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Full-Text Articles in Labor Economics

Contingency In Higher Education: Evidence And Explanation, Steven Shulman Oct 2017

Contingency In Higher Education: Evidence And Explanation, Steven Shulman

Academic Labor: Research and Artistry

This paper summarizes recent evidence on the trends in contingency in higher education. Contingent faculty employment, defined as the sum of full-time non-tenure track faculty employment and part-time faculty employment, increased both absolutely and relative to all faculty positions between 2002 and 2015, despite a modest downturn after 2011. The long-term growth of contingency since 2002 has primarily occurred in doctoral degree universities. The short-term decline in contingency since 2011 has primarily occurred in public associates’ degree colleges and in private for-profit colleges. The short-term decline in contingency since 2011 is due to the contraction of the for-profit sector combined ...


Analyzing The Roles Of Law And Politics In Judicial Decision Making: Predicting U.S. Supreme Court Justices’ Votes On A Case Of Affirmative Action, Ashley Renkor Oct 2017

Analyzing The Roles Of Law And Politics In Judicial Decision Making: Predicting U.S. Supreme Court Justices’ Votes On A Case Of Affirmative Action, Ashley Renkor

The Eastern Illinois University Political Science Review

This study seeks to study relevant precedent cases concerning affirmative action, the 14th Amendment equal protection clause, the 5th Amendment equal protection clause, and the Civil Rights Act of 1964, with the goal of predicting how certain justices will vote in the affirmative action case, Fisher vs. the University of Texas at Austin. I conclude that justices will debate numerous aspects at play, such as original intent, plain meaning, precedent, policy preferences, public opinion, personal experience, the federal government, and interest groups in order to take positions in the Fisher case for the second time around with an intent to ...


Partial Disability And Labor Market Adjustment: The Case Of Spain, José Ignacio Silva, Judit Vall Oct 2017

Partial Disability And Labor Market Adjustment: The Case Of Spain, José Ignacio Silva, Judit Vall

José Ignacio Silva


Although partially disabled individuals in Spain are allowed to combine disability benefits with a job, the empirical evidence shows that the employment rate of this group of individuals is very low because they have a much lower job finding and a higher job separation rates than nondisabled workers. Moreover, a decomposition analysis of the equilibrium employment rate shows that the differences in the job finding rates explain 85 percent of the disabled employment gap. To explain these facts, we construct a labor market model with search intensity and matching frictions to identify the incentives and disincentives to work in Spain ...


Minimum Houses For Minimum Wages: Are Tiny Houses A Solution For Low-Wage Workers?, Edward Sauve Oct 2017

Minimum Houses For Minimum Wages: Are Tiny Houses A Solution For Low-Wage Workers?, Edward Sauve

Social Justice and Community Engagement

No abstract provided.


Essays On Economics Of Inequality, Aboozar Hadavand Sep 2017

Essays On Economics Of Inequality, Aboozar Hadavand

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation consists of three chapters all around the subject of inequality. The first chapter provides a novel analysis of the trend in income inequality in the United States between 1979--2013. There are two ways in which this chapter contributes to the literature. First, I analyze how much of the existing inequality in the U.S. is due to the demographic changes that happened over this period. Using microdata from Luxembourg Income Study and after decomposing inequality into within- and between-age group components, I find that the within-group share of overall inequality in the U.S. is high and steady ...


Who Influences Your Outcomes? The Effect Of Culture And Ethnic Origin, Neighborhood And Peers On Personal Income: A Spatial Econometric Analysis Of New York City, Anna Arakelyan Sep 2017

Who Influences Your Outcomes? The Effect Of Culture And Ethnic Origin, Neighborhood And Peers On Personal Income: A Spatial Econometric Analysis Of New York City, Anna Arakelyan

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Being a “social animal”, each person is inherently embedded into a complex structure of social relations. He has role models to aspire to, conformity rules to follow, and expectations to meet. This paper explores the different social influences each person experiences in life. Specifically, I consider how a person’s ethnic community, age reference group, occupational and industry group peers, and residential area neighbors affect his total income. I introduce a novel model of multiple social networks and discuss various identification implications. I apply the model empirically to New York City, which naturally is a very favorable environment to test ...


