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Full-Text Articles in Labor Economics

Brain Drain And Emigration: How Do They Affect Source Countries?, Nicholas Chura Jan 2019

Brain Drain And Emigration: How Do They Affect Source Countries?, Nicholas Chura

Honors Research Projects

This paper examines the effect of different skill levels of emigration on a country’s labor market, from high skill brain drain to low skill emigration. By utilizing an IADB Brain Drain data set to measure emigration rates among those with low, medium, and high educational attainment in a country, the effect of brain drain vs. low skill emigration on productivity and unemployment is examined. These data span from 1980 to 2010 with measurements every five years for 195 World Bank countries. By utilizing two two-way fixed effects models with GDP per capita and unemployment rate as the dependent variables ...


Empirical Essays In Household Economics, Hao Li May 2018

Empirical Essays In Household Economics, Hao Li

Economics Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is consist of three empirical studies in economics. The first part empirically examines the effect of universal pre-k on labor force participation of fertility age women in Oklahoma. I investigate the policy effect from both theoretical and empirical perspectives. I apply the synthetic control method (SCM) to the Current Population Survey (CPS) data to identify the causal relationship between universal pre-k and female labor outcomes. I find that universal pre-k increases labor supply of women aged 25 to 45 in Oklahoma. The second empirical study focuses on how the birth outcomes of US children respond to exposure to ...


起死回生(Resuscitation): Japan's Search For Machines And Their Meanings, Justin Mcdonnell May 2018

起死回生(Resuscitation): Japan's Search For Machines And Their Meanings, Justin Mcdonnell

Master's Projects and Capstones

Japan’s lost decade(s) ushered in a new era of economic and societal malaise, marked by a shrinking population, an increased proportion of elderly people, inequality, neo-nationalism(s), uncertainty, and isolation. This project seeks to understand how Japan is trying to address these issues and reconstruct itself from the lost decade(s) with the use of artificial intelligence (jinkou chihou) and robotics along with the societal implications of this technology. This interdisciplinary research utilizes innovative, historical narratives (Morris-Suzuki,1988, Hornyak 2006), and the socio-cultural milieu of Japan and its traditions (Allison 2013; Katsuno 2010) to further appreciate and acknowledge ...


What Works To Help Manufacturing-Intensive Local Economies?, Timothy J. Bartik May 2018

What Works To Help Manufacturing-Intensive Local Economies?, Timothy J. Bartik

Upjohn Institute Technical Reports

No abstract provided.


The Cost Of Child Care On Female Labor Force Participation, Richard Joseph Goyette May 2018

The Cost Of Child Care On Female Labor Force Participation, Richard Joseph Goyette

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Who Benefits From Economic Development Incentives? How Incentive Effects On Local Incomes And The Income Distribution Vary With Different Assumptions About Incentive Policy And The Local Economy, Timothy J. Bartik Mar 2018

Who Benefits From Economic Development Incentives? How Incentive Effects On Local Incomes And The Income Distribution Vary With Different Assumptions About Incentive Policy And The Local Economy, Timothy J. Bartik

Timothy J. Bartik

This report presents results from a simulation model that examines the effects of economic development incentives (e.g., tax incentives such as property tax abatements or job creation tax credits) provided to businesses by state and local governments in the United States. The model simulates effects of incentive policies on the incomes of local residents, both for different income types (e.g., labor income versus property income) and for different income quintiles, under different assumptions about the economy’s workings and public policy. Net benefits of incentives for local incomes are greater if the incentives have greater job-creation effects conditional ...


Improving Economic Development Incentives, Timothy J. Bartik Mar 2018

Improving Economic Development Incentives, Timothy J. Bartik

Timothy J. Bartik

No abstract provided.


Panel Ii. Trauma, Memory, Equality And History In Gender Studies, Annika Ziegler Mar 2018

Panel Ii. Trauma, Memory, Equality And History In Gender Studies, Annika Ziegler

the Women, Gender, and Sexuality Studies Student Conference

No abstract provided.


