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Partial Disability And Labor Market Adjustment: The Case Of Spain, José Ignacio Silva, Judit Vall 2017 Universitat Pompeu Fabra

Partial Disability And Labor Market Adjustment: The Case Of Spain, José Ignacio Silva, Judit Vall

José Ignacio Silva


Although partially disabled individuals in Spain are allowed to combine disability benefits with a job, the empirical evidence shows that the employment rate of this group of individuals is very low because they have a much lower job finding and a higher job separation rates than nondisabled workers. Moreover, a decomposition analysis of the equilibrium employment rate shows that the differences in the job finding rates explain 85 percent of the disabled employment gap. To explain these facts, we construct a labor market model with search intensity and matching frictions to identify the incentives and disincentives to work in Spain ...


The Economic Impacts Of California’S Major Climate Programs On The San Joaquin Valley, Betony Jones, Ethan Elkind, Kevin Duncan, Marilee Hanson 2017 Donald Vial Center on Employment in the Green Economy

The Economic Impacts Of California’S Major Climate Programs On The San Joaquin Valley, Betony Jones, Ethan Elkind, Kevin Duncan, Marilee Hanson

Center for Law, Energy & the Environment Publications

The San Joaquin Valley plays a critical role in shaping California’s climate policy and is worthy of study due to its function as a bellwether of the state’s transition to a low-carbon economy. Reducing emissions is vitally important for the San Joaquin Valley. The Valley’s topography traps pollution, and air quality and the resulting health conditions are far worse in the Valley than in other region of the state. The region also faces more socioeconomic challenges than the state as a whole. Thus the Valley is vulnerable to both climate change and to climate policy. If policymakers ...


Wage Inequality In The Manufacturing Sector Of The Mexico And Its Regions, According To The Trade Opening, 2005-2015, Reyna E. Rodríguez Pérez, Vicente German-Soto, Crhistian Joel González Cuatianquis 2016 Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila

Wage Inequality In The Manufacturing Sector Of The Mexico And Its Regions, According To The Trade Opening, 2005-2015, Reyna E. Rodríguez Pérez, Vicente German-Soto, Crhistian Joel González Cuatianquis

Vicente German-Soto

This paper analyzes the evolution of wage inequality in the manufacturing sector of the regions of Mexico, according to the grade of exposition to trade opening. The methodology consists in measuring the wage inequality through the Theil index decomposition; it is calculated from data of the Survey of Occupation and Employment (ENOE) 2005 and 2015. The results indicate that wage inequality has decreased in Mexico and in its regions by 2015, especially in those areas with low exposition to trade opening. The gap decomposition shows that the intra-part is the principal source of inequality, which is higher in the sex-classification ...


The Effect Of Health Insurance On Young Adults' Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence From The Affordable Care Act's Dependent Coverage Expansion, Quazi Hassan 2016 CUNY Hunter College

The Effect Of Health Insurance On Young Adults' Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence From The Affordable Care Act's Dependent Coverage Expansion, Quazi Hassan

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

The Affordable Care Act’s dependent coverage mandate extended young adults’ parental coverage to age 26. I study the expansion’s impact on young adults’ labor market outcomes using a control function method. Following the expansion, I find dependent coverage lowered labor force participation, lowered incomes, and mixed evidence regarding labor supply.


Immigration And Agriculture In The 1990s, Wallace E. Huffman 2016 Iowa State University

Immigration And Agriculture In The 1990s, Wallace E. Huffman

Wallace Huffman

The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (!RCA) contained provisions having the intent of changing the supply and demand for labor in the United States and alleviating many social problems associated with earlier illegal immigration. Many of the proponents of IRCA were optimistic in the mid-1980s about how IRCA would slow illegal immigration. Issues of fairness to workers had been addressed by legalizing individuals who had a history of working as undocumented workers in U.S. agriculture and the rest of the economy; needs for a short-term guaranteed supply of seasonal agricultural service workers to agriculture had been taken ...


Labor Markets, Human Capital, And The Human Agent's Share Of Production, Wallace E. Huffman 2016 Iowa State University

Labor Markets, Human Capital, And The Human Agent's Share Of Production, Wallace E. Huffman

Wallace Huffman

Labor, or the time of the human agent, is one of the most important inputs in production. Labor services in agriculture are provided: by farm operators/ managers who perform very important allocative, production/marketing decision making and supervisory functions (Schultz 1972; Huf&nan 1985; Huffman 199lb) and frequently engage directly in production; by members of the operator's family or relatives who largely work without direct compensation; and by hired workers. The incomes of farm families and of hired farm workers are determined not only by the amount of labor that they sell but also by the amount of other resources to ...


