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The Voluntary Carbon Market: Managing The Private Provision Of Public Goods, Atticus Maloney 2022 Swarthmore College

The Voluntary Carbon Market: Managing The Private Provision Of Public Goods, Atticus Maloney

Gettysburg College Headquarters

While much work has examined the large-scale compliance-based carbon offset programs associated with the Kyoto Protocol and Clean Development Mechanism, there has been far less focus on the voluntary purchasing of carbon offsets. This critical literature review will look at the formation and management of the demand for voluntary carbon offsets within the United States. It will frame carbon offsets as impure public goods and review possible explanations as to why private provision has been so active in the U.S. market. The paper will then survey the efficiency gains and other benefits associated with the voluntary market. It will ...


On The Impact Of Social Spending On Long-Term Economic Performance In The Usa, Jiayong Lu 2022 William & Mary

On The Impact Of Social Spending On Long-Term Economic Performance In The Usa, Jiayong Lu

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This paper analyzes the dynamics of social spending and long-term economic performance in the United States from 1949-2019 using vector autoregression models. It breaks down social spending into six disaggregate programs to identify if different social programs have similar effects on the economy. Overall, the study finds that social spending increases private savings and the unemployment rate. Due to its dominant distortionary effects on the labor market, social spending decreases GDP. These effects are mostly short-term effects. The economic effects of the different social spending programs on the economy are similar in direction but different in magnitude. The effects of ...


The Effect Of Quantitative Easing On U.S. Stock Prices And Wealth Inequality, Griffin W. Phillips 2022 University of Lynchburg

The Effect Of Quantitative Easing On U.S. Stock Prices And Wealth Inequality, Griffin W. Phillips

Student Scholar Showcase

My thesis will investigate and try to find a casual relationship between Quantitative Easing, or “QE”, and the U.S. stock market since 2003. The secondary effects will then be investigated to see if stock prices impact wealth inequality. To find the causal relationship between the two a regression model will be used. It predicts the magnitude of effects for QE and other variables that may impact stock prices. Since 2007-2009, the Federal Reserve has used QE as a means to spur economic growth. This expansionary monetary policy has impacted many financial markets including the U.S. stock market. Finding ...


Housing Wealth Shocks, Home Equity Withdrawal, And The Claiming Of Social Security Retirement Benefits, Naqun HUANG, Li JING, Amanda ROSS 2022 Nanjing Audit University

Housing Wealth Shocks, Home Equity Withdrawal, And The Claiming Of Social Security Retirement Benefits, Naqun Huang, Li Jing, Amanda Ross

Research Collection School Of Economics

This paper examines the impact of changes in house prices on when eligible individuals start receiving Social Security benefits. If house prices increase, financially constrained households may draw upon the additional home equity to finance expenses and delay receipt of Social Security in order to have increased lifetime monthly benefits. To address concerns that house price changes are correlated with unobserved local demand shocks, we use a control function approach and employ two different instrumental variables. We find that individuals delay Social Security claiming when house prices increase during the housing boom. The probability of claiming within two years after ...


Feeling The Heat? Fear Of Failure And Performance, Alberto Chong, Marco Chong 2022 Georgia State University

Feeling The Heat? Fear Of Failure And Performance, Alberto Chong, Marco Chong

CSLF Working Papers

Using a new, objective measure, we study the role of fear of failure in performance and find that it is positively linked with the latter, a finding that tends to contradict the conventional wisdom in both psychology and behavioral economics. We use individual data from the nationally syndicated television show MasterChef for the years 2010 to 2020 and exploit situations in which contestants are on the verge of being dropped from competition. Using ordinary least squares, we show that extreme fear of failure is associated with an increase of two to four positions in the final placement of the competition.


Slices Of The Big Apple: A Visual Explanation And Analysis Of The New York City Budget, Joanne Ramadani 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Slices Of The Big Apple: A Visual Explanation And Analysis Of The New York City Budget, Joanne Ramadani

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

As a component of government, budgets are fundamental not only to improving the quality of a shared society, but also to understanding what our government officials consider to be their priorities. However, most budgets can be difficult to understand, using terms that are not familiar to people who have not studied finance or economics. To that end, Slices of the Big Apple is an interactive, centralized narrative website that uses visualizations at its core in order to: 1) facilitate a holistic understanding of the New York City government budget for NYC residents; and 2) conduct a five-year analysis of Community ...


Municipal Fiber In The United States: A Financial Assessment, Christopher S. Yoo, Jesse Lambert, Timothy P. Pfenninger 2022 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

Municipal Fiber In The United States: A Financial Assessment, Christopher S. Yoo, Jesse Lambert, Timothy P. Pfenninger

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Despite growing interest in broadband provided by municipally owned and operated fiber-to-the-home networks, the academic literature has yet to undertake a systematic assessment of these projects’ financial performance. To fill this gap, we utilize municipalities’ official reports to offer an empirical evaluation of the financial performance of every municipal fiber project in the U.S. operating in 2010 through 2019. An analysis of the actual performance of the resulting fifteen-project panel dataset reveals that none of the projects generated sufficient nominal cash flow in the short run to maintain solvency without infusions of additional cash from outside sources or debt ...