Degrees Of Poverty: The Relationship Between Family Income Background And The Returns To Education, Timothy J. Bartik, Brad J. Hershbein Mar 2018

Degrees Of Poverty: The Relationship Between Family Income Background And The Returns To Education, Timothy J. Bartik, Brad J. Hershbein

Timothy J. Bartik

Drawing on the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we document a startling empirical pattern: the career earnings premium from a four-year college degree (relative to a high school diploma) for persons from low-income backgrounds is considerably less than it is for those from higher-income backgrounds. For individuals whose family income in high school was above 1.85 times the poverty level, we estimate that career earnings for bachelor’s graduates are 136 percent higher than earnings for those whose education stopped at high school. However, for individuals whose family income during high school was below 1.85 times the poverty ...


Degrees Of Poverty: The Relationship Between Family Income Background And The Returns To Education, Timothy J. Bartik, Brad J. Hershbein Mar 2018

Degrees Of Poverty: The Relationship Between Family Income Background And The Returns To Education, Timothy J. Bartik, Brad J. Hershbein

Brad J. Hershbein

Drawing on the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we document a startling empirical pattern: the career earnings premium from a four-year college degree (relative to a high school diploma) for persons from low-income backgrounds is considerably less than it is for those from higher-income backgrounds. For individuals whose family income in high school was above 1.85 times the poverty level, we estimate that career earnings for bachelor’s graduates are 136 percent higher than earnings for those whose education stopped at high school. However, for individuals whose family income during high school was below 1.85 times the poverty ...


Entrepreneurship Education Empowers Youth To Change Their Lives, Marianna Brashear, Jason Riddle Mar 2018

Entrepreneurship Education Empowers Youth To Change Their Lives, Marianna Brashear, Jason Riddle

National Youth-At-Risk Conference Savannah

The Foundation for Economic Education (FEE) aims at equipping Title 1 schools with free, hands-on, engaging materials that any teacher can facilitate either individually or in a classroom setting with no background in entrepreneurship necessary. These versatile lessons, courses, and workshops teach the entrepreneurial mindset optimizing opportunities for grades 8-12 students no matter which life/career path they choose.


Economic Emergency Program: St. Cloud Household Refrigeration And Home Freezer Manufacturing Plant Closure (Electrolux), Brigid Tuck, King Banaian, Richard A. Macdonald, Neil Linscheid Mar 2018

Economic Emergency Program: St. Cloud Household Refrigeration And Home Freezer Manufacturing Plant Closure (Electrolux), Brigid Tuck, King Banaian, Richard A. Macdonald, Neil Linscheid

Special Economic Studies

On January 30, 2018, Electrolux announced the closure its manufacturing facility in St. Cloud, Minnesota. The plant currently has 860 employees. Their jobs will be lost once Electrolux completes its closure as planned in 2019. Electrolux plans to invest in its Tennessee and South Carolina plants. Upright freezer production will move to South Carolina. There will likely be few viable opportunities for local workers at the Electrolux facility to re-locate to South Carolina.

St. Cloud area decision-makers will benefit from timely information regarding the potential economic impact of the closure. In response, University of Minnesota Extension and the St. Cloud ...


The Colonial American Economy, Joshua L. Rosenbloom Feb 2018

The Colonial American Economy, Joshua L. Rosenbloom

Economics Working Papers

The first permanent British settlement in what became the United States was established in 1607, nearly 170 years prior to the American declaration of independence. This chapter examines the economic development of the British North American colonies that became the United States. As it describes, abundant natural resources and scarce labor and capital contributed to the remarkable growth in the size of the colonial economy, and allowed the free white colonial population to enjoy a relatively high standard of living. There was not, however, much improvement over time in living standards. Patterns of factor abundance also played an important role ...


