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Information, Competition, And The Quality Of Charities, Silvana Krasteva, Huseyin Yildirim 2016 Texas A & M University - College Station

Information, Competition, And The Quality Of Charities, Silvana Krasteva, Huseyin Yildirim

Huseyin Yildirim

Drawing upon the all-pay auction literature, we propose a model of charity competition in which informed giving alone can account for the significant quality heterogeneity across similar charities. Our analysis identifies a negative effect of competition and a positive effect of informed giving on the equilibrium quality of charity. In particular, we show that as the number of charities grows, so does the percentage of charity scams, approaching one in the limit. In light of this and other results, we discuss the need for regulating nonprofit entry and conduct as well as promoting informed giving.


A General Framework For Price Regulation Of Airports, Sock Yong PHANG 2016 Singapore Management University

A General Framework For Price Regulation Of Airports, Sock Yong Phang

PHANG Sock Yong

Price cap regulation (PCR) was first implemented for privatized utilities in the UK in the 1980s. It has since been adopted by numerous countries as a regulatory regime in several sectors. This paper focuses on the development of different forms of price regulation of airports of which PCR is one variant. In countries where airport privatization is still in the early stages, the spectrum of airports and varied nature of regulatory regimes can be confusing and the lack of a general framework can itself become an obstacle to privatization. This paper proposes a general framework comprising decisions to be made ...


Intermediation, Bubbles, And Pareto Efficiency In Economies With Production, Mark Pingle, Leigh Tesfatsion 2016 Iowa State University

Intermediation, Bubbles, And Pareto Efficiency In Economies With Production, Mark Pingle, Leigh Tesfatsion

Leigh Tesfatsion

In a recent study, Tirole (1985) extends Diamond's (1965, pp. 1130-1135) well-known overlapping generations model of a private production economy by permitting consumption loans. That is, in addition to financing the capital investment of firms, the savings of one generation can be used to finance the consumption of agents in other generations whose consumption demands are in excess of their endowments. Tirole then shows that the re sulting production-consumption loan economy fails to satisfy the First Welfare Theorem. Specifically, as reviewed in Section 2, below, two stationary competitive equilibria exist for this economy: a Pareto inefficient equilibrium e with ...


Active Intermediation In A Monetary Overlapping Generations Economy, Mark Pingle, Leigh Tesfatsion 2016 Iowa State University

Active Intermediation In A Monetary Overlapping Generations Economy, Mark Pingle, Leigh Tesfatsion

Leigh Tesfatsion

In Pingle and Tesfatsion (1991) we question whether the conventional definition of a competitive equilibrium, as applied to an overlapping generations economy, is truly satisfactory. The conventional definition was developed for a standard Walrasian economy with a finite number of consumers and goods whereas the overlapping generations economy necessarily contains an infinite number of consumers and goods. As noted by Shell (1971), the presence of this double infinity in overlapping generations economies introduces a new trading opportunity: namely, the possibility of incurring and rolling over a debt forever as time proceeds into the infinite future. The problem with applying the ...


Hospital Closure And Hospital Choice: How Hospital Quality And Availability Will Affect Rural Residents, Deepak Premkumar, Dave Jones, Peter Orazem 2016 University of California, Berkeley

Hospital Closure And Hospital Choice: How Hospital Quality And Availability Will Affect Rural Residents, Deepak Premkumar, Dave Jones, Peter Orazem

Economics Working Papers

This study estimates a model of rural patient hospital choice between the nearest rural hospital, the nearest urban hospital, or the nearest research hospital. We present separate estimates for inpatient and outpatient visits, for different diagnoses, and for emergency and nonemergency admissions. The analyses illustrate the tradeoffs between hospital quality and distance in deciding whether to choose the nearest hospital or to travel farther for an alternative. The model parameters are used to simulate two hospital closing scenarios for both outpatient and inpatient data: 1) closing 25% of lowest quality rural hospitals and 2) closing 15% of the least used ...


Measuring The Impact Of 21st Century Community Learning Centers, Melissa Johnston-Gross 2016 Illinois State University

Measuring The Impact Of 21st Century Community Learning Centers, Melissa Johnston-Gross

Stevenson Center for Community and Economic Development

This paper investigates the relationship between student achievement and participation in before- and after- school academic enrichment programs funded by the 21st Century Community Learning Center (21CCLC) grant. The 21CCLC program is aimed at students in high-poverty, low-performing schools. I analyzed the first two cohorts awarded the program in school years 2002/2003 and 2003/2004 and compared them to public schools not funded by the program. Using difference-in-differences estimation, I found schools receiving the program experienced a higher percentage of students meeting or exceeding test standards: 1.332% higher in the first year and 2.055% in the second ...


