Essays In Retirement Economics, 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
Essays In Retirement Economics, Gunnar Poppe Yanez
All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
This dissertation consists of three chapters.
The discrepancy between the high demand for annuities predicted by economic theory and the empirical low holdings of these assets, known as the annuity puzzle, is still not completely understood in economic studies of retirement finance. This paper assesses the effect of individuals' mortality risk learning process on annuitization. I isolate this effect by building a life-cycle model in which individuals have imperfect information of their true survival probability distribution, and therefore have to update their beliefs about it in a Bayesian manner. Using data on subjective mortality by the Health and ...
Disamenity Or A Signal Of Competence? The Empirical Political Economy Of Local Road Maintenance, 2020 West Virginia University
Disamenity Or A Signal Of Competence? The Empirical Political Economy Of Local Road Maintenance, Benjamin Blemings, Margaret Bock
Economics Faculty Working Papers Series
Empirical results find different conclusions than theoretical evidence of how electorates perceive road work. This paper uses a geographically smaller unit of analysis than prior work, political alignment, local election cycles, and difference-in-differences. It finds political distortions in invasive road maintenance timing and rules out maintenance seasonality. Spatial discontinuity plots leveraging ward boundary cutoffs confirm the shift. Results identify new public distortions to road maintenance, local election cycles, which are widespread and frequent. The estimates are used to calculate financial costs of local elections on road maintenance. Local elections have cost medium-large U.S. cities over $185.5 million from ...
Effect Of Unemployment Length On Employment Expectations, 2020 Drexel University
Effect Of Unemployment Length On Employment Expectations, Kamyar Kamyar
Undergraduate Economic Review
Unemployment often has devastating effects on individuals -- both in financial and psychological terms. Depending on the type and category of unemployment, its length varies; and as its length increases it may implement biased thought in individuals’ predictions regarding future employment. This paper’s primary purpose is to measure and discuss how the time length that one has been unemployed for affects his or her expectations on his or her own short-term possibility of employment. The results suggest a strong opposite link between one’s prediction of future employment and the same person’s prior unemployment period. This paper was originally ...
Who Benefits From Park And Recreation Improvements In San Francisco? A Case Study Of Recreation Center Renovations In San Francisco, 2020 The University of San Francisco
Who Benefits From Park And Recreation Improvements In San Francisco? A Case Study Of Recreation Center Renovations In San Francisco, Safia Belayadi
The purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of city policies undertaking public goods investments to benefit disadvantaged communities in San Francisco. Namely, is the process of improving the quality of public goods serving targeted populations, or does it lead to unintended consequences such as gentrification? I take advantage of the timing of city recreation center renovations and the synthetic control method to capture any difference in the proportion of users that is poor before and after the renovation date. I use San Francisco Recreation and Park Department registrant data containing user zip codes and census demographic data ...
The Effect Of Revenue-Source Mix On Student Performance In Mississippi K-12 Public Schools, 2020 University of Mississippi
The Effect Of Revenue-Source Mix On Student Performance In Mississippi K-12 Public Schools, Sally Boswell
Local, state, and federal funding for public schools have different stipulations on how they are used. Local revenue is more flexible, state revenue is controlled by the Mississippi Adequate Education Program (MAEP) guidelines, and federal revenue is targeted to specific areas. MAEP largely impacts all public school funding through not only state revenue stipulations, but also through its funding formula that sets a minimum contribution per district for state funding. This thesis investigates how a district’s revenue mix of these three different types of funding impacts student performance (ACT scores and graduation rates) in K-12 public school districts across ...
Addressing Urban Income Inequality Through Education: A Case Study In Atlanta, 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Addressing Urban Income Inequality Through Education: A Case Study In Atlanta, Garrett Bronn
Finance Undergraduate Honors Theses
For decades, the income inequality gap between the rich and poor has continued to expand dramatically, with criticism of existing education systems often at the heart of the issue. Large urban cities are commonly at the forefront of the issue, given the plethora of teacher strikes in recent years. Events such as the 11-day Chicago teacher’s strike in October of 2019 that idled academics and college prep for 350,000 students, have highlighted many current education issues (Hauck, 2019). With underfunded and poorly equipped middle and high schools, students in poor and minority neighborhoods in cities are less prepared ...
Presidential Influence And Competitive Grant Funding: Reexamining Presidential Pork, 2020 Boise State University
Presidential Influence And Competitive Grant Funding: Reexamining Presidential Pork, Benjamin Albert
Boise State University Theses and Dissertations
How does partisan alignment with the president affect the distribution of federal competitive grant funding? This analysis contributes to the literature on distributive politics by reexamining the relationship between alignment with the president and competitive grant funding over the time period of 2001 to 2017. Furthermore, the analysis will test if the relationship between alignment and competitive grant funding changed after the enactment of the 2011 earmark moratorium. Fractional probit regression is used to model the relationship between a representative’s partisan alignment with the president and the portion of annual competitive grant funding that their district receives. The results ...