Prospects For Valuation In Marine Decision Making In Europe, Rob Tinch, Stephen Hynes, Claire Armstrong, Wenting Chen 2022 eftec

Prospects For Valuation In Marine Decision Making In Europe, Rob Tinch, Stephen Hynes, Claire Armstrong, Wenting Chen

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

There is now high-level recognition that the UN Sustainable Development Goals can only be achieved if the decline of ecosystems and biodiversity can be halted and reversed. This will require effective control of ongoing pressures, meaningful protection and enforcement of protected areas, and significant investments in ecosystem restoration. This paper explores the possible use of economic valuation and appraisal in achieving these goals in marine systems and discusses the European marine policy instruments where they should have an important role The paper first briefly reviews the tools of economic valuation and appraisal for marine ecosystem management. A critique of the ...


From Monterey To Galway: Evolution Of The Oceans In National Income Accounts, Stephen Hynes, Charles S. Colgan 2022 National University of Ireland-Galway

From Monterey To Galway: Evolution Of The Oceans In National Income Accounts, Stephen Hynes, Charles S. Colgan

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

This paper provides an introduction and overview of selected papers from the 5th International Symposium on the Oceans in National Income Accounts organized by the Socio-Economics Marine Research Unit at the National University of Ireland Galway in March 2021. Eleven papers drawn from the symposium are included in this volume. The papers cover the current status of defining the ocean economy within national accounts, the expansion of ocean accounting to include environmental economic values, and methodological tools to assist the integration.


An Empirical Investigation Of Real Farm Incomes Across Indian States Between 1987-88 And 2011-12, Deepankar Basu, Kartik Misra 2022 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

An Empirical Investigation Of Real Farm Incomes Across Indian States Between 1987-88 And 2011-12, Deepankar Basu, Kartik Misra

Economics Department Working Paper Series

Using unit-level data from various rounds of the Employment and Unemployment Survey of the National Sample Survey Organisation, we present the first consistent time series of average real farm income per cultivator for 18 major Indian states for 1987-88, 1993-94, 1999-00, 2004-05, 2007-08, 2009-10, and 2011-12. Using this data, we study two sets of issues. First, how did real farm income evolve across these 18 Indian states? Which states have high levels and growth rates of real farm incomes? Is there any evidence for convergence of real farm incomes across Indian states? We find evidence for unconditional convergence, which suggests ...


Local Revenue Development In Egypt / الإيرادات المحلية في مصر, Adel El Hemaily, Heba Yousry, Mohamed Hesham, Nada Bedir, Riham Soliman 2022 American University in Cairo

Local Revenue Development In Egypt / الإيرادات المحلية في مصر, Adel El Hemaily, Heba Yousry, Mohamed Hesham, Nada Bedir, Riham Soliman

Papers, Posters, and Presentations

Local administration in Egypt faces several challenges that hinder fulfilling its responsibilities towards citizens sufficiently. The main challenges are the lack of financial resources due to over-regulation as well as the non-enforcement of laws and regulations that allow the local administration to collect its own tax share, the local administration staff’s lack of skills to manage and develop revenue sources, and lack of accountability mechanisms. This policy paper seeks to propose policies to aid the local administration in increasing its financial resources.

In this paper, the authors depended on desk research as well as interviews held with officials from ...


The Influence Of Political Party Affiliation And Park Accessibility On Covid-19 Case Incidence, Sascha Wolf-Sorokin 2022 Claremont Colleges

The Influence Of Political Party Affiliation And Park Accessibility On Covid-19 Case Incidence, Sascha Wolf-Sorokin

CMC Senior Theses

This paper examines the joint effect of political party affiliation and the urban landscape, as measured by access to parks, on case rates during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. The 2016 and 2020 U.S. Presidential Election returns are used as a proxy for a county’s political party affiliation prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. A county population’s spatial relationship to its parks encapsulates the green open space within an urban environment. The data set controls for features of the built environment, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics (race, gender, income, education), COVID-19 government regulations, and presidential ...


Complexity, Diversity And Integration: Evidence From Recent Us Immigration, Noé Wiener 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Complexity, Diversity And Integration: Evidence From Recent Us Immigration, Noé Wiener

Economics Department Working Paper Series

This article proposes alternative measures of immigrant integration founded in information theory. By considering differences in the heterogeneity of outcomes between immigrants and natives, the proposed measures provide robust and non-parametric estimates of the extent to which cohorts remain defined by their national origin. Integration is furthermore premised on equality in the association between economic characteristics and incomes, so that other factors can begin to shape outcomes for im-migrants and natives alike. Results for successive immigrant cohorts in the post-war era are presented using Census income data for the United States. The speed by which the mark of migration on ...