Archivo De Excel Con Los Datos Para Replicar Los Cálculos Del Artículo: "La Consar: Balanceando Los Intereses De Los Ahorradores Y De Las Afores" Sep 2017

Archivo De Excel Con Los Datos Para Replicar Los Cálculos Del Artículo: "La Consar: Balanceando Los Intereses De Los Ahorradores Y De Las Afores"

Rodrigo Garcia-Verdu

Archivo de Excel con los datos para replicar los cálculos del artículo: "La CONSAR: balanceando los intereses de los ahorradores y de las AFORES", utilizando datos del Banco de México y de la Comisión Nacional del Sistema de Ahorro para el Retiro (CONSAR) de México.


Nebraska Monthly Economic Indicators: September 20, 2017, Eric Thompson Sep 2017

Nebraska Monthly Economic Indicators: September 20, 2017, Eric Thompson

Leading Economic Indicator Reports

The Leading Economic Indicator – Nebraska (LEI-N) 1 fell by 0.38% during August of 2017. The decline in the LEI-N, which is designed to predict economic activity six months into the future, suggests that the Nebraska economy will grow slowly during the first few months of 2018. The drop in the indicator was primarily due to a decline in manufacturing hours-worked during August. Building permits for single-family homes and airline passenger enplanements also dropped slightly. There were two positive components of the LEI-N. Businesses responding to the August Survey of Nebraska Business reported plans to increase sales and employment over ...


Evaluating Public Employment Programs With Field Experiments: A Survey Of American Evidence, Christopher J. O'Leary Sep 2017

Evaluating Public Employment Programs With Field Experiments: A Survey Of American Evidence, Christopher J. O'Leary

Christopher J. O'Leary

Research in the 1970s based on observational data provided evidence consistent with predictions from economic theory that paying unemployment insurance (UI) benefits to involuntarily jobless workers prolongs unemployment. However, some scholars also reported estimates that the additional time spent in subsidized job search was productive. That is, UI receipt tended to raise reemployment wages after work search among the unemployed. A series of field experiments in the 1980s investigated positive incentives to overcome the work disincentive effects of UI. These were followed by experiments in the 1990s that evaluated the effects of restrictions on UI eligibility through stronger work search ...


Demonstration And Evaluation Of The Short-Time Compensation Program In Iowa And Oregon: Final Report, Susan Houseman, Christopher J. O'Leary, Katharine G. Abraham, Frank Bennici, Susan Labin, Richard Sigman Sep 2017

Demonstration And Evaluation Of The Short-Time Compensation Program In Iowa And Oregon: Final Report, Susan Houseman, Christopher J. O'Leary, Katharine G. Abraham, Frank Bennici, Susan Labin, Richard Sigman

Christopher J. O'Leary

Short-time compensation (STC) is an optional program within some state unemployment insurance (UI) systems that allows employers experiencing a temporary reduction in business to lower the average hours of employees in lieu of laying them off. Employer use of the STC option has been low in states with STC programs. We conducted demonstrations in Iowa and Oregon to evaluate the effectiveness of several interventions designed to increase employer awareness and use of STC, including disseminating information about STC to specific employers (members of the “treatment” group) over a 12-month period. The main findings support the hypothesis that lack of awareness ...


Trade Union Trade-Offs: Unions, Voters, And The Rise Of Right-Wing Populism, Kim Gabbitas Sep 2017

Trade Union Trade-Offs: Unions, Voters, And The Rise Of Right-Wing Populism, Kim Gabbitas

Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union

Trade union membership in European Union member states has been in decline for decades, which has many concerned about the future of workers’ rights. While existing work examines the reasons for this decline, my research shifts the focus from union density to the functions unions serve and how these functions affect and are affected by changing electoral behavior. I examine the rise of right-wing populist movements in Europe and how these movements and the challenges today’s labor unions face can be traced to the same underlying forces. I argue that, as the relevance of trade unions declines for blue-collar ...


Nebraska Business And Consumer Confidence Indexes: September 1, 2017, Eric Thompson Sep 2017

Nebraska Business And Consumer Confidence Indexes: September 1, 2017, Eric Thompson

Leading Economic Indicator Reports

Nebraska’s consumer and business confidence fell during August. The Consumer Confidence Index – Nebraska (CCI-N) stood at 100.9 in August, below the reading of 102.5 from July. Notably, the CCI-N remained above the neutral value of 100.0 during August. The outlook of Nebraska businesses remained strong. The Business Confidence Index – Nebraska (BCI-N) stood at 104.2 in August, close to the value of 105.1 during July, and well above the neutral value of 100.0. When asked about the most important issue facing their business, customer demand was mentioned by 35 percent of business respondents. Businesses ...