Restructuring And Forgiveness In Financial Crises C: The Swedish Banking Crisis Of 1990-94, Christian M. Mcnamara, Dr. Lars Thunell, Andrew Metrick
Journal of Financial Crises
In the Spring of 1992, the Swedish government faced a dilemma. The country was in the midst of an economic downturn stemming from the collapse of asset prices (especially in real estate) that had spiked as a result of a credit boom that followed the deregulation of the Swedish banking system in the mid-1980s. Initially the impact of the downturn on the country’s banks had seemed to be limited to a small number of specific firms that the government moved to assist on an ad hoc basis in 1991. However, evidence was mounting that the banking crisis was reaching ...
Australian National Audit Office: Evaluating Australian Army Program Performance, 2020 Purdue University
Australian National Audit Office: Evaluating Australian Army Program Performance, Bert Chapman
Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research
The Australian National Audit Office (ANAO) evaluates the management and financial performance of Australian government programs for the Australian Parliament, Australian government agencies, Australian taxpayers, and individuals interested in the performance of these programs globally. This article examines how ANAO has examined the performance of Australian Army programs and strengths and weaknesses found in these programs while recommending changes to improve program performance. It also examines how government agencies and corporations which have been the subject of ANAO analyses have reacted to ANAO findings. This assessment also examines how Plan B (the possibility that Australia might have to rely less ...
The End Of Zero Returns And The Last Dollar: Can New York State Create A Collective Store Of Value, Crowdsource Wealth, And Fund Its Colleges And Universities Using Cryptocurrency?, 2020 CUNY Bronx Community College
The End Of Zero Returns And The Last Dollar: Can New York State Create A Collective Store Of Value, Crowdsource Wealth, And Fund Its Colleges And Universities Using Cryptocurrency?, Edward Lehner
Publications and Research
This brief personal statement, citing the previous work of the Bronx Community College Cryptocurrency Research Laboratory (BCC Lab), advocates for a private New York State Money to fund New York State’s public higher education. Attempting to shed most of the academic language and the formalities of research-driven writing, this short statement frames two distinct arguments. The first contention is that New York State residents need a means by which to store value outside of the traditional banking and financial systems due to massive Federal Reserve printing that is centered primarily on rescuing fledgling Wall Street profits and mitigating reckless ...
Racialized Tax Inequity: Wealth, Racism, And The U.S. System Of Taxation, 2020 Creighton University
Racialized Tax Inequity: Wealth, Racism, And The U.S. System Of Taxation, Palma Joy Strand, Nicholas A. Mirkay
Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy
This Article describes the connection between wealth inequality and the increasing structural racism in the U.S. tax system since the 1980s. A long-term sociological view (the why) reveals the historical racialization of wealth and a shift in the tax system overall beginning around 1980 to protect and exacerbate wealth inequality, which has been fueled by racial animus and anxiety. A critical tax view (the how) highlights a shift over the same time period at both federal and state levels from taxes on wealth, to taxes on income, and then to taxes on consumption—from greater to less progressivity. Both ...
The Demography Of Paid Family Leave As Applied To Connecticut, 2020 Trinity College
The Demography Of Paid Family Leave As Applied To Connecticut, Mary Tursi
Senior Theses and Projects
Paid family leave policies have become an international standard, influencing how Americans view parental rights. This international influence has garnered domestic support, resulting in a few US states passing their own policies. Given that every state is unique, it is important to understand how demographic and policy differences influence leave usage in the presence of a paid leave policy. Using data from the Current Population Survey, these effects will be analyzed using difference-in-difference estimations on California, which has an existing paid leave policy, and then applying them to Connecticut, whose paid leave policy has yet to be implemented. The model ...
The Sustainability Of Child Protection Services In The Republic Of Kosovo, 2020 SIT Graduate Institute/SIT Study Abroad
The Sustainability Of Child Protection Services In The Republic Of Kosovo, Shpetim Bylykbashi
Today, in Kosovo, are services provided for the children most in need sustainable? Do these services have stable and long-term funding? Did the decentralization of the Kosovo government strengthen or weaken the existing child protective environment? In an attempt to answer these questions, a review of available literature was completed, as well as direct interviews conducted with relevant stakeholders engaged in Kosovo’s child protection services at both the governmental and civil society levels. The main finding of my research is that vulnerable children in Kosovo, such as children without parental care, children with special needs, and child victims of ...