Comparable Worth And The Structure Of Earnings: The Iowa Case, Peter F. Orazem, J. Peter Mattila 2016 Iowa State University

Comparable Worth And The Structure Of Earnings: The Iowa Case, Peter F. Orazem, J. Peter Mattila

Peter Orazem

Comparable worth pay plans have been implemented in several states since the early 1980s. To our knowledge, however, no study exists of the actual impact of such plans on the pay structure of state government. We examine the case of comparable worth in Iowa, both as proposed in 1984 and as actually implemented (in compromise form) in 1985. In particular, we identify the relative winners and losers from comparable worth by analyzing the impact on earnings for men, women, minorities, unionized employees, and particular occupational groups, such as supervisors and professionals. In addition, we are able to determine whether the ...


Ex Ante Capacity Effects In Evolutionary Labor Markets With Adaptive Search, Leigh Tesfatsion 2016 Iowa State University

Ex Ante Capacity Effects In Evolutionary Labor Markets With Adaptive Search, Leigh Tesfatsion

Leigh Tesfatsion

This study reports on computational experiments for an agent-based labor market-model-with adaptive choice'and refusal of work site' partners and with endogenously evolving work site behaviors. Two treatment factors ^e experimentally varied: market structure; and ex ante capacity constraints on potential work offers and job openings.- Particular attentions focused on experimentally determined correlations between treatment factors and the formation of contractual networks among workers and employers, and between' contractual network"formation and the'types'o!f work site interactions and welfare outcomes that these contractual networks support.


Do Foreign Companies Pay Higher Wages Than Their Local Counterparts In Malaysian Manufacturing?, David Lim 2016 Technological and Higher Education Institute of Hong Kong, Vocational Training Council

Do Foreign Companies Pay Higher Wages Than Their Local Counterparts In Malaysian Manufacturing?, David Lim

Prof. David Lim

This paper shows that foreign companies pay higher wages than their local counterparts in Malaysian manufacturing. Step-wise regression analysis shows that this is due to two factors. The first, and perhaps the more important, is the greater capital intensity of the production processes used by foreign companies. The second is their tendency to pay wages that they consider, or that are considered to be, commensurate with the wages that they pay in their home countries. This may be called the demonstration effect of wage remuneration in less developed countries.


"Sweat Labor" And Wages In Malaysian Manufacturing, David Lim 2016 Technological and Higher Education Institute of Hong Kong, Vocational Training Council

"Sweat Labor" And Wages In Malaysian Manufacturing, David Lim

Prof. David Lim

References have often been made to the presence of "sweat labor" in manufacturing in less developed countries (LDCs) and of the need to introduce minimum-wage legislation to protect the interests of such employees. However, the data on the wages paid to such workers are almost nonexistent, and the discussion so far has been couched in general terms. I shall attempt to provide some of the empirical basis for the discussion in Malaysia.


Political Bargaining And Cartelization In The New Deal: Orange Marketing Orders, Elizabeth Hoffman, Gary D. Libecap 2016 Iowa State University

Political Bargaining And Cartelization In The New Deal: Orange Marketing Orders, Elizabeth Hoffman, Gary D. Libecap

Elizabeth Hoffman

Yet, in our generation we have seen scarcity vanquished, and our ever present fear, so far as agriculture is concerned, is a fear of over abundance. We wish, if not for scarcity, at least for relief from price depressing surpluses. Rexford G. Tugwell, assistant secretary of agriculture.


The Economic Efficacy Of Reintegration Assistance For Former Child Soldiers, Jonathan B. Kaufmann 2016 American University

The Economic Efficacy Of Reintegration Assistance For Former Child Soldiers, Jonathan B. Kaufmann

Undergraduate Economic Review

There is no consensus among scholars on the efficacy of reintegration assistance programs, including how their services affect reintegration outcomes. This research is the first statistical analysis of the economic impacts of reintegration assistance for former child soldiers. Several regression analyses were performed to determine the effect of reintegration assistance on earnings and social capital. The results indicate that no statistically significant relationship exists between reintegration assistance and earnings or social capital. Conversely, societal interventions such as increasing access to education and promoting traditional cleansing ceremonies were effective.


Workplace Deviance And Recession, Aniruddha Bagchi, Siddhartha Bandyopadhyay 2016 Kennesaw State University

Workplace Deviance And Recession, Aniruddha Bagchi, Siddhartha Bandyopadhyay

Aniruddha Bagchi

We examine the relationship between the incidence of workplace deviance (on-the-job crime) and the state of the economy. A worker's probability of future employment depends on whether she has been deviant as well as on the availability of jobs. Using a two period model we show that the net impact on deviant behavior to changes in unemployment can go either way depending upon the nature of the equilibrium. Two kinds of equilibria are possible. In one, a non-deviant's probability of being employed increases as expected market conditions improve which lowers the incentive to be a deviant. In contrast ...


