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Measurement Of The Ocean Economy From National Income Accounts To The Sustainable Blue Economy, Charles S. Colgan 2016 Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey

Measurement Of The Ocean Economy From National Income Accounts To The Sustainable Blue Economy, Charles S. Colgan

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

The widespread efforts to incorporate the economic values of oceans into national income accounts have reached a stage where coordination of national efforts is desirable. A symposium held in 2015 began this process by bringing together representatives from ten countries. The symposium concluded that a definition of core ocean industries was possible but beyond that core the definition of ocean industries is in flux. Better coordination of ocean income accounts will require addressing issues of aggregation, geography, partial ocean industries, confidential, and imputation is also needed. Beyond the standard national income accounts, a need to incorporate environmental resource and ecosystem ...


The Influence Of The Electric Supply Industry On Economic Growth In Less Developed Countries, Edward Richard Bee 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

The Influence Of The Electric Supply Industry On Economic Growth In Less Developed Countries, Edward Richard Bee

Dissertations

This study measures the impact that electrical outages have on manufacturing production in 135 less developed countries using stochastic frontier analysis and data from World Bank’s Investment Climate surveys. Outages of electricity, for firms with and without backup power sources, are the most frequently cited constraint on manufacturing growth in these surveys.

Outages are shown to reduce output below the production frontier by almost five percent in Africa and by a lower percentage in South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Middle East and North Africa. Production response to outages is quadratic in form. Outages also increase labor cost, reduce ...


Essays In Applied Economics: Applications Of Transformed Ordinal Quantile Regression, Okila R. Elboeva 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Essays In Applied Economics: Applications Of Transformed Ordinal Quantile Regression, Okila R. Elboeva

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation consists of three essays on the application of Transformed Ordinal Quantile Regression (TORQUE) developed by Hong and He (2010). TORQUE is based on jittered response, a nonparametric link function, a semiparametric quantile estimation. When the response variable is categorical an application of the standard quantile regression is not optimal. TORQUE technique generalizes ordinary quantile regression, and as a semiparametric method it is more robust than Maximum Likelihood Estimators.

In the first essay I estimate conditional quantiles of happiness using the data from British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) for 2006. I find the continuity assumption of happiness ranking does ...


Essays In Policy Analysis, Michael Philip Craig 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Essays In Policy Analysis, Michael Philip Craig

Doctoral Dissertations

My dissertation consists of three essays related to policy analysis. In the first essay we ask, how can developing nations who face revenue mobilization issues and large informal sectors use taxation as a means of nation building? To answer this, we design a dynamic general equilibrium model that accounts for a large informal sector. Contrary to previous studies that model the informal economy, we focus on the importance of the government maintaining its social fiscal contract with its constituents by including the provision of productive public goods in the model. By doing so, we show that increasing taxes can be ...


Essays On Environmental Policy Instruments, Emissions Leakage And Public Policy, Shreekar Pradhan 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Essays On Environmental Policy Instruments, Emissions Leakage And Public Policy, Shreekar Pradhan

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation consists of three essays related to my research on environmental policy, emissions leakage, and public policy. In the first essay, I address how open economies respond to environmental policy instruments under uncertainty. I develop a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model for a small open economy (SOE) and evaluate the macroeconomic fluctuations in response to cap-and-trade, pollution tax, and emissions intensity standard under two shocks: productivity and terms of trade. My findings suggest that cap-and-trade policies are most effective in dampening the macroeconomic volatility from productivity shock. However, under the terms-of-trade shock, pollution tax, and intensity target policies are ...


A Macroeconomic Approach To Optimal Unemployment Insurance: Theory, Camille Landais, Pascal Michaillat, Emmanuel Saez 2016 London School of Economics and Political Science

A Macroeconomic Approach To Optimal Unemployment Insurance: Theory, Camille Landais, Pascal Michaillat, Emmanuel Saez

Pascal Michaillat

This paper develops a theory of optimal unemployment insurance (UI) in matching models. The optimal UI replacement rate is the conventional Baily-Chetty replacement rate, which solves the tradeoff between insurance and job-search incentives, plus a correction term, which is positive when an increase in UI pushes the labor market tightness toward its efficient level. In matching models most wage mechanisms do not ensure efficiency so tightness is generally inefficient. The effect of UI on tightness depends on the model: increasing UI may raise tightness by alleviating the rat race for jobs or lower tightness by increasing wages through bargaining. 


