Race And The Labor Market: A Call For Counteractive Affirmative Action, 2017 University of Wyoming
Race And The Labor Market: A Call For Counteractive Affirmative Action, Anthony J. Farmer
Honors Theses AY 16/17
Minorities tend to experience higher rates of unemployment than those of white individuals (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2017). Controlling for pre-labor market skills, data shows a wage discrepancy resulting solely from race (Antonji and Blank, 1999), which suggests that race plays a role in labor market interactions. In an attempt to understand the causal mechanisms behind this disparate treatment one must turn to the theory of statistical discrimination, which states that the combination employer prior beliefs and imperfect information leads to discriminant hiring behavior (Coate and Loury, 1993).
This model of labor market discrimination creates a negative feedback loop that ...
A Comparative Analysis Of Regional Production Costs Of Fed Beef Produced For The U.S. And Japanese Markets, 2017 Iowa State University
A Comparative Analysis Of Regional Production Costs Of Fed Beef Produced For The U.S. And Japanese Markets, Lee Sankey, Dermot J. Hayes, Roxanne L. B. Clemens
Dermot J. Hayes
This study compared and analyzed actual 1989 production costs for representative regional feedlots in the U.S. The results show that grain surplus regions have lower total costs and poorer feeding efficiencies. The analysis suggest that Iowa has a comparative advantage in producing heavily marbled beef required by the Japanese market. Southwestern states have an advantage in producing leaner beef and stand to benefit if U.S. consumers develop a taste for Select-quality beef.
Workers' Compensation: Analysis For Its Second Century, 2017 W.E. Upjohn Institute
Workers' Compensation: Analysis For Its Second Century, H. Allan Hunt, Marcus Dillender
Hunt and Dillender review the status of workers' compensation programs on three critical performance areas: 1) the adequacy of compensation for those disabled in the workplace, 2) return-to-work performance for injured workers, and 3) prevention of disabling injury and disease.
Pride And Prejudice In U.S. Trade, 2017 Chapman University School of Law
Pride And Prejudice In U.S. Trade, Lan Cao
Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law
The purpose of this Article is to provide a micro evaluation of trade in two particularly thorny areas: (1) job loss; and (2) import vs. export and the trade deficit in a trading system of globally fragmented production. This Article also provides a broad, macro view of trade and its relationship with other parts of the international order—security and finance. This is because trade is a vital component of an integrated international system. Looking at trade in isolation will result in even more incoherence and disequilibrium, perhaps creating unintended consequences in ways that impact negatively on U.S. security ...
Better Incentives Data Can Inform Both Research And Policy, 2017 W.E. Upjohn Institute
Better Incentives Data Can Inform Both Research And Policy, Timothy J. Bartik
Timothy J. Bartik
No abstract provided.
Jornaleros Engaged In A Multidimensional Struggle: A Critical Ethnography With Day Laborers In Las Vegas, 2017 University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Jornaleros Engaged In A Multidimensional Struggle: A Critical Ethnography With Day Laborers In Las Vegas, Jorge Adrian Castrejon
UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones
Day labor work has spread across the entire Unite States as part of the secondary labor market, or as Cherrie Moraga describes it- survival work. Day laborers in Las Vegas, Nevada have become a significant part of this trend in the Southwest, where the highest rate of day laborers work, and for which little community and scholarly work has been produced. The National Day Labor Survey, the most comprehensive study with day laborers, reports that the day labor market is rife with abuse and violations of worker rights. But, the exploitation of this predominantly migrant workforce would not be possible ...
The Gender Salary Gap And Race: A Case Of College-Educated Individuals, 2017 Bowling Green State University
The Gender Salary Gap And Race: A Case Of College-Educated Individuals, Giannina Celis
Despite the fact that today, women constitute the majority of higher education graduates, (U.S. Department of Education 2016) they still earn considerably less than their male counterparts.This study examines some of the different factors that affect salary differentials by race and gender for the college-educated population. Using data from the The National Survey of College Graduates (NSCG), I estimate a series of OLS regressions with controls for geographic location, social demographics, human capital development and occupation to see how they work together to explain these differences in pay.