Instability Of Government Revenue And Expenditure In Less Developed Countries, David Lim 2016 Technological and Higher Education Institute of Hong Kong, Vocational Training Council

Instability Of Government Revenue And Expenditure In Less Developed Countries, David Lim

Prof. David Lim

The governments of most less developed countries (LDCs) depend basically on their tax and non-tax revenues to finance their expenditure programmes. Unless countervailing action is taken, instability in government revenue will result in instability in government expenditure. The latter can add considerably to the complexity of fiscal management, which may then render ineffective development planning.1 It can also reduce business confidence and lead to the precautionary discounting of prospective investment returns and so a lowering of the investment level. This note does not attempt to verify the claim that expenditure instability has adverse effects on economic growth. Its aim ...


Government Recurrent Expenditure And Economic Growth In Less Developed Countries, David Lim 2016 Technological and Higher Education Institute of Hong Kong, Vocational Training Council

Government Recurrent Expenditure And Economic Growth In Less Developed Countries, David Lim

Prof. David Lim

There is not much support in less developed countries for the hypothesis that recurrent government expenditure is seen as consumption and hence more dispensable than capital expenditure. There is little evidence of a secular decline in recurrent expenditure for a group of 54 less developed countries over the period 1965–1973, nor is there strong evidence of greater instability in recurrent expenditure.


Political Bargaining And Cartelization In The New Deal: Orange Marketing Orders, Elizabeth Hoffman, Gary D. Libecap 2016 Iowa State University

Political Bargaining And Cartelization In The New Deal: Orange Marketing Orders, Elizabeth Hoffman, Gary D. Libecap

Elizabeth Hoffman

Yet, in our generation we have seen scarcity vanquished, and our ever present fear, so far as agriculture is concerned, is a fear of over abundance. We wish, if not for scarcity, at least for relief from price depressing surpluses. Rexford G. Tugwell, assistant secretary of agriculture.


Empirical Probabilities Of (Non)Optimal Healthcare Choice Conditional On Socio-Economic Status And Time Consumption, Quan-Hoang Vuong 2016 Universite Libre de Bruxelles

Empirical Probabilities Of (Non)Optimal Healthcare Choice Conditional On Socio-Economic Status And Time Consumption, Quan-Hoang Vuong

Quan-Hoang Vuong

Background: Patients need healthcare information for making good decisions in choosing health service provider, but data sufficiency and quality have constantly been a major obstacle. Non-optimal decisions are common. The problem persists even with the growing power of the Internet and ICT-based facilities. In a sense, asymmetric information in this sector exacerbates the problem of economic inequality, worsening the situation of community health.

Aims & Objectives: The study reports the analysis and results that help answer the questions about existence of empirical relations between such factor as socioeconomic status, consumption of time and outcome of healthcare provider choice by Vietnamese patients ...


The Enduring Power Of Coase, Elizabeth Hoffman, Matthew L. Spitzer 2016 Iowa State University

The Enduring Power Of Coase, Elizabeth Hoffman, Matthew L. Spitzer

Elizabeth Hoffman

By many measures, Ronald Coase has been among the most influential economists of the past 60 years. Why is this so? We suggest that Coase’s work has enduring appeal to and insight for social scientists in part because it addresses the biggest and most important social problems: How do we solve governance and coordination problems when limited information, common resource issues, and public good issues produce conflicts among several people at once? Any scholar who works on issues of corporate or common-pool governance, pollution, allocation of seats on legislative committees, regulation of systemic risk in financial markets, provision of ...


Location And The Low-Income Experience: Analyses Of Program Dynamics In The Iowa Family Investment Program, Helen H. Jensen, Shao-Hsun Keng, Steven Garasky 2016 Iowa State University

Location And The Low-Income Experience: Analyses Of Program Dynamics In The Iowa Family Investment Program, Helen H. Jensen, Shao-Hsun Keng, Steven Garasky

Helen Jensen

In 1993, the state of Iowa, through waivers, implemented reforms creating the Family Investment Program (FIP), a program similar to the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) created under the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA). The goals of FIP (helping program recipients leave poverty and become self-supporting) parallel the intent of TANF and PRWORA (Holcomb et al. 1998; Iowa Department of Human Services 1996). FIP merged and coordinated several existing programs and tied support for job training, education, child care, and transportation more directly to income transfers. Iowa has had to change FIP very little to meet ...


Editor's Introduction To The Special Edition: The Economics Of Climate Change In Coastal Areas, Charles S. Colgan 2016 Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey

Editor's Introduction To The Special Edition: The Economics Of Climate Change In Coastal Areas, Charles S. Colgan

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

Editor's introduction to the Special Edition on the Economics of Climate Change Adaptation in Coastal Areas


Climate Adaptation Finance Mechanisms: New Frontiers For Familiar Tools, Jack D. Kartez Ph.D., Samuel B. Merrill Ph.D. 2016 Senior Advisor and Emeritus Director, USEPA Region 1 Environmental Finance Center at the University of Southern Maine

Climate Adaptation Finance Mechanisms: New Frontiers For Familiar Tools, Jack D. Kartez Ph.D., Samuel B. Merrill Ph.D.