Back To Work: The Effects Of Goal Conflict On Working Mothers, Lauren Ogle Sep 2017

Back To Work: The Effects Of Goal Conflict On Working Mothers, Lauren Ogle

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Why is the rate of depression for women two times that of men? In the “we can do it all” generation, becoming a mother can be one of the most frustrating and rewarding experiences in one’s lifetime. Fulfilling career goals in addition to the demands motherhood can cause psychological distress. In this paper I present literature reviews on mothering, careers, goal conflict and how positive psychology tools can help alleviate depression in women. Based on research, I outlined four topics to build a workshop that will help working mothers bounce back from adversity, develop their signature strengths, avoid negative ...


A Real Options Approach To Criminal Careers, Cristiano Aguiar De Oliveira, Giácomo Balbinotto Neto Aug 2017

A Real Options Approach To Criminal Careers, Cristiano Aguiar De Oliveira, Giácomo Balbinotto Neto

The Latin American and Iberian Journal of Law and Economics

This paper proposes a dynamic model based on real options to evaluate the criminal career. In the model, individuals can choose the best moment to engage in crime (illegal activity). The model proposed allows the evaluation of the impact of different risk preferences, punishment probability, punishment severity and, mainly time discount in the individual’s decision. Through model calibration it is possible to observe that the option for a criminal career depends on a high return in the illegal activity even when individuals are risk neutral and when they have a low time discount. The paper also discusses youth participation ...


Demonstration And Evaluation Of The Short-Time Compensation Program In Iowa And Oregon: Final Report, Susan Houseman, Christopher J. O'Leary, Katharine G. Abraham, Frank Bennici, Susan Labin, Richard Sigman Aug 2017

Demonstration And Evaluation Of The Short-Time Compensation Program In Iowa And Oregon: Final Report, Susan Houseman, Christopher J. O'Leary, Katharine G. Abraham, Frank Bennici, Susan Labin, Richard Sigman

All Star

Short-time compensation (STC) is an optional program within some state unemployment insurance (UI) systems that allows employers experiencing a temporary reduction in business to lower the average hours of employees in lieu of laying them off. Employer use of the STC option has been low in states with STC programs. We conducted demonstrations in Iowa and Oregon to evaluate the effectiveness of several interventions designed to increase employer awareness and use of STC, including disseminating information about STC to specific employers (members of the “treatment” group) over a 12-month period. The main findings support the hypothesis that lack of awareness ...


A Frontline Decision Support System For Georgia Career Centers, Randall W. Eberts, Christopher J. O'Leary Aug 2017

A Frontline Decision Support System For Georgia Career Centers, Randall W. Eberts, Christopher J. O'Leary

All Star

The Workforce Investment Act (WIA) of 1998 emphasizes the integration and coordination of employment services. Central to achieving this aim is the federal requirement that local areas receiving WIA funding must establish one-stop centers, where providers of various employment services within a local labor market are assembled in one location. A major challenge facing staff in these centers is the expected large volume of customers resulting from relaxed program eligibility rules. Nonetheless, resources for assessment and counseling are limited. To help frontline staff in one-stop centers quickly assess customer needs and properly target services, the U.S. Department of Labor ...


Nebraska Monthly Economic Indicators: August 23, 2017, Eric Thompson Aug 2017

Nebraska Monthly Economic Indicators: August 23, 2017, Eric Thompson

Leading Economic Indicator Reports

The Leading Economic Indicator – Nebraska (LEI-N) 1 rose by 0.56% during July of 2017. The increase in the LEI-N, which is designed to predict economic activity six months into the future, suggests that the Nebraska economy will grow through the first month of 2018. Four components of the indicator improved during July. Business expectations were solid and manufacturing hours grew. The value of the U.S. dollar continued its recent decline, a positive sign for Nebraska’s export-oriented businesses. Further, in a positive sign for the labor market, there also was a drop in initial claims for unemployment insurance ...


The Current State Of Workers' Compensation: Benefit Adequacy, Return To Work, And Prevention, Marcus Dillender, H. Allan Hunt Aug 2017

The Current State Of Workers' Compensation: Benefit Adequacy, Return To Work, And Prevention, Marcus Dillender, H. Allan Hunt

H. Allan Hunt

No abstract provided.


