extend the task-based empirical framework used in the job polarization literature to analyze the susceptibility of low-wage employment to technological substitution. We find that increases in the cost of low-wage labor, via minimum wage hikes, lead to relative employment declines at cognitively routine occupations but not manually-routine or non-routine low-wage occupations. This suggests that low-wage routine cognitive tasks are susceptible to technological substitution. While the short-run employment consequence of this reshuffling on individual workers is economically small, due to concurrent employment growth in other low-wage jobs, workers previously employed in cognitively routine jobs experience relative wage losses.


Relationships Between Job Satisfaction, Supervisor Support, And Profitability Among Quick Service Industry Employees, Joseph Carl Vann 2017 Walden University

Relationships Between Job Satisfaction, Supervisor Support, And Profitability Among Quick Service Industry Employees, Joseph Carl Vann

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Low profit margins threaten the sustainability of quick service restaurants (QSRs). In the United States, low levels of employee job satisfaction and low employee perceptions of supervisor support decrease organizational profitability by as much as $151 million annually, depending on the size and type of organization. Guided by the 2-factor theory of motivation, the purpose of this correlational study was to examine the relationship between employee job satisfaction, employee perceptions of supervisor support, and organizational profitability. A convenience sample of employees from 86 QSR franchise locations in Houston, Texas completed the Job Satisfaction and Perceived Supervisor Support surveys. Multiple linear ...


Growing Portland: Not Whether, But How, Richard Barringer, Joseph McDonnell 2017 University of Southern Maine

Growing Portland: Not Whether, But How, Richard Barringer, Joseph Mcdonnell

Muskie School of Public Service

In the 400 years since European settlement, Portland has survived the ravages of war, invasion, pestilence, conflagration, and economic depression and recession. Once a renowned manufacturing, trade, and shipping center, it now enjoys what might be called a post-industrial renaissance as a vibrant center for the arts, education, entertainment, and banking, legal, and medical services; and is frequently cited as one of America’s best small cities. As a result, Portland is growing today and is positioned for more growth.

The question, then, is not whether Portland will grow, but how well it will grow; or, how best to manage ...


Employee Selection Strategies In Casual Dining Restaurants, Tim Racey 2017 Walden University

Employee Selection Strategies In Casual Dining Restaurants, Tim Racey

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Annual turnover for hourly employees in the hospitality industry averages 102%. The costs associated with hiring and training new employees are estimated at 150% of an employee's salary for businesses with more than 30 employees. The purpose of this case study was to examine the personnel selection strategies used in the casual dining sector. The sample for this study was 6 casual dining restaurant managers in the central Georgia area. Three of the participants used online selection strategies and 3 participants used intuition-based strategies. The objective of this study was to compare the similarities and differences between each respective ...


Wage Inequality In The Manufacturing Sector Of The Mexico And Its Regions, According To The Trade Opening, 2005-2015, Reyna E. Rodríguez Pérez, Vicente German-Soto, Crhistian Joel González Cuatianquis 2016 Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila

Wage Inequality In The Manufacturing Sector Of The Mexico And Its Regions, According To The Trade Opening, 2005-2015, Reyna E. Rodríguez Pérez, Vicente German-Soto, Crhistian Joel González Cuatianquis

Vicente German-Soto

This paper analyzes the evolution of wage inequality in the manufacturing sector of the regions of Mexico, according to the grade of exposition to trade opening. The methodology consists in measuring the wage inequality through the Theil index decomposition; it is calculated from data of the Survey of Occupation and Employment (ENOE) 2005 and 2015. The results indicate that wage inequality has decreased in Mexico and in its regions by 2015, especially in those areas with low exposition to trade opening. The gap decomposition shows that the intra-part is the principal source of inequality, which is higher in the sex-classification ...


The Effect Of Health Insurance On Young Adults' Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence From The Affordable Care Act's Dependent Coverage Expansion, Quazi Hassan 2016 CUNY Hunter College

The Effect Of Health Insurance On Young Adults' Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence From The Affordable Care Act's Dependent Coverage Expansion, Quazi Hassan

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

The Affordable Care Act’s dependent coverage mandate extended young adults’ parental coverage to age 26. I study the expansion’s impact on young adults’ labor market outcomes using a control function method. Following the expansion, I find dependent coverage lowered labor force participation, lowered incomes, and mixed evidence regarding labor supply.


