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Development Of Ocean Economy Satellite Account In Korea, Jeong-In CHANG, Soo Bin JEONG, Tae Jin KIM 2022 Korea Maritime Institute

Development Of Ocean Economy Satellite Account In Korea, Jeong-In Chang, Soo Bin Jeong, Tae Jin Kim

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

The ocean has emerged as a new solution to new growth engines. However, some issues remain to be resolved, such as unified concepts and evaluation methods for the ocean economy, comparability between the national economy and the ocean economy, and the connection between global and national assessments. Since the ocean economy comprises various complex industries, it is necessary to establish policies based on an objective analysis of economic indicators. However, there have been difficulties in analyzing industrial activities related to the ocean economy within the national account system. To more accurately calculate the share of the ocean economy sector in ...


Riders On The Storm: Hurricane Risk And Coastal Insurance And Mitigation Decisions, Harrison Laird, Craig E. Landry, Scott Shonkwiler, Dan Petrolia 2022 University of Georgia

Riders On The Storm: Hurricane Risk And Coastal Insurance And Mitigation Decisions, Harrison Laird, Craig E. Landry, Scott Shonkwiler, Dan Petrolia

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

This paper utilizes cross-sectional, household-level, survey data combined with data on subjective risk perceptions and experimentally derived risk preferences to analyze the decision to insure against hurricane losses. Our sample encompasses 670 individuals in five states of the United States Gulf Coast Region (Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida). This study represents one of the few papers to examine wind insurance empirically and the only study to examine flood insurance, wind insurance, and mitigation behavior contemporaneously. Because these decisions are closely related, we employ a mixed-process regression, which allows for correlated error terms across a random-effects bivariate probit model (flood ...


Perishable Goods Versus Re-Tradable Assets: A Theoretical Reappraisal Of A Fundamental Dichotomy, Sabiou M. Inoua, Vernon L. Smith 2022 Chapman University

Perishable Goods Versus Re-Tradable Assets: A Theoretical Reappraisal Of A Fundamental Dichotomy, Sabiou M. Inoua, Vernon L. Smith

ESI Working Papers

Although various typologies of goods are commonly adopted in economics, one stood out in market experiment results contrasting market stability and efficiency with market instability: non-durable, or perishable, goods (Smith, 1962) versus durable re-tradable assets (Smith et al., 1988; Dickhaut et al., 2012; S. D. Gjerstad et al., 2015). This dichotomy of goods also proved central for understanding macroeconomic instability more broadly: about 75% of consumer spending is bought for final consumption, and is a rock of stability; instability arises from the other 25% re-tradable goods, most prominently, houses (S. D. Gjerstad & Smith, 2014). In this chapter, we revisit this ...


Impact Of College Extracurricular Involvement On Entrepreneurial Outcomes, Emily Malech 2022 Claremont Colleges

Impact Of College Extracurricular Involvement On Entrepreneurial Outcomes, Emily Malech

CMC Senior Theses

Despite extensive inquiry, relatively little is understood about the factors which shape entrepreneurs as young adults. This paper examines the impact of college extracurricular involvement on the entrepreneurial outcomes of alumni; it considers which extracurricular activities are most strongly associated with entrepreneurship. Additionally, it explores whether the number of extracurricular activities participated in by students impacts their proclivity for entrepreneurship. It observes 219 alumni of Claremont McKenna College and uses data from the institution’s public records as well as alumni’s LinkedIn profiles. This data contains information on entrepreneurship, indicated by job titles, and five extracurricular activities. Using a ...


Nft-Related Companies: Token Sale Returns, Robert Liu 2022 Claremont Colleges

Nft-Related Companies: Token Sale Returns, Robert Liu

CMC Senior Theses

Non-fungible tokens (NFTs) have emerged as a new means of digital asset ownership and many companies are building projects that revolve around the technology. These companies are blockchain-based and raise capital for their projects through cryptocurrency token sales, which have become a new mechanism of entrepreneurial finance. In a sample of 62 NFT-related companies, I examine which company, fundraising, and token sale process characteristics are associated with the performance of 7-day and 60-day market returns after a token’s public listing. A multivariate regression analysis finds that the total amount of capital raised before a token launch has a negative ...