A Study Of Social Security Disability Litigation In The Federal Courts, Jonah B. Gelbach, David Marcus 2016 University of Pennsylvania Law School

A Study Of Social Security Disability Litigation In The Federal Courts, Jonah B. Gelbach, David Marcus

Faculty Scholarship

A person who has sought and failed to obtain disability benefits from the Social Security Administration (“the agency”) can appeal the agency’s decision to a federal district court. In 2015, nearly 20,000 such appeals were filed, comprising a significant part of the federal courts’ civil docket. Even though claims pass through multiple layers of internal agency review, many of them return from the federal courts for even more adjudication. Also, a claimant’s experience in the federal courts differs considerably from district to district around the country. District judges in Brooklyn decide these cases pursuant to one set ...


Willingness To Pay For Electric Vehicles And Their Attributes, Michael K. Hidrue, George R. Parsons, Willett Kempton, Meryl Gardner 2016 Mississippi State University

Willingness To Pay For Electric Vehicles And Their Attributes, Michael K. Hidrue, George R. Parsons, Willett Kempton, Meryl Gardner

Meryl Gardner

This paper presents a stated preference study of electric vehicle choice using data from a national survey. In our choice experiment, 3029 respondents chose between their preferred gasoline vehicle and two electric versions of their preferred gasoline vehicle. Using the response data we valued five electric vehicle attributes: driving range, charging time, fuel cost saving, pollution reduction, and performance. Driving range, fuel savings, and charging time led in importance to respondents. Individuals were willing to pay (wtp) from $35 to $75 for a mile of added driving range, with incremental wtp per mile decreasing at higher distances. They were willing ...


Aspirational Planning: A Statistical Model Of Hawthorne Bridge And Tilikum Crossing Bicycle Ride Counts, Robert McCullough, Ramon Cabauatan, Jacob Gellman 2016 McCullough Research

Aspirational Planning: A Statistical Model Of Hawthorne Bridge And Tilikum Crossing Bicycle Ride Counts, Robert Mccullough, Ramon Cabauatan, Jacob Gellman

Hatfield Graduate Journal of Public Affairs

Portland city planners have routinely planned for an increase in bicycle commutership and a decrease in automobile commutership. This paper discusses the latest data on Portland car and bicycle use. Portland and Multnomah County are observing an increase in single occupancy vehicle commuters, car ownership, and gasoline consumption. Bicycle use in Portland is found to have followed a logistic curve pattern since the early 1990s. The authors present an ordinary least squares model to explain bicycle ridership on the Hawthorne Bridge and the recently constructed Tilikum Crossing. When controlling for other factors such as weather and daylight, the Tilikum Crossing ...


The Cost Of Earmarks, Nicholis John Zappia 2016 California State University - San Bernardino

The Cost Of Earmarks, Nicholis John Zappia

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Finding revenue is a challenge that faces many municipalities in the United States. As the tax base continues to decline and demand for government services increases, local governments are forced to make hard choices. Low on the list of priorities for local governments is the maintenance, and construction of infrastructure. Traditionally there have been several ways for local governments to fund long-term infrastructure projects including, federal-aid through the process of earmarking. The practice of earmarking has been around since the first congress, but hit its peak between 2003 and 2007. The earmarking process is controversial for several reasons; earmarking bypasses ...