Do Public Program Benefits Crowd Out Private Transfers In Developing Countries? A Critical Review Of Recent Evidence, 2020 Harvard Institute for Quantitative Social Science
Do Public Program Benefits Crowd Out Private Transfers In Developing Countries? A Critical Review Of Recent Evidence, Plamen Nikolov, Matthew Bonci
Economics Faculty Scholarship
Precipitated by rapid globalization, rising inequality, population growth, and longevity gains, social protection programs have been on the rise in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in the last three decades. However, the introduction of public benefits could displace informal mechanisms for risk-protection, which are especially prevalent in LMICs. If the displacement of private transfers is considerably large, the expansion of social protection programs could even lead to social welfare loss. In this paper, we critically survey the recent empirical literature on crowd-out effects in response to public policies, specifically in the context of LMICs. We review and synthesize patterns from ...
An Inquiry Into Double Dividend Effects Of Carbon Taxes, 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln
An Inquiry Into Double Dividend Effects Of Carbon Taxes, Gregory Tracey
Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
For my undergraduate thesis, I conducted research on the topic of carbon taxes. Specifically, I was interested in the possible existence of a double dividend effect as a method for making this public policy option more palatable to a broader audience. To that end, I first conducted a literature review on the subject, then did an empirical analysis. I chose Nebraska as the subject of my analysis because it is my home state and I experienced heated debates over tax policy firsthand as a Page for the State Legislature. To see whether a double dividend would exist in Nebraska, I ...
Steiner V. Utah: Designing A Constitutional Remedy, 2020 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School
Steiner V. Utah: Designing A Constitutional Remedy, Michael S. Knoll, Ruth Mason
Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law
In an earlier article, we argued that the Utah Supreme Court failed to follow and correctly apply clear U.S. Supreme Court precedent in Steiner v. Utah when the Utah high court held that an internally inconsistent and discriminatory state tax regime did not violate the dormant commerce clause. Unfortunately, the Supreme Court recently declined certiorari in Steiner, but the issue is unlikely to go away. Not every state high court will defy the U.S. Supreme Court by refusing to apply the dormant commerce clause, and so the Court will sooner or later likely find itself facing conflicting interpretations ...
Integration Of And Deliveries Among The World Zionist Organization, Israel, And Diaspora Countries: System Articulation With The Social Fabric Matrix, 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Integration Of And Deliveries Among The World Zionist Organization, Israel, And Diaspora Countries: System Articulation With The Social Fabric Matrix, F. Gregory Hayden
Economics Department Faculty Publications
The religious economics (not economics of religion) concern here is the relationship between the World Zionist Organization (WZO) and Israel, which is known as a geopolitical power in its region and which is also known as an economic success story. Joseph Schumpeter and Karl Polanyi explained how the political economy of medieval Europe was influenced and guided by Christian morality. This paper extends the analysis of religious economics by using the social fabric matrix of original institutional economics to define and structure the integration of the WZO, Israel, and the Diaspora countries. This allows us to observe how to conduct ...
The Expansive Reach Of Pretrial Detention, 2020 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School
The Expansive Reach Of Pretrial Detention, Paul Heaton
Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law
Today we know much more about the effects of pretrial detention than we did even five years ago. Multiple empirical studies have emerged that shed new light on the far-reaching impacts of bail decisions made at the earliest stages of the criminal adjudication process. The takeaway from this new generation of studies is that pretrial detention has substantial downstream effects on both the operation of the criminal justice system and on defendants themselves, causally increasing the likelihood of a conviction, the severity of the sentence, and, in some jurisdictions, defendants’ likelihood of future contact with the criminal justice system. Detention ...
Basel Iii D: Swiss Finish To Basel Iii, 2020 Yale University
Basel Iii D: Swiss Finish To Basel Iii, Christian M. Mcnamara, Natalia Tente, Andrew Metrick
Journal of Financial Crises
After the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) introduced the Basel III framework in 2010, individual countries confronted the question of how best to implement the framework given their unique circumstances. Switzerland, with a banking industry that is both heavily concentrated and very large relative to the size of its overall economy, faced a special challenge. It ultimately adopted what is sometimes referred to as the “Swiss Finish” to Basel III—enhanced requirements applicable to Switzerland’s “too-big-to-fail” banks Credit Suisse and UBS that go beyond the base requirements established by the BCBS. Yet the prominent role played by relatively ...
Basel Iii A: Regulatory History, 2020 Yale University
Basel Iii A: Regulatory History, Christian M. Mcnamara, Thomas Piontek, Andrew Metrick
Journal of Financial Crises
From the earliest efforts to mandate the amount of capital banks must maintain, regulators have grappled with how best to accomplish this task. Until the 1980s, regulation had been based largely on discretion and judgment. In the wake of two bank failures, the central bank governors of the G10 countries established the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) and in 1988, the BCBS introduced a capital measurement system, Basel I. The system represented a triumph of the fixed numerical approach, however, critics worried that it was too blunt an instrument. In 1999, the BCBS issued Basel II, a proposal to ...