Improving Veteran Access; Status Of Operations Of The United States Department Of Veteran Affairs Work-Study Program, Kirk Allen 2021 California State University, San Bernardino

Improving Veteran Access; Status Of Operations Of The United States Department Of Veteran Affairs Work-Study Program, Kirk Allen

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The usage status of The U.S. Department Veterans Affairs Work-Study Program is examined. Beneficiary numbers from the Global, Unites States, State, and Local/County perspective are reviewed. While of essential value, the program suffers from a lack of scholarly research and government oversight, and is further hindered by restrictive administrative rules lived first-hand. Research suggests that the program is operating outside of accountability to the taxpayer, presents as unnecessarily/overly-restrictive in accessibility, and is underutilized. The program appears to not be serving all veterans to full potential.

The Work-Study Program is codified in Veterans Benefits', Title 38 United States ...


Re-Tradable Assets, Speculation, And Economic Instability, Sabiou M. Inoua, Vernon L. Smith 2021 Chapman University

Re-Tradable Assets, Speculation, And Economic Instability, Sabiou M. Inoua, Vernon L. Smith

ESI Working Papers

This paper examines asset markets in which the key distinguishing characteristic of the goods is that they can be purchased for resale. Although the distinction between consumption durables and non-durables is clear and universally recognized, less evident is whether asset re-tradability accounts for economic instability. Market instability is strongly associated with goods that can be re-traded; stability with those that are bought for consumptive use. We emphasize the centrality of asset re-tradability in financial theory through a reinterpretation of the fundamental theorem of asset pricing: an arbitrage-free asset market is a market in which there is no advantage to re-trade ...


The Implications Of Covid-19 On Fear Of Financial Collapse, Alexis Reekie 2021 Chapman University

The Implications Of Covid-19 On Fear Of Financial Collapse, Alexis Reekie

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

By disrupting the general value paradigm, the typical hierarchy of values, individuals directly affected by the COVID-19 virus have realized an overall shift in perspective, indicating a need to understand the effects of the COVID-19 virus on one’s outlook regarding economic anxiety and fear of financial collapse. The possibility of a global health crisis reaching levels of devastation are certainly great and worth investigating. Throughout this research paper I worked to determine the correlation between fear of financial crises and individuals who have been affected by the COVID-19 virus. Utilizing the Chapman Survey of American Fears (FEAR survey) questions ...


Life Satisfaction And Tax Morale In Azerbaijan: Mediating Role Of Institutional Trust And Financial Satisfaction, Orkhan Nadirov, Khatai Aliyev, Bruce Dehning, Ilaha Sharifzada, Rafiga Aliyeva 2021 ADA University, Azerbaijan

Life Satisfaction And Tax Morale In Azerbaijan: Mediating Role Of Institutional Trust And Financial Satisfaction, Orkhan Nadirov, Khatai Aliyev, Bruce Dehning, Ilaha Sharifzada, Rafiga Aliyeva

Accounting Faculty Articles and Research

This paper examines the relationship between life satisfaction (measured as the self-reported satisfaction of each individual with their past life and goal achievements) and tax morale (measured as the likelihood of an individual’s intrinsic motivation to pay taxes). Using a large-scale survey dataset from Azerbaijan, it is documented that life satisfaction is positively associated with tax morale. Life satisfaction plays a significant role in increasing tax compliance practices. It is also important to note that there is a positive mediating effect of life satisfaction on tax morale through financial satisfaction and institutional trust. In line with our hypotheses, the ...


Prosocial Option Increases Women’S Entry Into Competition, Alessandra Cassar, Mary L. Rigdon 2021 Chapman University

Prosocial Option Increases Women’S Entry Into Competition, Alessandra Cassar, Mary L. Rigdon

ESI Publications

We provide evidence that women enter competitions at the same rate as men when the incentive for winning includes the option to share part of the rewards with the losers (i.e., when the incentive system is socially oriented). Using an experiment (with N = 238 subjects from three laboratories), we find that about 16% more men than women choose to compete in the standard tournament; this gender gap is eliminated in the socially oriented incentive treatment. While men’s choice to compete remains unchanged, at around 52% in both conditions, women increase their entry rate from 35% in the standard ...