Credit Risk And Corporate Governance, Olivier Mugisho Mudekereza Aug 2017

Credit Risk And Corporate Governance, Olivier Mugisho Mudekereza

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Is the executive’s compensation structure influenced by the credit rating assigned to his company? I analyze a panel of U.S. public firms using the random-effects and fixed-effects estimations. Compared to firms with lower credit risk, I find that firms facing higher probability of default provide more incentives for their CEOs.


Nebraska Business And Consumer Confidence Indexes: August 4, 2017, Eric Thompson Aug 2017

Nebraska Business And Consumer Confidence Indexes: August 4, 2017, Eric Thompson

Leading Economic Indicator Reports

Consumer and business confidence remained strong in Nebraska during July but fell from June levels. The Consumer Confidence Index – Nebraska (CCI-N) stood at 102.5 in July after a reading of 104.7 during June. Despite the decline of 2.2, the CCI-N remained above the neutral value of 100.0, indicating strong consumer confidence. The outlook of Nebraska businesses also was strong. The Business Confidence Index – Nebraska (BCI-N) fell to 105.1 in July from 109.2 in June. The BCI-N remained well above the neutral value in July, despite the 4.1 point decline, which indicates that business ...


A Cross-Sectional Exploration Of Household Financial Reactions And Homebuyer Awareness Of Registered Sex Offenders In A Rural, Suburban, And Urban County., John Charles Navarro Aug 2017

A Cross-Sectional Exploration Of Household Financial Reactions And Homebuyer Awareness Of Registered Sex Offenders In A Rural, Suburban, And Urban County., John Charles Navarro

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

As stigmatized persons, registered sex offenders betoken instability in communities. Depressed home sale values are associated with the presence of registered sex offenders even though the public is largely unaware of the presence of registered sex offenders. Using a spatial multilevel approach, the current study examines the role registered sex offenders influence sale values of homes sold in 2015 for three U.S. counties (rural, suburban, and urban) located in Illinois and Kentucky within the social disorganization framework. Homebuyers were surveyed to examine whether awareness of local registered sex offenders and the homebuyer’s community type operate as moderators between ...


Structures Of Terror In Caribbean Women's Writing, Lauren E. Shoemaker Aug 2017

Structures Of Terror In Caribbean Women's Writing, Lauren E. Shoemaker

Theses and Dissertations (All)

Situated within the transnational feminist movement which has gathered in response to the historical process of enclosure and regulation associated with capitalism, Caribbean women writers are uniquely positioned to bear witness or create resistance to the exploitation of their bodies and the environment under this system of slow violence. This dissertation takes up a queer eco- materialist feminist framework to explore the critiques and the methods of resistance to this system offered by Caribbean women writers.

Materialist feminists Maria Mies and Cynthia Enloe have contributed greatly to understanding how women’s labor has been exploited on a local and international ...


The Scarring Effects Of Youth Joblessness In Sri Lanka, Murali Kuchibhotla, Peter F. Orazem, Sanjana Ravi Jul 2017

The Scarring Effects Of Youth Joblessness In Sri Lanka, Murali Kuchibhotla, Peter F. Orazem, Sanjana Ravi

Economics Working Papers

Retrospective data on labor market spells for successive cohorts of school leavers in Sri Lanka are used to examine whether early spells of joblessness lead to subsequent difficulty in finding or keeping a job. A matching method based on the Joffee and Rosenbaum (1999) balancing score approach is used to generate pairs of school leavers that have similar expected levels of joblessness but that differ in realized levels of joblessness. Assuming that youth are not able to perfectly control whether they are employed or not employed, we argue that marginal differences in joblessness between otherwise observationally equivalent youth can be ...


Entrepreneurship Vs Paid Employment: Multiple Skills And Financing, Felipe Balmaceda Assoc Prof. Jul 2017

Entrepreneurship Vs Paid Employment: Multiple Skills And Financing, Felipe Balmaceda Assoc Prof.

Felipe Balmaceda

We present an occupational choice model with risk-averse agents who are heterogeneous in terms of skills and wealth in a setting with financial frictions.  We show that high-income individuals and middle-income individuals endowed with a balanced portfolio of skills upgrade their skills so the resulting portfolio of skills is more balanced and choose entrepreneurship, while middle-income individuals endowed with an unbalanced portfolio of skills and low-income individuals specialize in the skill in which they have an absolute advantage and choose paid employment. Deeper financial development, a more balanced portfolio of skills, lower entrepreneurial risk and a higher liquidation value result ...


