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Assessing The Impact Of Informal Sector Employment On Young Less-Educated Workers, Javier Cano-Urbina, John Gibson 2024 University of Texas at El Paso

Assessing The Impact Of Informal Sector Employment On Young Less-Educated Workers, Javier Cano-Urbina, John Gibson

Hunt Institute Working Paper Series

In this paper, we develop a search and matching model that allows for two important channels through which participation in the informal sector may benefit young less- educated workers: (i) human capital accumulation, and (ii) employer screening. We calibrate our model using the ENOE, a Mexican household survey on income and labor dynamics. Using our calibrated model, we shed light on many unobservable characteristics of the Mexican labor market for young less-educated workers, most notably the di↵ering hiring standards for informal and formal jobs. Specifically, hiring standards for these workers are found to be substantially higher for formal versus informal …


Effects Of Child Care Vouchers On Price, Quantity, And Provider Turnover In Private Care Markets, Won Fy Lee, Aaron Sojourner, Elizabeth E. Davis, Jonathan Borowsky 2024 Stanford University

Effects Of Child Care Vouchers On Price, Quantity, And Provider Turnover In Private Care Markets, Won Fy Lee, Aaron Sojourner, Elizabeth E. Davis, Jonathan Borowsky

Upjohn Institute Working Papers

Harnessing changes in funding for a voucher program that subsidizes consumers’ use of child care services at private providers, this study quantifies effects on local markets’ service capacity and prices. We also estimate how increased funding effects provider entry rate, exit rate, and highly rated provider market share. The evidence shows that an additional $100 in private voucher funding per local young child would 1) raise the number of private-provider slots by 0.026per local young child, 2) raise average prices by $0.56 per week, mainly driven by a price increase among incumbent providers, and 3) induce new provider entry to …


Effects Of Subsidies On The Child Care Market: Large Increases In Capacity, Small Increases In Price, Won Fy Lee, Aaron Sojourner, Elizabeth E. Davis, Jonathan Borowsky 2024 Stanford University

Effects Of Subsidies On The Child Care Market: Large Increases In Capacity, Small Increases In Price, Won Fy Lee, Aaron Sojourner, Elizabeth E. Davis, Jonathan Borowsky

Upjohn Institute Policy and Research Briefs

No abstract provided.


Daca, Mobility Investments, And Economic Outcomes Of Immigrants And Natives, Jimena Villanueva Kiser, Riley Wilson 2024 Brigham Young University

Daca, Mobility Investments, And Economic Outcomes Of Immigrants And Natives, Jimena Villanueva Kiser, Riley Wilson

Upjohn Institute Policy and Research Briefs

No abstract provided.


Daca, Mobility Investments, And Economic Outcomes Of Immigrants And Natives, Jimena Villanueva Kiser, Riley Wilson 2024 Brigham Young University

Daca, Mobility Investments, And Economic Outcomes Of Immigrants And Natives, Jimena Villanueva Kiser, Riley Wilson

Upjohn Institute Working Papers

Exploiting variation created by Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA), we document the effects of immigrant legalization on immigrant mobility investments and economic outcomes. We provide new evidence that DACA increased both geographic and job mobility of young immigrants, often leading them to high-paying labor markets and licensed occupations. We then examine whether these gains to immigrants spill over and affect labor market outcomes of U.S.-born workers. Exploiting immigrant enclaves and source-country flows of DACA-eligible immigrants to isolate plausibly exogenous variation in the concentration of DACA recipients, we show that in labor markets where more of the working-age population can …


Labour Force Participation And Type Of Work Older Persons In Vietnam Before And During Covid-19, Trieu Thi Phuong, Pataporn Sukontamarn 2024 College of Population Studies, Chulalongkorn University

Labour Force Participation And Type Of Work Older Persons In Vietnam Before And During Covid-19, Trieu Thi Phuong, Pataporn Sukontamarn

Journal of Demography

Vietnam is ageing rapidly and is predicted to enter an aged society within the next fifteen years, posing a major challenge for a lower middle-income nation with an incomplete social security system. Supporting older persons to continue working can be a reasonable strategy to ensure their life quality and reduce the burden on the national social security system. Our study aims to investigate the determinants of older persons’ participation in the labour force and their type of work. Based on the 2018 and 2020 Vietnam Housing and Living Standard surveys, health problems, pension status, and level of education significantly explain …