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

Demands for mechanisms to pay for adaptation to climate risks have multiplied rapidly as concern has shifted from greenhouse gas mitigation alone to also coping with the now-inevitable impacts. A number of viable approaches to how to pay for those adjustments to roads, drainage systems, lifeline utilities and other basic infrastructure are emerging, though untested at the scale required across the nation, which already has a trillion-dollar deferred maintenance and replacement problem. There are growing efforts to find new ways to harness private financial resources via new market arrangements to meet needs that clearly outstrip public resources alone, as well ...


The Economics Of Climate Adaptation On America’S Coasts: A Washington Conversation, Center for the Blue Economy and Urban Coast Institute, Dr. Charles Colgan 2016 Center for the Blue Economy at the Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey

The Economics Of Climate Adaptation On America’S Coasts: A Washington Conversation, Center For The Blue Economy And Urban Coast Institute, Dr. Charles Colgan

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

Report of a colloquium on the economics of coastal climate change adaptation held in Washington D.C. on April 16, 2015. The event was sponsored by The Center for Blue Economy of the Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey and the Urban Coast Institute of Monmouth University. Participants included Michael Conathan, Center for American Progress; Frank Nutter, Reinsurance Association of America; Dr. Robert Kopp, Rutgers University; Josh Sawislak, Council on Environmental Quality; Tony MacDonald, Urban Coast Institute; Jason Scorse and Charles Colgan, Center for the Blue Economy


Antitrust, Competition Policy, And Inequality, Jonathan B. Baker, Steven C. Salop 2016 American University Washington College of Law

Antitrust, Competition Policy, And Inequality, Jonathan B. Baker, Steven C. Salop

Jonathan B. Baker

Economic inequality recently has entered the political discourse in a highly visible way. This political impact is not a surprise. As the U.S. economy has begun to recover from the Great Recession since mid-2009, economic growth has effectively been appropriated by those already well off, leaving the median household less well off. The serious economic, political and moral issues raised by inequality can be addressed through a panoply of public policies including competition policy, the focus of this article. The article describes the channels through which market power contributes to inequality, and sets forth a range of possible antitrust ...


Deductible Livestock Costs For Adjusting 2016 Income Tax Returns, Alejandro Plastina 2016 Iowa State University

Deductible Livestock Costs For Adjusting 2016 Income Tax Returns, Alejandro Plastina

Ag Decision Maker Information Files

Estimated deductible costs for use in adjusting farm expenses to exclude the cost of producing home-consumed farm produce.


The Economic Costs And Benefits Of Implementing The Clean Power Plan, Jose Miguel Abito, Christopher R. Knittel, Konstantinos Metaxoglou, Andre Trindade 2016 University of Pennsylvania

The Economic Costs And Benefits Of Implementing The Clean Power Plan, Jose Miguel Abito, Christopher R. Knittel, Konstantinos Metaxoglou, Andre Trindade

Penn Wharton Public Policy Initiative

This brief looks at the costs of implementing the EPA’s Clean Power Plan. Specifically, it examines whether implementing the CPP on a state-by-state basis—that is, with each state meeting its own individual target for emissions reduction by 2030, rather than establishing regional targets—is economically efficient. The economic analysis uses data from electricity-generating firms participating in the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM) Interconnection to examine the relative economic efficiency of regional versus state-by-state implementation of the CPP. The research indicates that state-by-state implementation would yield the lowest electricity prices in 2030.


Type Of Lease For An S Corporation, Neil E. Harl 2016 Iowa State University

Type Of Lease For An S Corporation, Neil E. Harl

Neil E. Harl

Since enactment of the S corporation concept in 1958, it has been important to give careful thought to the kind of lease entered into by S corporations as landowners. In the years since the major amendments to Subchapter S of the Internal Revenue Code in 1982, The type of lease has been less important for some S corporations but it is still a major checklist item for S corporation planning.


Turn Over Of Assets To Creditors, Neil E. Harl 2016 Iowa State University

Turn Over Of Assets To Creditors, Neil E. Harl

Neil E. Harl

From 1983 to 1989, US agricultural debt dropped by about $60 billion as debts were discharged in bankruptcy, obligations were restructured with debt written off and property was deeded back to creditors. The resulting tax consequences created highly significant income tax burdens for debtors and contributed to various proposals for debtor relief from tax liability. However, except for relief from alternative minimum tax liability stemming from capital gains and a new solvent farm debtor rule for discharge of indebtedness, farm and ranch debtors were consigned to working through their debt problems within existing tax law.


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