Restructuring Social Security: How Will Retirement Ages Respond?, Gary S. Fields, Olivia S. Mitchell 2016 Cornell University

Restructuring Social Security: How Will Retirement Ages Respond?, Gary S. Fields, Olivia S. Mitchell

Gary S Fields

[Excerpt] Budgetary pressures on the Social Security system have increased in recent years, prompting a variety of proposals to restructure the U.S. retirement income program. Most of these proposals ignore the possibility that the retirement patterns of older workers are likely to respond to changes in the incentives to retire. This chapter presents two important pieces of information for policymakers. First, we provide previously unavailable evidence on how changes in the structure of Social Security benefits would alter the economic incentives to retire at different ages. Second, we compute how retirement patterns would change in response to altered incentives ...


Labor Market Analysis Using Sipp, Gary S. Fields, George H. Jakubson 2016 Cornell University

Labor Market Analysis Using Sipp, Gary S. Fields, George H. Jakubson

Gary S Fields

This paper examines the potentiality of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) for labor market analysis. We consider five areas of analysis: (1) labor force participation, employment, and unemployment; (2) labor market effects of income maintenance programs; (3) earnings; (4) work and retirement of the elderly; and (5) migration. We find that the SIPP is a potentially rich resource for labor market analysis, surpassing much of what is to be found in existing databases. We note some remaining problems and make recommendations for changes.


The Meaning And Measurement Of Income Mobility, Gary S. Fields, Efe A. Ok 2016 Cornell University

The Meaning And Measurement Of Income Mobility, Gary S. Fields, Efe A. Ok

Gary S Fields

Income mobility may be seen as arising from two sources: (i) the transfer of income among individuals with total income held constant, and (ii) a change in the total amount of income available. In this paper, we propose several sensible properties defining the concept of income mobility and show that an easily applicable measure of mobility is uniquely implied by these properties. We also show that the resulting measure is additively decomposable into the two sources listed above, namely, mobility due to the transfer of income within a given structure and mobility due to economic growth or contraction. Finally, these ...


Rewards For Continued Work: The Economic Incentives For Postponing Retirement, Olivia S. Mitchell, Gary S. Fields 2016 Cornell University

Rewards For Continued Work: The Economic Incentives For Postponing Retirement, Olivia S. Mitchell, Gary S. Fields

Gary S Fields

This chapter develops empirical measures of the economic incentives for deferred retirement among older workers. Using a new data file on pay and pensions, we construct intertemporal budget sets reflecting income available to workers at alternative retirement ages. The analysis explores how continued labor force attachment is rewarded in terms of net earnings, Social Security benefits, and private pension income.


On-The-Job Search In A Labor Market Model: Ex Ante Choices And Ex Post Outcomes, Gary S. Fields 2016 Cornell University

On-The-Job Search In A Labor Market Model: Ex Ante Choices And Ex Post Outcomes, Gary S. Fields

Gary S Fields

This paper builds a multi-sector labor market model including wage dualism, open unemployment, underemployment, on-the-job search, and expected wage equalization. The innovative feature of this model is the distinction between the ex ante allocation of the labor force among search strategies and the ex post allocation of the labor force among labor market outcomes. Among the findings are: more efficient on-the-job search lowers the equilibrium unemployment rate; in a rational expectations equilibrium, the average rural and urban wages will not be equal; modern sector enlargement may leave labor market conditions in one of the sectors unchanged, even when wages and ...


The Effects Of Social Security Reforms On Retirement Ages And Retirement Incomes, Gary S. Fields, Olivia S. Mitchell 2016 Cornell University

The Effects Of Social Security Reforms On Retirement Ages And Retirement Incomes, Gary S. Fields, Olivia S. Mitchell

Gary S Fields

Recent changes legislated in the U.S. Social Security system have altered the economic incentives to work and retire. Some older workers will respond to these new incentives by retiring at different ages. This paper evaluates the signs and magnitudes of these responses. Four specific changes in the structure of Social Security benefits are examined: raising the normal retirement age, delaying the cost-of-living adjustment, lowering early retirement benefits, and increasing late retirement payments. Behavioral parameters are estimated using an ordered logit model of retirement ages; these are used to predict how retirement behavior might respond to each of the four ...


Income-Generating Functions In A Low Income Country: Colombia, Gary S. Fields, T. Paul Schultz 2016 Cornell University

Income-Generating Functions In A Low Income Country: Colombia, Gary S. Fields, T. Paul Schultz

Gary S Fields

Income generating functions are statistical tools used to explain income inequality and other economic outcomes and behavior. These functions are often associated with a strict human capital framework, but they need not be. Instead, they may be viewed as a reduced form equation summarizing the relationship between income and various personal and locational characteristics. Following this latter interpretation, we develop the regression and analysis of variance approaches to income generating functions and estimate them empirically using micro-economic data from one low income country, Colombia. Proceeding to increasingly parsimonious specifications of income generating functions, insights are gained into the structure of ...


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