Discourses That Undermine Union Movements: A Multimodal Analysis Of Union-Busting Videos, Theresa A. Catalano, Julia Schleck 2024 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Discourses That Undermine Union Movements: A Multimodal Analysis Of Union-Busting Videos, Theresa A. Catalano, Julia Schleck

Department of Teaching, Learning, and Teacher Education: Faculty Publications

Labor unions in the United States have experienced decades of decline, but recent years have seen a rebirth of union campaigns and successes. Because unions are once again becoming a threat to large companies, it is reasonable to assume that efforts to discourage organizing efforts will increase and become even more robust in the near future. Although traditionally, companies have worked to suspend union organizing through captive audience meetings in which unions were discussed via verbal or written modes, more recent means of reaching workers with anti-union messages incorporate a variety of communication strategies to get the message across. As …


Senior Mental Health Clinicians’ Understanding Of Their Self-Efficacy While Providing Services At Community-Based Agencies, Rukiya Symister 2024 Walden University

Senior Mental Health Clinicians’ Understanding Of Their Self-Efficacy While Providing Services At Community-Based Agencies, Rukiya Symister

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Many mental health clinicians strive to provide their clients with rehabilitative and psychotherapy services resulting in a client gaining stable income and housing. However, the role of a senior mental health clinician (SMHC) is not without its challenges of trying to balance their well-being while dealing with increased coworker turnover, demanding caseloads, and limited access to community resources to provide clients with getting their lives back on track, thereby impacting clinicians’ understanding of their self-efficacy. Much of the research on self-efficacy has focused on mental health clients, mental health graduate students, and mental health trainees, often leaving out the lived …


The Role Of Discrete Emotions In Job Satisfaction: A Meta-Analysis, Courtney E. Williams, Jane Shumski Thomas, Andrew A. Bennett, George C. Banks, Allison Toth, Alexandra M. Dunn, Andrew McBride, Janaki Gooti 2024 University of Toledo

The Role Of Discrete Emotions In Job Satisfaction: A Meta-Analysis, Courtney E. Williams, Jane Shumski Thomas, Andrew A. Bennett, George C. Banks, Allison Toth, Alexandra M. Dunn, Andrew Mcbride, Janaki Gooti

Management Faculty Publications

[Summary] The relationship between emotions and job satisfaction is widely acknowledged via affective events theory (AET). Despite its widespread use, AET was not designed to address why specific emotions might differentially relate to job satisfaction. We utilize appraisal theory of emotion to refine AET and provide this nuanced theorizing. We meta‐analytically test our ideas with 235 samples across 99 883 individuals and 22 600 intra‐individual episodes. We test two approaches—specific emotion experiences (16 discrete emotions) versus general emotion experiences (positive or negative emotions)—and present empirical evidence of their similarities and differences with job satisfaction. Our findings suggest that specific emotions …


Dampak Kesenjangan Jam Bekerja Terhadap Ketimpangan Upah Di Jabodetabek Selama Pandemi Covid-19 Tahun 2020, Sophia Lailil Jannah, Ariska Nurfajar Rini 2024 Program Studi Ekonomi Fakultas Ekonomika dan Bisnis Universitas Diponegoro

Dampak Kesenjangan Jam Bekerja Terhadap Ketimpangan Upah Di Jabodetabek Selama Pandemi Covid-19 Tahun 2020, Sophia Lailil Jannah, Ariska Nurfajar Rini

Jurnal Ekonomi dan Pembangunan Indonesia

This study aims to analyze the differences in working hours of male and female workers on the wage gap during the Covid-19 Pandemic in Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, and Bekasi (Jabodetabek) area in 2020 using the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) and the Blinder-Oaxaca Decomposition. Utilizing the National Labor Force Survey (SAKERNAS) 2020, the results showed that working hours positively and significantly affected wages with a coefficient of 4.72% for male workers and 7.05% for female workers. The Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition proved that working hours contribute to reducing the wage gap because there is wage convergence due to reduced working hours during …