Minimum Wages And Occupational Skills Acquired During High School, Benjamin Meier, Kyrstin Shadle, Brent E. Kreider, Peter F. Orazem Feb 2018

Minimum Wages And Occupational Skills Acquired During High School, Benjamin Meier, Kyrstin Shadle, Brent E. Kreider, Peter F. Orazem

Economics Working Papers

The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 Geocode sample and the O*NET Occupational Database are used to generate estimates of skills acquired on jobs held by youth during high school. The types of jobs firms offer high school students change with the minimum wage. Jobs offered in high minimum wage states involve less skill acquisition. These same skills are shown to be important for income, employment and occupational skills later in life. Additional schooling substitutes for job skills acquired in high school, implying lost on-the-job training in high school is most costly for youth who do not go to ...


The Heterogeneous Cyclicality Of Income And Wages Among The Distribution In The Uk, Maria Cervini, Antonia Lopez, José I. Silva Feb 2018

The Heterogeneous Cyclicality Of Income And Wages Among The Distribution In The Uk, Maria Cervini, Antonia Lopez, José I. Silva

José Ignacio Silva

We investigate the cyclicality of real hourly wages and income using individual data for the UK over the 1991-2013 period. By paying special attention to the heterogeneity among different earnings and income groups, we documentthat individuals at the top of the distribution are more cyclical than lower ones. We also show that real wages and income are roughly acyclical for low wage and income workers. In particular, we present evidence that the adjustment for low-paid workers takes place through transitions to and from unemployment.


Anticompetitive Mergers In Labor Markets, Ioana Marinescu, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Feb 2018

Anticompetitive Mergers In Labor Markets, Ioana Marinescu, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship

Mergers of competitors are conventionally challenged under the federal antitrust laws when they threaten to lessen competition in some product or service market in which the merging firms sell. Mergers can also injure competition in markets where the firms purchase. Although that principle is widely recognized, very few litigated cases have applied merger law to buyers. This article concerns an even more rarefied subset, and one that has barely been mentioned. Nevertheless, its implications are staggering. Some mergers may be unlawful because they injure competition in the labor market by enabling the post-merger firm anticompetitively to suppress wages or salaries ...


Measuring Health Outcomes Of Uncovered Employment: A Study Of Income, Social Mobility, Equality, And Health Indicators In An Under-Looked Segment Of The Labor Force, Zakariya Kmir Feb 2018

Measuring Health Outcomes Of Uncovered Employment: A Study Of Income, Social Mobility, Equality, And Health Indicators In An Under-Looked Segment Of The Labor Force, Zakariya Kmir

Undergraduate Economic Review

Economists have strongly supported the idea that unemployment causes many undesirable health outcomes. However, how does belonging to a different sector of employment tied closely to changes in minimum wage and inflation relate to overall health? To properly understand the numerical significance of health disparities in the uncovered sector of employment, this research is targeted at quantifying the relationship between the insured and non-insured within the uncovered sector. By substantiating the existence of severe health disparities as a function of the labor force dynamic, this research subsequently estimates the amount of inefficiency and negative health outcomes in the US economy ...


Is There Really A Foreign Language Premium In Canada?: Evaluating The Foreign Language Effect On Canadian Wages, Peter C. Ki Feb 2018

Is There Really A Foreign Language Premium In Canada?: Evaluating The Foreign Language Effect On Canadian Wages, Peter C. Ki

Undergraduate Economic Review

Given the debates on whether knowing a foreign language has a positive or negative effect on wages, there is little or no research conducted on how it fares in Canada, despite extensive studies on French and English. Using the Public Use Microdata Files of the 2011 National Household Survey by Statistics Canada, I find a 2.84% wage penalty for Canadians who know a foreign language and an even greater penalty for Canadians who use these languages at work. I proceed to decompose the results by language and occupation to find varying results. I also attempt to use a religion ...