Preventative Policy Measures To Tackle Undeclared Work In Croatia, Colin C. Williams Jul 2017

Preventative Policy Measures To Tackle Undeclared Work In Croatia, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

This report examines the drivers of the undeclared economy in Croatia, the current organisation of the fight against undeclared work, and reviews the current and potential policy approaches and measures for tackling undeclared work in Croatia.
 
Drivers of the undeclared economy in Croatia
Recently, significant advances have been made in explaining the determinants of undeclared work. To explain undeclared work, it has been understood that every society has institutions which prescribe, monitor and enforce the ‘rules of the game’ regarding what is socially acceptable. In all societies, these institutions are of two types: formal institutions that prescribe ‘state morality’ about ...


Trust In Cohesive Communities, Felipe Balmaceda Assoc Prof., Juan Escobar Assistant Professor Jul 2017

Trust In Cohesive Communities, Felipe Balmaceda Assoc Prof., Juan Escobar Assistant Professor

Felipe Balmaceda

This paper studies which social networks maximize trust and welfare when agreements are implicitly enforced. We study a repeated trust game in which trading opportunities arise exogenously and a social network determines the information each player has. We show that cohesive communities, modeled as social networks of complete components, emerge as the optimal community design. Cohesive communities generate some degree of common knowledge of transpired play that allows players to coordinate their punishments and, as a result, yield relatively high equilibrium payoffs. We also show that when news swiftly travel through the network, Pareto efficient networks are minimally connected: the ...


Nebraska Business And Consumer Confidence Indexes: July 7, 2017, Eric Thompson Jul 2017

Nebraska Business And Consumer Confidence Indexes: July 7, 2017, Eric Thompson

Leading Economic Indicator Reports

Consumer confidence rose sharply in Nebraska during June 2017 while business confidence remained very strong. The Consumer Confidence Index – Nebraska (CCI-N) stood at 100.4 in May but rose to 104.7 during June, which is well above the neutral value of 100.0. The outlook of Nebraska businesses remained very strong. The Business Confidence Index – Nebraska (BCI-N) fell to 109.2 in June, well above the neutral value and just below its May value of 110.2. Business confidence has been very strong in Nebraska throughout the first half of 2017. When asked about the most important issue facing ...


The Ncaa And The Rule Of Reason, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Jul 2017

The Ncaa And The Rule Of Reason, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship

This brief essay considers the use of antitrust’s rule of reason in assessing challenges to rule making by the NCAA. In particular, it looks at the O’Bannon case, which involved challenges to NCAA rules limiting the compensation of student athletes under the NCAA rubric that protects the “amateur” status of collegiate athletes. Within that rubric, the Ninth Circuit got the right answer.

That outcome leads to a broader question, however: should the NCAA’s long held goal, frequently supported by the courts, of preserving athletic amateurism be jettisoned? Given the dual role that colleges play, that is a ...


Workforce Investment Act In Western Kentucky: An Evaluation Of Program Service Outcomes, Matt S. Luckett Jul 2017

Workforce Investment Act In Western Kentucky: An Evaluation Of Program Service Outcomes, Matt S. Luckett

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Workforce development programs designed to provide individuals with the skills necessary to gain employment have been in existance for over 80 years. The Workforce Investment Act (WIA) was a federal workforce development program that ran from 2000 to 2014. The WIA provided three main programs: youth, adult, and dislocated worker. The focus of this research was to evaluate the individual services in the adult and dislocated worker programs in the Western Kentucky Workforce Investment Area and identify the most effective service in each program.

The adult and dislocated worker programs each offered three tiered services: core, intensive, and training. Individuals ...


New Evidence On State Fiscal Multipliers: Implications For State Policies, Timothy J. Bartik Jun 2017

New Evidence On State Fiscal Multipliers: Implications For State Policies, Timothy J. Bartik

Timothy J. Bartik

When state and local governments engage in balanced budget changes in taxes and spending, what fiscal multiplier effects do such policies have on creating local jobs? Traditionally, the view has been that possible job-creation effects of such state and local “demand-side” policies are smaller, second-order effects. Such effects might be worthwhile to take into consideration when a state or local government balances its budget during a recession, but the effects were believed to be of modest magnitude, and not of major importance for more general state and local public policies. However, recent estimates of fiscal multiplier effects of state and ...