香港影視業勞工狀況終期研究報告2024, 嶺南大學政策研究院, 嶺南大學文化研究及發展中心, 嶺南大學「青年貧窮與就業」研究團隊, 潘毅, 梁仕池, 楊皓鋮, 蔡美琦, 鄧立賢 2024 嶺南大學文化研究系

香港影視業勞工狀況終期研究報告2024, 嶺南大學政策研究院, 嶺南大學文化研究及發展中心, 嶺南大學「青年貧窮與就業」研究團隊, 潘毅, 梁仕池, 楊皓鋮, 蔡美琦, 鄧立賢

CCRD Research Report

推動影視業發展是港府近年的文創政策重心。影視業較為人注目的是黃金年代後票房積弱和創作自由的議題;而銀幕背後,從業員的處境則容易被忽略。本研究報告兼用定量和定質的調查,深入淺出地分析本地投身電影、電視、廣告、網片等影像製作的從業員的勞動條件,探討不合理待遇的成因,並按研究結果提出政策及行業倡議。

本研究以問卷調查了212為從業員的工作狀況,與44名從業員進行深度訪談,得出以下主要發現:

1)影視業以自由工作者為主,他們的僱傭型態零散,普遍沒有明文及完整合約便要開工,並容易面臨拖糧和其他形式的剝削(詳見第5部分):

  • 影視從業員以自由工作者為主,缺乏保障,面對多種危脆性(見p.26)
  • 多數從業員開工前不會簽署正規協議(見p.35)
  • 業內實際工作協議的完整度,比從業員理想的完整度有很大落差(見p.38)
  • 行業零散度高,導致拖糧問題普遍(見p.47)
  • 從業員容易面臨壓價和被資方轉移商業風險(見p.53)

2)影視業的生態和文化令從業員面對不公的操作和「行規」亦難以改變。這些因素包括:行業以人脈為重、行內層級文化較強、從業員願意為創作犧牲待遇、行內較缺乏團結及行動意識(詳見第6部分):

  • 從業員極度依賴人脈接觸工作機會。遇到不合理待遇時,顧慮到自己形象和開罪前輩的可能性,很多人都會忍氣吞聲,避免被行家覺得麻煩、小器,導致不獲重用。這無疑是製造了灰色地帶,讓掌握工作機會的人士和單位可以刻薄對待和剝削勞工,而毋須被問責(見p.58)
  • 行內論資排輩的文化仍然存在,底層從業員要對前輩服從,表現出「肯捱」、願意「跟師傅學嘢」、甚至「任砌」等特質,難以反駁不合理要求,勞動尊嚴受損(見p.62)
  • 從業員對藝術創作抱有熱誠,在商業製作中亦未必完全以金錢衡量自己的付出,因此容易陷入甘願「自我犧牲」的心態,導致被剝削(見p.64)
  • 從業員若遇到不公平待遇,普遍不傾向團結行家一起尋求改變。主流的做法是在個人網絡傳播、私下聯絡對方追討、或放棄追究。多名受訪者歡迎行內發展出爭取權益導向的工會,惟他們認為現時並未有足夠條件推動(見p.65)

3)影視製作市道不佳,令製作預算壓縮,令長工時、職安意識不足問題亦更難有資源應對(詳見第7部分):

  • 拍攝現場有不少職安隱患,頗多從業員曾經歷或目睹工傷發生。從業員工時長、經常在疲勞狀態下工作;拍攝節奏趕急;現場未必有專業人員把關安全,僅靠經驗判斷安危等,都是造成職安隱患的原因(見p.77)
  • 從業員連續多日超時工作的情況非常嚴重。受訪從業員認為行內有必要對作息時間有合理的規範,不應犧牲從業員健康(見p.74)
  • 從業員認同需要專人負責監察片場安全,但對於如何實行並無共識(見p.81)
  • 從業員普遍認為政府對行業的支援資源不足、不到位,應邁向更開放、不以商業效益為主要考量的方向改善(見p.84)

基於研究結果,我們對香港影視行業及政府提出以下倡議(詳見第8部分):

保障自由工作者基本待遇(見p.87)

  • 業界引入標準合約,推廣開工前先簽訂完整協議的文化
  • 政府透過資助影像製作項目,推廣勞工友善措施
  • 業界規範工時,減低超時、高強度工作的情況

改善工作條件及職業安全(見p.89)