Overqualification Among Aboriginal Workers In Canada, Jungwee Park Feb 2018

Overqualification Among Aboriginal Workers In Canada, Jungwee Park

The International Indigenous Policy Journal

This study examines education, employment, and the extent to which adult Aboriginal workers (aged 25-64) were overqualified for their jobs compared to non-Aboriginal workers. Data are from the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) including 415,115 Aboriginal workers and 13,301,610 non-Aboriginal workers. Aboriginal workers with higher levels of education (bachelor degree or higher) were less likely to be overqualified than their non-Aboriginal counterparts; but Aboriginal workers with lower levels of education (less than university level) were more likely to be overqualified than non-Aboriginal workers. This study also highlights differences in overqualification by field of study: Among Aboriginal workers ...


For Better, For Worse: The Effect Of Maternity Leave Policy On Divorce Rates, Toni S. Forde Jan 2018

For Better, For Worse: The Effect Of Maternity Leave Policy On Divorce Rates, Toni S. Forde

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Prior to 1993, maternity leave legislation in the United States varied from state to state. The implementation of the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) thus created a “natural experiment” via which we can study the effect of the law on divorce across states.


'They Come Here To Work': An Evaluation Of The Economic Argument In Favor Of Immigrant Rights, Shannon Gleeson Jan 2018

'They Come Here To Work': An Evaluation Of The Economic Argument In Favor Of Immigrant Rights, Shannon Gleeson

Shannon Gleeson

Advocates commonly highlight the exploitation that hard-working undocumented immigrants commonly suffer at the hands of employers, the important contribution they make to the US economy, and the fiscal folly of border militarization and enhanced immigration enforcement policies. In this paper, I unpack these economic rationales for expanding immigrant rights, and examine the nuanced ways in which advocates deploy this frame. To do so, I rely on statements issued by publicly present immigrant rights groups in six places: California, Florida, Illinois, New York, Texas, and Washington, DC. I also draw on interviews with immigrant advocates in San Jose, CA and Houston ...


The Effect Of Network Ethnic Segregation On Wage Formation: The Case Of Sri-Lankan Immigrants In The City Of Milan, Italy, Luca De Benedictis, Valerio Leone Sciabolazza, Raffaele Vacca Jan 2018

The Effect Of Network Ethnic Segregation On Wage Formation: The Case Of Sri-Lankan Immigrants In The City Of Milan, Italy, Luca De Benedictis, Valerio Leone Sciabolazza, Raffaele Vacca

Luca De Benedictis

This paper delves into well-known results on the positive effects of social networks on job search in immigrant communities, to explore the informational content provided by social networks of acquaintances and its effects on the economic attainment of Sri Lankan immigrants in Milan, Italy. Using data from a 2012 survey on personal networks and daily activity spaces of Sri Lankan immigrants in Milan, we analyze co-location and intersection of activity spaces to reconstruct the socio-centric network of likely acquaintances of interviewed immigrants. We then derive an inverse measure of the extent to which a Sri Lankan immigrant is exposed to ...


Stem And The Local Economy: Do Regions Reap The Benefits Of A Stem-Educated Workforce?, Fran Stewart Jan 2018

Stem And The Local Economy: Do Regions Reap The Benefits Of A Stem-Educated Workforce?, Fran Stewart

Employment Research Newsletter

No abstract provided.


Who Benefits From Economic Development Incentives? How Incentive Effects On Local Incomes And The Income Distribution Vary With Different Assumptions About Incentive Policy And The Local Economy, Timothy J. Bartik Jan 2018

Who Benefits From Economic Development Incentives? How Incentive Effects On Local Incomes And The Income Distribution Vary With Different Assumptions About Incentive Policy And The Local Economy, Timothy J. Bartik

Upjohn Institute Technical Reports

This report presents results from a simulation model that examines the effects of economic development incentives (e.g., tax incentives such as property tax abatements or job creation tax credits) provided to businesses by state and local governments in the United States. The model simulates effects of incentive policies on the incomes of local residents, both for different income types (e.g., labor income versus property income) and for different income quintiles, under different assumptions about the economy’s workings and public policy. Net benefits of incentives for local incomes are greater if the incentives have greater job-creation effects conditional ...