The Impacts Of Monetary Policies On Inflation Rates In Sudan (1970–2014).Pdf, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed 2016 Department of Economics. Al Neelain University, Khartoum, Sudan

The Impacts Of Monetary Policies On Inflation Rates In Sudan (1970–2014).Pdf, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

"> The current paper investigates the role of fiscal and monetary policies on inflation in Sudan for the
period (1970-2014). The study assessed the impact of money supply, exchange rate, gross domestic product
(GDP), budget deficit and government expenditure on inflation. It has adopted a descriptive and analytical
method to achieve the goal. In particular, it has relied on empirical investigation based on descriptive statistic
and econometric modelling.
The results shows that several monetary, fiscal and structural factors, namely, money supply, budget deficit and
shrinking of gross domestic product are simultaneously influencing inflation in Sudan. While exchange rate and
government expenditure ...


Testing Ostrom: An Analysis Of Water User Committees In Uganda, Emily McPartlon 2016 University of San Francisco

Testing Ostrom: An Analysis Of Water User Committees In Uganda, Emily Mcpartlon

Master's Theses

In 2009 Elinor Ostrom received the Nobel Prize for her analysis of economic governance of the commons. Specifically, by challenging the conventional wisdom at the time, demonstrating how communities can successfully manage the common resources without any regulation by central authorities or privatization. Ostrom proposed eight design principles that identify the underlying criterion of institutions that have successfully maintained CPRs over time. I examine whether Ostrom’s Eight Design Principles affect the long-run functionality of borehole wells in Uganda using quantitative methods. I find that the one of the principles, clearly defined boundaries, is significant in all four estimations, and ...


Does Infant Formula Availability Reduce Breastfeeding?, Ingvild Madsen Lampe 2016 University of San Francisco

Does Infant Formula Availability Reduce Breastfeeding?, Ingvild Madsen Lampe

Master's Theses

Abstract: Several key studies highlight the importance of breastfeeding and there is a broad consensus that it plays a crucial role for a child's health and cognitive development. This is especially true for the poor in developing countries, where vulnerable infants' access to proper nutrition is vital. We investigate the effect of introducing infant formula into a market on changes in breastfeeding patterns. Using the Demographic Health Surveys and annual reports from the baby food industry between 1981 and 2002 in 11 tropical countries, we find evidence that import of infant formula significantly reduces breastfeeding duration. The effects are ...


The Effect Of Low-Income Housing On Neighborhood Mobility: Evidence From Linked Micro-Data, Quentin O. Brummet, Otávio C. Bartalotti 2016 United States Census Bureau

The Effect Of Low-Income Housing On Neighborhood Mobility: Evidence From Linked Micro-Data, Quentin O. Brummet, Otávio C. Bartalotti

Economics Working Papers

While subsidized low-income housing construction provides affordable living conditions for poor households, many observers worry that building low-income housing in poor communities induces individuals to move to poor neighborhoods. We examine this issue using detailed, nationally representative microdata constructed from linked decennial censuses. Our analysis exploits exogenous variation in low-income housing supply induced by program eligibility rules for Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to estimate the effect of subsidized housing on neighborhood mobility patterns. The results indicate little evidence to suggest a causal effect of additional low-income housing construction on the characteristics of neighborhoods to which households move. This result is ...


Uncontrolled Experiments From The Laboratories Of Democracy: Traditional Cash Welfare, Federalism, And Welfare Reform, Jonah B. Gelbach 2016 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Uncontrolled Experiments From The Laboratories Of Democracy: Traditional Cash Welfare, Federalism, And Welfare Reform, Jonah B. Gelbach

Faculty Scholarship

In this chapter I discuss the history and basic incentive effects of two key U.S. cash assistance programs aimed at families with children. Starting roughly in the 1980s, critics of the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program argued that the program -- designed largely to cut relatively small checks -- failed to end poverty or promote work. After years of federally provided waivers that allowed states to experiment with changes to their AFDC programs, the critics in 1996 won the outright elimination of AFDC. It was replaced by the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program, over which states ...