  • 業界和政府合作,設定適用於影視製作的職安課程、認證系統、作業指引
  • 政府改善職安執法
  • 從業員自我組織,維護及推動權益

支援業界發展(見p.92)

  • 政府改善資助制度,支援各規模、多元創作
  • 增加畢業生支援,輔助院校新晉人才與業界接軌


Displaced Worker Angst And Far Right Populism, Thomas E. Lambert 2024 University of Louisville

Displaced Worker Angst And Far Right Populism, Thomas E. Lambert

Faculty Scholarship

Background

Nothing causes more anguish and frustration than downward social mobility such as that experienced by less-educated workers and especially by displaced workers. Those who lose economic status lose more than income because they become so socially isolated that they are further frustrated through loneliness (Case and Deaton 2020). Hanna Arendt points out that lonely men are susceptible to authoritarian influence (1973, p. 475).

There is yet another aspect to the downward social mobility of low skilled men, namely that they are losing ground not only relative to social norms but also relative to the wages of low-skilled women. In …


The Effect Of Remittances On Housing Expenditure In Filipino Households, Joaquin Franco Rigonan, Angelo Salvo, Lawrence B. Dacuycuy, Tereso S. Tullao Jr, Winfred Villamil, Krista Yu 2024 De La Salle University

The Effect Of Remittances On Housing Expenditure In Filipino Households, Joaquin Franco Rigonan, Angelo Salvo, Lawrence B. Dacuycuy, Tereso S. Tullao Jr, Winfred Villamil, Krista Yu

Angelo King Institute for Economic and Business Studies (AKI)

Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs) have chosen to work abroad due to the abundance of better work opportunities and a higher salary earned. Migrant workers send remittances to their families from their country of origin to bring extra income for these households to spend on essential consumption. These remittances serve as additional income and protection for recipient households, easing their consumption and enabling them to spend their money on education, housing construction, and household electrical appliances. Numerous existing literature has stated that household-receiving remittances spend more money on investments that will help improve their standard of living; one of these investments …


Emerging Giants And Lessons For Development: China, India, And Their Different Paths To Progress, Eskander Alvi Editor, Wei-Chiao Huang Editor 2024 Western Michigan University

Emerging Giants And Lessons For Development: China, India, And Their Different Paths To Progress, Eskander Alvi Editor, Wei-Chiao Huang Editor

Upjohn Press

This book explores the differences and commonalities in growth experiences of two looming economic giants, China and India—countries that follow often-contrasting economic, social, and political paths as they struggle to achieve long-term prosperity for their billion-plus populations. The papers included within show that the economic and political realities in the two countries are quite different, and that these realities are deeply embedded in each country’s social framework. China and India are at markedly different stages of economic development but the challenges facing the two countries, unsurprisingly, diverge—not only because of the different stage of development each has reached, but also …


Reducing Food Scarcity: The Benefits Of Urban Farming, S.A. Claudell, Emilio Mejia 2023 Brigham Young University

Reducing Food Scarcity: The Benefits Of Urban Farming, S.A. Claudell, Emilio Mejia

Journal of Nonprofit Innovation

Urban farming can enhance the lives of communities and help reduce food scarcity. This paper presents a conceptual prototype of an efficient urban farming community that can be scaled for a single apartment building or an entire community across all global geoeconomics regions, including densely populated cities and rural, developing towns and communities. When deployed in coordination with smart crop choices, local farm support, and efficient transportation then the result isn’t just sustainability, but also increasing fresh produce accessibility, optimizing nutritional value, eliminating the use of ‘forever chemicals’, reducing transportation costs, and fostering global environmental benefits.