Degrees Of Poverty: The Relationship Between Family Income Background And The Returns To Education, Timothy J. Bartik, Brad J. Hershbein Jan 2018

Degrees Of Poverty: The Relationship Between Family Income Background And The Returns To Education, Timothy J. Bartik, Brad J. Hershbein

Upjohn Institute Working Papers

Drawing on the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we document a startling empirical pattern: the career earnings premium from a four-year college degree (relative to a high school diploma) for persons from low-income backgrounds is considerably less than it is for those from higher-income backgrounds. For individuals whose family income in high school was above 1.85 times the poverty level, we estimate that career earnings for bachelor’s graduates are 136 percent higher than earnings for those whose education stopped at high school. However, for individuals whose family income during high school was below 1.85 times the poverty ...


Improving Economic Development Incentives, Timothy J. Bartik Jan 2018

Improving Economic Development Incentives, Timothy J. Bartik

Upjohn Institute Policy Briefs

No abstract provided.


Business Economics: Data For Decision Making, Brian Barnier, Kevin Foster Jan 2018

Business Economics: Data For Decision Making, Brian Barnier, Kevin Foster

Open Educational Resources

Syllabus for a course in data analytics for business economics, focusing on use of source data sets to answer the "why?" questions hidden in aggregate averages used in theory and "headline" news releases. Zero cost course using data available widely on the web. Optional texts are trade books available widely in libraries or used copies at low cost.


Are Teacher Pensions "Hazardous" For Schools?, Patten Priestley Mahler Jan 2018

Are Teacher Pensions "Hazardous" For Schools?, Patten Priestley Mahler

Upjohn Institute Working Papers

I use a detailed panel of data and a unique modeling specification to explore how public schoolteachers respond to the incentives embedded in North Carolina’s retirement system. Like most public-sector retirement plans, North Carolina’s teacher pension implicitly encourages teachers to continue working until they are eligible for their pension benefits, and then leave soon afterward. I find that teachers with higher levels of quality, as measured by a teacher’s value-added to her students’ achievement test scores, are more responsive to the “pull” of teacher pensions. Younger teachers, those with higher salaries, and nonwhite teachers are also more ...


Sources Of Displaced Workers' Long-Term Earnings Losses, Marta Lachowska, Alexandre Mas, Stephen A. Woodbury Jan 2018

Sources Of Displaced Workers' Long-Term Earnings Losses, Marta Lachowska, Alexandre Mas, Stephen A. Woodbury

Upjohn Institute Working Papers

We estimate the earnings losses of a cohort of workers displaced during the Great Recession and decompose those long-term losses into components attributable to fewer work hours and to reduced hourly wage rates. We also examine the extent to which the reduced earnings, work hours, and wages of these displaced workers can be attributed to factors specific to pre- and post-displacement employers; that is, to employer-specific fixed effects. The analysis is based on employer-employee linked panel data from Washington State assembled from 2002–2014 administrative wage and unemployment insurance (UI) records. Three main findings emerge from the empirical work. First ...


The Cultural Legacy Of Communism In Entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurial Perceptions And Activity In Central And Eastern Europe, Amy Wu Jan 2018

The Cultural Legacy Of Communism In Entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurial Perceptions And Activity In Central And Eastern Europe, Amy Wu

CMC Senior Theses

Using data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, this paper examines differences in entrepreneurial perceptions (fear of failure, opportunity perception, self-efficacy, public opinion) between CEE and non-CEE countries, before and after the 2008 recession, as well as the effects of these perceptions on entrepreneurial motivation and overall levels of activity. The results suggest that CEE countries have systematically more pessimistic outlooks in terms of fear of failure and opportunity perception, but no difference from non-CEE countries in self-efficacy and public opinion. Additionally, most of the difference in fear of failure and opportunity perception, along with an increase in necessity-motivated entrepreneurship, comes ...