Plastic Pollution And The Global Throwaway Culture: Environmental Injustices Of Single-Use Plastic, Kristin L. McDermott 2016 Salve Regina University

Plastic Pollution And The Global Throwaway Culture: Environmental Injustices Of Single-Use Plastic, Kristin L. Mcdermott

ENV 434 Environmental Justice

The global throwaway culture has created a cross-ecosystem plastic pollution injustice. The first to suffer this injustice will be the most vulnerable. Our oceans have become our dumpsters. The throwaway culture has created a disrespect of material goods that has turned the earth’s resources into rubbish after a single use. Eighty percent of the yearly 8 million tons of plastic that enter the ocean is single use plastic, such as plastic bottles, plastic shopping bags, or cigarette lighters.[1] Plastic has destroyed ecosystems, robbing impoverished communities of natural resources and of a healthy and safe living environment. First to ...


Corporate Responsibility In Peace Building, Conflict Prevention And Development: The Role Of The Mining Sector In Ghana, Abdul Karim Issifu 2016 University of Cape Coast

Corporate Responsibility In Peace Building, Conflict Prevention And Development: The Role Of The Mining Sector In Ghana, Abdul Karim Issifu

Journal of Interdisciplinary Conflict Science

This article seeks to explore the role of the mining sector in peace building, conflict prevention and community development in Ghana. After thoroughly reviewing secondary data, including articles, books, journals, newspapers, etc., via critical document review and qualitative research approaches the research found that, there is no legal document on CSR in Ghana, yet mining companies in a free will, have executed CSR programs laying down for peace, security and development in the country. More so, this article provides a theoretical support for the Integrative theory of CSR on the basis that, the socio-economic, political, cultural and environmental needs of ...


What Citizens Want To Know About Their Government’S Finances: Closing The Information Gap, Meagan Jordan, Juita-Elena (Wie) Yusuf, Martin Mayer, Kaitrin Mahar 2016 Old Dominion University

What Citizens Want To Know About Their Government’S Finances: Closing The Information Gap, Meagan Jordan, Juita-Elena (Wie) Yusuf, Martin Mayer, Kaitrin Mahar

School of Public Service Faculty Publications

There is an information gap between citizens and their governments when it comes to government finances. The inherent complexity of fiscal policy makes it exceedingly difficult for effective public participation. Effective public participation in fiscal decision making must address informing or educating the citizenry with accurate and meaningful government financial data. Better understanding citizen wants and perceptions is critical to closing the information gap between users and providers of financial information. This study uses information gathered from focus groups with residents of Norfolk, Virginia that asks what government financial information they want and how to make that information useful. Results ...


Exchange Patterns And Relations In Collaborative Governance., Charles Wharton Kaye-Essien 2016 University of Louisville

Exchange Patterns And Relations In Collaborative Governance., Charles Wharton Kaye-Essien

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collaborative governance has received considerable attention in recent years. From environmental resource management to public safety, collaborative governance continues to play a vital role in regional problem solving. In spite of this increasing popularity previous attempts to model the political, economic, and demographic determinants of collaboration have in most cases produced inconsistent results, thereby undermining the ability to generalize from such findings. Additionally, our understanding of the relational patterns that emanate from collaborative agreements remains fairly rudimentary. The main objective of this research is to address some of the gaps in the literature and improve our understanding of collaborative governance ...


Policy Shocks And Market-Based Regulations: Evidence From The Renewable Fuel Standard, Gabriel E. Lade, C.-Y. Cynthia Lin Lawell, Aaron Smith 2016 Iowa State University

Policy Shocks And Market-Based Regulations: Evidence From The Renewable Fuel Standard, Gabriel E. Lade, C.-Y. Cynthia Lin Lawell, Aaron Smith

CARD Working Papers

The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) mandates large increases in U.S. biofuel consumption and is implemented using a market for tradable compliance credits, known as RINs. In early 2013, RIN prices soared, causing the regulator to propose reducing future mandates. We develop a dynamic model of RFS2 compliance to demonstrate how changes in expectations about future policy affect current compliance costs, and we use a market effciency test to demonstrate that RIN markets have behaved in accordance with our model. We then estimate empirically the effect of three “policy shocks” that reduced the expected mandates in 2013. The largest of ...


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