Imagine Doris, who is …


Employment, Income, And Poverty In Kalamazoo City Core Neighborhoods, Val Klomparens 2023 W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research

Employment, Income, And Poverty In Kalamazoo City Core Neighborhoods, Val Klomparens

Reports

This report employs a traditional methodology using American Community Survey data to examine employment, income, and poverty in three neighborhoods in Kalamazoo, Michigan: Eastside, Northside, and Edison. These neighborhoods are studied with an emphasis on eligibility status for the Distressed Area Recompete Pilot Program, administered through the U.S. Economic Development Administration. Eastside residents are unique in that a larger share earn income through wages or employment than do Michigan residents, yet their median income falls below those at the county and state levels in a statistically significant way. The Edison neighborhood is characterized by greater income inequality than the other …


An Analysis Of The Factors That Affect Self-Employment, Stefani Broome 2023 The University of Southern Mississippi

An Analysis Of The Factors That Affect Self-Employment, Stefani Broome

Dissertations

This dissertation research identifies the factors that affect self-employment in a three-essay format. Essay one builds a foundation on analyzing the determinants that affect self-employment in the United States through a country-level time-series analysis. Essay two includes a time-series panel analysis and comparative analysis between the United States and United Kingdom by expanding on Meager’s (1992) study of the relationship between unemployment and self-employment. This analysis focuses on the United Kingdom, an outlier in Meager’s (1992) study, which included a structural change to the motivation to enter self-employment after an economic shock in the late 1970s. Essay three utilizes a …


The Experience Of Faculty Strikers: Factors That Could Impact Higher Education Strikes, Giovanna Follo, Diane Huelskamp 2023 Wright State University - Lake Campus

The Experience Of Faculty Strikers: Factors That Could Impact Higher Education Strikes, Giovanna Follo, Diane Huelskamp

The Qualitative Report

Higher education is being challenged as is the unionization of faculty. This combination could create a climate where faculty may need to strike. The purpose of this research is to describe the lived experiences of striking faculty to bring a greater understanding of what faculty may incur. This research utilized a phenomenological approach with a combination of composite narratives and in vivo coding to describe the lived experiences of striking. With the number of layoffs, strikes and threats of striking, this research is timely in understanding what striking entails and how it can best be navigated for the benefit of …


The Determinants Of The Underemployment Gender Gap In The Philippines: A Decomposition Analysis, John Ichiro Arbole, Luisa Martina Gaston de la Paz, Therese Genota, Katrina Hernandez, Lawrence B. Dacuycuy, Maria Zunally Rapada, Krista Danielle Yu 2023 De La Salle University, Manila

The Determinants Of The Underemployment Gender Gap In The Philippines: A Decomposition Analysis, John Ichiro Arbole, Luisa Martina Gaston De La Paz, Therese Genota, Katrina Hernandez, Lawrence B. Dacuycuy, Maria Zunally Rapada, Krista Danielle Yu

Angelo King Institute for Economic and Business Studies (AKI)

Underemployment is a prevalent labor market issue around the globe. It reflects how an individual can be employed but is unable to work to their desired number of hours, receive sufficient wages, or fully utilize their skills, leaving them in precarious working conditions. Studies on underemployment and its gendered impact in the Philippines remains limited with most labor studies primarily addressing wage and unemployment. This study addresses this gap by identifying the factors contributing to underemployment and gender-based inequalities in the Philippines. Using quarterly data from the Labor Force Survey from 2012 to 2021, we distinguished between visible and invisible …


The Differential Impact Of 4ps On Child Labor Before And During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Hannah Grace Villaret, Joey Anastacio, Yohana B. Burgos, Lyka May Pauline Fernandez, Paulynne J. Castillo, Roberto Raymundo, Joel Q. Tanchuco 2023 De La Salle University, Manila

The Differential Impact Of 4ps On Child Labor Before And During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Hannah Grace Villaret, Joey Anastacio, Yohana B. Burgos, Lyka May Pauline Fernandez, Paulynne J. Castillo, Roberto Raymundo, Joel Q. Tanchuco

Angelo King Institute for Economic and Business Studies (AKI)

Poverty is widely considered the root cause of child labor in the Philippines. Thus, the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) was designed to alleviate poverty and reduce child labor through financial assistance, conditional on welfare investments like children’s education. Using 2017, 2019, and 2020 data from the Annual Poverty Indicators Survey (APIS), the study estimated the differential impact of 4Ps on child labor before and during COVID-19 across varying demographic, socio-economic, and locational characteristics. Results from the propensity score matching (PSM) and difference-in-differences (DID) model indicated that since cash transfers cannot fully offset the opportunity cost of children’s education, children …


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