A Reassessment Of The Potential For Loss-Framed Incentive Contracts To Increase Productivity: A Meta-Analysis And A Real-Effort Experiment, Paul J. Ferraro, J. Dustin Tracy 2021 Johns Hopkins University

A Reassessment Of The Potential For Loss-Framed Incentive Contracts To Increase Productivity: A Meta-Analysis And A Real-Effort Experiment, Paul J. Ferraro, J. Dustin Tracy

ESI Working Papers

Substantial productivity increases have been reported when incentives are framed as losses rather than gains. Loss-framed contracts have also been reported to be preferred by workers. The results from our meta-analysis and real-effort experiment challenge these claims. The meta-analysis' summary effect size of loss framing is a 0.16 SD increase in productivity. Whereas the summary effect size in laboratory experiments is a 0.33 SD, the summary effect size from field experiments is 0.02 SD. We detect evidence of publication biases among laboratory experiments. In a new laboratory experiment that addresses prior design weaknesses, we estimate an effect ...


Beware The Gini Index! A New Inequality Measure, Sabiou M. Inoua 2021 Chapman University

Beware The Gini Index! A New Inequality Measure, Sabiou M. Inoua

ESI Working Papers

The Gini index underestimates inequality for heavy-tailed distributions: for example, a Pareto distribution with exponent 1.5 (which has infinite variance) has the same Gini index as any exponential distribution (a mere 0.5). This is because the Gini index is relatively robust to extreme observations; while a statistic’s robustness to extremes is desirable for data potentially distorted by outliers, it is misleading for heavy-tailed distributions, which inherently exhibit extremes. We propose an alternative inequality index: the variance normalized by the second moment. This ratio is more stable (hence more reliable) for large samples from an infinite-variance distribution than ...


The Efficiency Of U.S. Public Space Utilization During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Seth G. Benzell, Avinash Collis, Christos Nicolaides 2021 Chapman University

The Efficiency Of U.S. Public Space Utilization During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Seth G. Benzell, Avinash Collis, Christos Nicolaides

Economics Faculty Articles and Research

The COVID-19 pandemic has called for and generated massive novel government regulations to increase social distancing for the purpose of reducing disease transmission. A number of studies have attempted to guide and measure the effectiveness of these policies, but there has been less focus on the overall efficiency of these policies. Efficient social distancing requires implementing stricter restrictions during periods of high viral prevalence and rationing social contact to disproportionately preserve gatherings that produce a good ratio of benefits to transmission risk. To evaluate whether U.S. social distancing policy actually produced an efficient social distancing regime, we tracked consumer ...


Conflict In The Pool: A Field Experiment, Loukas Balafoutas, Marco Faravelli, Roman Sheremeta 2021 University of Innsbruck

Conflict In The Pool: A Field Experiment, Loukas Balafoutas, Marco Faravelli, Roman Sheremeta

ESI Working Papers

We conduct a field experiment on conflict in swimming pools. When all lanes are occupied, an actor joins the least crowded lane and asks one of the swimmers to move to another lane. The lane represents a contested scarce resource. We vary the actor’s valuation (high and low) for the good through the message they deliver. Also, we take advantage of the natural variation in the number of swimmers to proxy for their valuation. Consistent with theoretical predictions, a swimmer’s propensity to engage in conflict increases in scarcity (incentive effect) and decreases in the actor’s valuation (discouragement ...


Dynamic Resource Allocation With Cost Externality, Hao Zhao, David Porter 2021 Chapman University

Dynamic Resource Allocation With Cost Externality, Hao Zhao, David Porter

ESI Working Papers

The inter-temporal resource allocation efficiency of a property rights-based common-pool resource system is challenged by a cost externality when one user’s extraction raises the extraction cost for others. This paper builds a dynamic resource allocation model to illustrate the efficiency loss from a standard property rights market. We then create a novel inter-temporal allocation mechanism that preserves dynamic efficiency. Our dynamic resource allocation mechanism includes an optimal planning stage where the agents collectively determine a binding extraction target for each period and a market stage where agents can exchange their extraction rights assigned within each period. The theoretical model ...