The Economic Obstacles To Electric Vehicle Adoption In Montana, Lily B. Duray 2022 University of Montana

The Economic Obstacles To Electric Vehicle Adoption In Montana, Lily B. Duray

Undergraduate Theses, Professional Papers, and Capstone Artifacts

Beginning in 2008, electric vehicles, otherwise referred to as EVs have increased in popularity. However, most rural areas like Montana still have not adopted these types of vehicles because of three major obstacles. By addressing EV driving range, availability of public EV charging stations, and the charging times of EVs, EVs can become a credible substitute for traditional vehicles in Montana.


The State-Constituted Market Economy: A Conceptual Framework For China’S State–Market Relations, Isabella Weber, Hao Qi 2022 Economics Department, University of Massachusetts Amherst

The State-Constituted Market Economy: A Conceptual Framework For China’S State–Market Relations, Isabella Weber, Hao Qi

Economics Department Working Paper Series

Scholars increasingly conclude that China has created a distinct economic system. Yet despite a growing literature with valuable contributions on the institutional arrangements under ‘capitalism with Chinese characteristics’, the economic mechanisms underpinning China’s state–market relations remain undertheorised. In this paper we develop a conceptual framework of what we call China’s state-constituted market economy. We argue that the Chinese state ‘constitutes’ the market economy by not only creating new markets through industrial and innovation policies, but by continuously participating and steering markets for essentials in order to stabilise and guide the economy as a whole. Essential is thereby ...


Covid-19 School Re-Openings: The Effect On Women’S Labor Force Participation, Isabella DiFeo 2022 The University of Akron

Covid-19 School Re-Openings: The Effect On Women’S Labor Force Participation, Isabella Difeo

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

As schools and daycares closed in March of 2020, mothers left the labor market in droves, either completely giving up their jobs or significantly cutting back on hours in order to care for children and/or help facilitate online learning. Furthermore, fields historically dominated by women were particularly hard hit, such as education, hospitality, and retail causing many women who may not be mothers to leave the work force as well. This paper considers how women’s labor force participation has changed throughout the COVID-19 pandemic and how the re-opening of schools, in particular, has impacted women’s return to ...


The Case Of Singapore, Hwee Kwan CHOW, Kong Weng HO 2022 Singapore Management University

The Case Of Singapore, Hwee Kwan Chow, Kong Weng Ho

Research Collection School of Economics

The economic impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on Singapore was more severe and protracted than the global financial crisis. Singapore responded with easing of the monetary policy stance, reinforcing financial stability, helping individuals to reduce debt obligations, easing business cashflow constraints, adjusting financial regulatory and supervisory protocols to cope with immediate challenges, and enabling the financial sectors to build long-term capabilities. Fiscal responses were unprecedented with four consecutive budgets and two ministerial statements, initially focusing on immediate assistance in respect of jobs, businesses, households, and later refined to providing more sector-specific assistance as the pandemic evolved with more detailed information ...


Essays In The Consequences Of Occupational Regulation, Noah J. Trudeau 2022 West Virginia University

Essays In The Consequences Of Occupational Regulation, Noah J. Trudeau

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Occupational regulation affects many people across many aspects of life. This dissertation research investigates the consequences of occupational regulation across three different areas of study: economic history, urban and regional economics, and health policy.

The first chapter investigates the historic licensing of emigrant agents. In the period following the US Civil War, firms wished to capitalize on the availability of African American labor. To do so they hired emigrant agents, also known as labor agents, to hire and help with the migration of individuals from the South. Faced with out-migration at the hands of the labor force, some southern states ...


The Leveling Spirit: Violence And Inequality In Postwar Iraq, Griffin Perrault 2022 Bucknell University

The Leveling Spirit: Violence And Inequality In Postwar Iraq, Griffin Perrault

Honors Theses

The Iraq War (2003–2011) constitutes by some estimates one of the deadliest and most destructive conflicts of the 21st century (Hagopian et al., 2013). In addition to the disputed figures of excess violent civilian casualties––generally ranging from 180,000 to 210,000 deaths––the war has created one of the major refugee crises of modern times, with 1 in 25 Iraqis estimated to have been displaced from their homes by the 2003 invasion (Costs of War, 2021). While much of this violence has been wrought by American and Iraqi coalition troops, violence against civilians has also been perpetuated ...


A Survey Of Faculty Perceptions Of Community College Career And Technical Education, Thomas Gauthier Dr. 2021 Palm Beach Community College

A Survey Of Faculty Perceptions Of Community College Career And Technical Education, Thomas Gauthier Dr.

Journal of Research in Technical Careers

Community colleges are the leaders in facilitating career and technical education (CTE), and faculty help develop program offerings on campus. This study explored faculty perceptions of community college CTE programs using the survey research method. Participants included 36 faculty members from various disciplines from 15 state colleges in Florida. Participants were sent a digital survey and asked to use a scale from 0 (do not agree) to 8 (agree) to score their agreement level with 43 statements of opinion. Data revealed that community college faculty perceive CTE as beneficial, but CTE programs must include the habits of mind and support ...


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