Democracy Ends Here: U.S. Collective Bargaining Decline And An Alternative Policy Approach To Business Ownership, 2017 University of Rhode Island
Democracy Ends Here: U.S. Collective Bargaining Decline And An Alternative Policy Approach To Business Ownership, Sara Estep
Senior Honors Projects
In the United States, it seems that we cannot talk about democracy without discussing capitalism and vice versa. However, as soon as we step into work these ideals are simply thrown out the door. If we seek to govern our country democratically, should we also not have a democratic governance structure in our day to day workplaces? Unions have existed in the United States for over 150 years, but as the types of jobs that make up our economy and the demographics of the labor force have changed dramatically, the basic concept of the union has remained static. In turn ...
Women’S Work: Labor Market Outcomes And Female Entrepreneurship In Ghana, 2017 University of Pittsburgh
Women’S Work: Labor Market Outcomes And Female Entrepreneurship In Ghana, Loretta Agyemang
Butler Journal of Undergraduate Research
This paper is an investigation of female entrepreneurship in Ghana. It seeks to answer the following question: Why are Ghanaian women so heavily concentrated in microenterprise in the informal economy? The literature review explores labor market trends for women on three different scales including an overview of developing countries, Sub-Saharan Africa regional, and Ghana-specific analysis. After exploring issues women face in formal employment, the study delves into business operations of informal, urban-based market participants by analyzing data pertaining to Ghanaian microenterprise. Additionally, the paper details the experiences and views of female entrepreneurs through in-depth interviews and participant observations with thirty ...
Blade Runner And The Divine Menace, 2017 James Madison University
Blade Runner And The Divine Menace, Alexander W. Pickens
MAD-RUSH Undergraduate Research Conference
Following the decline of Christianity in mainstream Western culture, a void rose in the moral and societal code. Those writers that emerged presented alternate visions that worked their way into the literature of the 20th century. Karl Marx's interpretation of the structure of labor in capitalism presented a new societal hierarchy whose finer points have been worked out in the complex film Blade Runner. This dystopian nightmare, in which a Marxist interpretation of current society bogged down by the ennui of capitalist accumulation is confronted, describes a new religious order based upon this economic theory. Central to this reimagining ...
Migration And Injustice In The Neoliberal Era: A Comparative Analysis Of Migratory Laws And Sweatshop Labor Conditions In Argentina And The United States, Kelly L. Johnson
Spanish Honors Papers
In the contemporary neoliberal era, the global phenomenon of migration dominates the international political discourse and generates empirical and normative questions regarding the admission, rights, and realities of migrants who leave their home countries to live elsewhere. Argentina and the United States are countries in which migration was, and continues to be, a main factor in shaping the nation’s identity. Despite the similar migratory phenomenon in both of these countries, their migratory policies vastly differ—Argentina considers migration to be a right, but the United States constantly strengthens its efforts to deter migrants from entering the country. Even though ...
The Employment Service-Unemployment Insurance Partnership: Origin, Evolution, And Revitalization, David E. Balducchi, Christopher J. O'Leary
Christopher J. O'Leary
This study traces the origin and evolution of the partnership between the employment service and unemployment insurance programs in the United States. We examine objectives of the framers of the Wagner-Peyser and Social Security Acts that established these programs. Using primary sources, we then analyze early actions of the architects of social insurance to facilitate cooperation between the two programs to meet economic exigencies, grapple with political cronyism, and surmount legal barriers. We also discuss factors that caused changes in the employment service–unemployment insurance partnership over time. We identify reasons for the erosion in cooperation starting in the 1980s ...
Closing The Gender Gap: The Effect Of Political Gender Quotas And Female Employment Indicators In South America, 2017 Georgia State University
Closing The Gender Gap: The Effect Of Political Gender Quotas And Female Employment Indicators In South America, Courtney Reid
Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference
No abstract provided.
Fertility And Female Labor Force Participation: The Role Of Legal Access To Contraceptives, 2017 Illinois State University
Fertility And Female Labor Force Participation: The Role Of Legal Access To Contraceptives, Chaney Skadsen
Stevenson Center for Community and Economic Development
Around the world there has been a global trend of falling fertility rates and increasing female labor force participation rates, simultaneously. The negative association between the two provides impetus to investigate whether fertility acts as an obstruction to the labor market for women and the possibility of incompatibility between motherhood and employee. I find that fertility only acts as an inhibiter to the labor force for women when instrumented with legal access to sterilization as a form of contraception among the other three forms tested. Therefore, when permanent forms of contraceptives are legal and available it allows for more women ...