Do Foreign Companies Pay Higher Wages Than Their Local Counterparts In Malaysian Manufacturing?, David Lim 2016 Technological and Higher Education Institute of Hong Kong, Vocational Training Council

Do Foreign Companies Pay Higher Wages Than Their Local Counterparts In Malaysian Manufacturing?, David Lim

Prof. David Lim

This paper shows that foreign companies pay higher wages than their local counterparts in Malaysian manufacturing. Step-wise regression analysis shows that this is due to two factors. The first, and perhaps the more important, is the greater capital intensity of the production processes used by foreign companies. The second is their tendency to pay wages that they consider, or that are considered to be, commensurate with the wages that they pay in their home countries. This may be called the demonstration effect of wage remuneration in less developed countries.


"Sweat Labor" And Wages In Malaysian Manufacturing, David Lim 2016 Technological and Higher Education Institute of Hong Kong, Vocational Training Council

"Sweat Labor" And Wages In Malaysian Manufacturing, David Lim

Prof. David Lim

References have often been made to the presence of "sweat labor" in manufacturing in less developed countries (LDCs) and of the need to introduce minimum-wage legislation to protect the interests of such employees. However, the data on the wages paid to such workers are almost nonexistent, and the discussion so far has been couched in general terms. I shall attempt to provide some of the empirical basis for the discussion in Malaysia.


The Economic Efficacy Of Reintegration Assistance For Former Child Soldiers, Jonathan B. Kaufmann 2016 American University

The Economic Efficacy Of Reintegration Assistance For Former Child Soldiers, Jonathan B. Kaufmann

Undergraduate Economic Review

There is no consensus among scholars on the efficacy of reintegration assistance programs, including how their services affect reintegration outcomes. This research is the first statistical analysis of the economic impacts of reintegration assistance for former child soldiers. Several regression analyses were performed to determine the effect of reintegration assistance on earnings and social capital. The results indicate that no statistically significant relationship exists between reintegration assistance and earnings or social capital. Conversely, societal interventions such as increasing access to education and promoting traditional cleansing ceremonies were effective.


Workplace Deviance And Recession, Aniruddha Bagchi, Siddhartha Bandyopadhyay 2016 Kennesaw State University

Workplace Deviance And Recession, Aniruddha Bagchi, Siddhartha Bandyopadhyay

Aniruddha Bagchi

We examine the relationship between the incidence of workplace deviance (on-the-job crime) and the state of the economy. A worker's probability of future employment depends on whether she has been deviant as well as on the availability of jobs. Using a two period model we show that the net impact on deviant behavior to changes in unemployment can go either way depending upon the nature of the equilibrium. Two kinds of equilibria are possible. In one, a non-deviant's probability of being employed increases as expected market conditions improve which lowers the incentive to be a deviant. In contrast ...


Restructuring Social Security: How Will Retirement Ages Respond?, Gary S. Fields, Olivia S. Mitchell 2016 Cornell University

Restructuring Social Security: How Will Retirement Ages Respond?, Gary S. Fields, Olivia S. Mitchell

Gary S Fields

[Excerpt] Budgetary pressures on the Social Security system have increased in recent years, prompting a variety of proposals to restructure the U.S. retirement income program. Most of these proposals ignore the possibility that the retirement patterns of older workers are likely to respond to changes in the incentives to retire. This chapter presents two important pieces of information for policymakers. First, we provide previously unavailable evidence on how changes in the structure of Social Security benefits would alter the economic incentives to retire at different ages. Second, we compute how retirement patterns would change in response to altered incentives ...


Labor Market Analysis Using Sipp, Gary S. Fields, George H. Jakubson 2016 Cornell University

Labor Market Analysis Using Sipp, Gary S. Fields, George H. Jakubson

Gary S Fields

This paper examines the potentiality of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) for labor market analysis. We consider five areas of analysis: (1) labor force participation, employment, and unemployment; (2) labor market effects of income maintenance programs; (3) earnings; (4) work and retirement of the elderly; and (5) migration. We find that the SIPP is a potentially rich resource for labor market analysis, surpassing much of what is to be found in existing databases. We note some remaining problems and make recommendations for changes.


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