The Impact Of Adaptive Learning In Principles Of Microeconomics, Doris S. Bennett, Cynthia S. McCarty, Michael S. Carter 2021 Jacksonville State University

The Impact Of Adaptive Learning In Principles Of Microeconomics, Doris S. Bennett, Cynthia S. Mccarty, Michael S. Carter

Southwestern Business Administration Journal

Abstract

The spread of Covid-19, which forced almost all learning to move to online in March, 2020, abruptly increased the number of undergraduates taking at least one online course by approximately 177% between the fall of 2019 and the spring of 2020 (Koksal, 2020; Carey, 2020; National Center for Education Statistics, 2020). Even without the Covid-19 disruption, online education has become increasing prevalent due to the decreasing allocation of resources to higher education and the pressure on college administrators to make a college education effective, affordable, and accessible for more students. Originally online instruction differed from in-class instruction only be ...


Anything For A Cheerio: Brown Capuchins (Sapajus [Cebus] Apella) Consistently Coordinate In An Assurance Game For Unequal Payoffs, Lauren M. Robinson, Mayte Martínez, Kelly L. Leverett, Mattea S. Rossettie, Bart J. Wilson, Sarah F. Brosnan 2021 University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna

Anything For A Cheerio: Brown Capuchins (Sapajus [Cebus] Apella) Consistently Coordinate In An Assurance Game For Unequal Payoffs, Lauren M. Robinson, Mayte Martínez, Kelly L. Leverett, Mattea S. Rossettie, Bart J. Wilson, Sarah F. Brosnan

ESI Publications

Unequal outcomes disrupt cooperation in some situations, but this has not been tested in the context of coordination in economic games. To explore this, we tested brown capuchins (Sapajus [Cebus] apella) on a manual version of the Stag Hunt (or Assurance) Game, in which individuals sequentially chose between two options, Stag or Hare, and were rewarded according to their choices and that of their partner. Typically, coordination on Stag results in an equal highest payout, whereas coordinating on Hare results in a guaranteed equal but lower payoff and uncoordinated play results in the lowest payoff when playing Stag. We varied ...


Uncertainty And Reputation Effects In Credence Goods Markets, Eric Schniter, J. Dustin Tracy, Vojtěch Zíka 2021 Chapman University

Uncertainty And Reputation Effects In Credence Goods Markets, Eric Schniter, J. Dustin Tracy, Vojtěch Zíka

ESI Working Papers

Credence-goods experiments have focused on stylized settings in which experts can perfectly identify the buyer’s best option and that option works without fail. However, in nature credence goods involve uncertainties that complicate assessing the quality of service and advice. We introduce two sources of uncertainty into a credence goods experiment. The first is diagnostic uncertainty; experts receive a noisy signal of buyer type so might make an ‘honest’ mistake when advising what is in buyers’ best interests. The second is service uncertainty; the services available to the buyer do not always work. Both sources of uncertainty make detection of ...


Data For "Uncertainty And Reputation Effects In Credence Goods Markets", Eric Schniter, J. Dustin Tracy, Vojtěch Zíka 2021 Chapman University

Data For "Uncertainty And Reputation Effects In Credence Goods Markets", Eric Schniter, J. Dustin Tracy, Vojtěch Zíka

Economic Science Institute Data Sets

Credence-goods experiments have focused on stylized settings in which experts can perfectly identify the buyer’s best option and that option works without fail. However, in nature credence goods involve uncertainties that complicate assessing the quality of service and advice. We introduce two sources of uncertainty into a credence goods experiment. The first is diagnostic uncertainty; experts receive a noisy signal of buyer type so might make an ‘honest’ mistake when advising what is in buyers’ best interests. The second is service uncertainty; the services available to the buyer do not always work. Both sources of uncertainty make detection of ...


Keeping A Clean Reputation: More Evidence On The Perverse Effects Of Disclosure, Cary Deck, J. Dustin Tracy 2021 Chapman University

Keeping A Clean Reputation: More Evidence On The Perverse Effects Of Disclosure, Cary Deck, J. Dustin Tracy

ESI Working Papers

When a principal relies on an agent, a conflict of interest can encourage the agent to provide biased advice. Conventional wisdom suggests that such behavior can be reduced through disclosure requirements. However, disclosure has been shown to exacerbate self-serving bias and can actually lead to greater harm for the principal in one-shot interactions. But in many naturally occurring settings, agents form reputations, a mechanism that could diminish the incentive to provide biased advice. We test for bias in the advice agents provide when faced with reputation concerns, and examine the impact of disclosure in such an environment. In controlled laboratory ...


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