Sports, Inc. Volume 9, Issue 2, 2017 Cornell University ILR School
Sports, Inc. Volume 9, Issue 2, Ilr Cornell Sports Business Society
The ILR Cornell Sports Business Society magazine is a semester publication titled Sports, Inc. This publication serves as a space for our membership to publish and feature in-depth research and well-thought out ideas to advance the world of sport. The magazine can be found in the Office of Student Services and is distributed to alumni who come visit us on campus. Issues are reproduced here with permission of the ILR Cornell Sports Business Society.
Does Human Capital Play A Role In The Growing Income Inequality In The Oecd Countries?, 2017 Trinity College, Hartford Connecticut
Does Human Capital Play A Role In The Growing Income Inequality In The Oecd Countries?, Jordan A. Cram
Senior Theses and Projects
Researchers have tried to determine reasons for the growing income inequality in the OECD countries, but human capital is not a reason typically addressed. This paper empirically seeks to determine a relationship between human capital and income inequality using multiple regression analysis. I hypothesize a negative relationship; meaning increases in the independent variable, average human capital in a country, will cause a decrease in the dependent variable, income inequality due to the idea that increases in education should increase the incomes of the poor more than those of the rich. Income inequality will be measured by the Gini coefficient and ...
Facing Racial Discrimination In The Labor Environment, 2017 Bryant University
Facing Racial Discrimination In The Labor Environment, Ya Xu
Honors Projects in History and Social Sciences
Almost 50 years after the signing of the 1968 Civil Rights Act, and over 150 years after the official end of slavery in the US, the labor market is still far from equal. Minorities, especially those who racially identify as black and Latino, still face higher unemployment rates, lower median salaries (Wilson, 2015), and higher difficulty in obtaining interview opportunities (Bertrand and Mullainathan, 2004). The overarching question for my Capstone is as follows: How does perceived racial discrimination affect a person in the labor environment1? To investigate this question, I conducted a survey for Bryant University alumni which asked the ...
The Selection And Causal Effects Of Work Incentives On Labor Productivity: Evidence From A Two Stage Randomized Controlled Trial In Malawi, 2017 Singapore Management University
The Selection And Causal Effects Of Work Incentives On Labor Productivity: Evidence From A Two Stage Randomized Controlled Trial In Malawi, Kim, Seonghoon Kim, Thomas Kim
Research Collection School Of Economics
Incentives are essential to promote labor productivity. We implemented a two-stage field experiment to measure effects of career and wage incentives on productivity through self-selection and causal effect channels. First, workers were hired with either career or wage incentives. After employment, a random half of workers with career incentives received wage incentives and a random half of workers with wage incentives received career incentives. We find that career incentives attract higher-performing workers than wage incentives but do not increase productivity for existing workers. Instead, wage incentives increase productivity for existing workers. Observable characteristics are limited in explaining the selection effect.
Innovation And Employment, 2017 Singapore Management University
Innovation And Employment, Hian Teck Hoon, Edmund Phelps
Research Collection School of Economics
Is employment higher in an economy that has a higher rate of innovation? In Hoonand Phelps (1997), we study this question in the small open, and closed, economy underthe assumption that the rate of technological progress is exogenous to the economic system.In this paper, we reexamine this question in the context of a model with endogenousproduct innovation (and thus endogenous technological progress) and endogenous laborsupply first in a small open economy taking the world interest rate as given and then ina closed economy that determines the whole term structure of the interest rate. In ourpresent model, creating a given ...
Why Tenure? An Optimal Contract Perspective, 2017 Florida International University
Why Tenure? An Optimal Contract Perspective, Zhengzheng Qian
FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations
In academia, after a reasonable probationary period of service and upon the achievement of tenure, the recipients of tenure are entitled to a continuing appointment at an institution without mandatory retirement and with only limited grounds for revocation. Advocates of tenure argued that it protected academic freedom through economic security. Opponents of tenure argued that it fostered inefficient and unproductive behavior. This dissertation developed a framework for examining academic tenure in U.S. economics departments. I constructed a dataset of tenured U.S. economics professors who were Ph.D. recipients between 1990 and 2006 and tracked their publications. In the ...