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Extremal Quantile Regressions For Selection Models And The Black-White Wage Gap, Xavier D'HAULTFOEUILLE, Arnaud MAUREL, Yichong ZHANG 2018 CREST

Extremal Quantile Regressions For Selection Models And The Black-White Wage Gap, Xavier D'Haultfoeuille, Arnaud Maurel, Yichong Zhang

Research Collection School Of Economics

We consider the estimation of a semiparametric sample selection model without instrument or large support regressor. Identification relies on the independence between the covariates and selection, for arbitrarily large values of the outcome. We propose a simple estimator based on extremal quantile regression and establish its asymptotic normality by extending previous results on extremal quantile regressions to allow for selection. Finally, we apply our method to estimate the black-white wage gap among males from the NLSY79 and NLSY97. We find that premarket factors such as AFQT and family background play a key role in explaining the black-white wage gap.


Is There Really A Foreign Language Premium In Canada?: Evaluating The Foreign Language Effect On Canadian Wages, Peter C. Ki 2018 University of British Columbia

Is There Really A Foreign Language Premium In Canada?: Evaluating The Foreign Language Effect On Canadian Wages, Peter C. Ki

Undergraduate Economic Review

Given the debates on whether knowing a foreign language has a positive or negative effect on wages, there is little or no research conducted on how it fares in Canada, despite extensive studies on French and English. Using the Public Use Microdata Files of the 2011 National Household Survey by Statistics Canada, I find a 2.84% wage penalty for Canadians who know a foreign language and an even greater penalty for Canadians who use these languages at work. I proceed to decompose the results by language and occupation to find varying results. I also attempt to use a religion ...


Bayesian State Space Representation Model: Applications To Macroeconomics And International Finance, Hiroshi Morita 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Bayesian State Space Representation Model: Applications To Macroeconomics And International Finance, Hiroshi Morita

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation develops three new econometric models using Bayesian state space representation model in order to apply to macroeconomics and international finance. It consists of 3 chapters. Chapter 1 develops a Markov mixture model of macroeconomic fundamentals to analyze the short-run dynamics of foreign exchange rates. In our model, foreign exchange rates are simultaneously determined by three parities: the interest rate parity, the inflation rate parity, and the equity return rate parity. Using four exchange rates: the U.S. dollar price of the British pound, the German mark, the Japanese yen, and the Canadian dollar, the findings are: (1) Our ...


Is Avocado Toast The Reason I'M Still Living With My Parents?, Brendan MacDonald 2018 Claremont McKenna College

Is Avocado Toast The Reason I'M Still Living With My Parents?, Brendan Macdonald

CMC Senior Theses

Is avocado toast the reason that I am still living with my parents? In other words, does the consumption of avocado toast, or more specifically eating out in general, have any impact on one’s ability to be a homeowner. In May of 2017, an Australian real estate developer by the name of Tim Gurner was asked to provide advice to young people who could not afford to purchase a home. He responded by saying, “when I was trying to buy my first home, I wasn’t buying smashed avocado for $19 and four coffees at $4 each,” (Victor, 2017 ...


The Effect Of Fast Food Restaurants On Type 2 Diabetes Rates, Grace Bailey 2018 Claremont McKenna College

The Effect Of Fast Food Restaurants On Type 2 Diabetes Rates, Grace Bailey

CMC Senior Theses

This paper conducts an analysis of county level data to determine the effect of fast food restaurants on type 2 diabetes rates. Due to endogeneity concerns with respect to the location of fast food restaurants, this paper follows the work of Dunn (2010) and uses the number of interstate exits in a given county to serve as an instrument for fast food restaurants. The strength of the instrument, which is theoretically and empirically tested in this paper, imposes some restraints on the interpretation of the findings. Using the Two-Stage Least Squares estimation method, I find that the presence of fast ...


Trade Openness, Government Spending, Institutions And Their Effects On Economic Growth In Selected Mena Countries, Saif Mohammad Alqahtani 2018 Eastern Illinois University

Trade Openness, Government Spending, Institutions And Their Effects On Economic Growth In Selected Mena Countries, Saif Mohammad Alqahtani

Masters Theses

The objective of this study to examine how import, export, government spending, and institutions impact on economic growth. Of the four selected North African countries, (Egypt, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia), six periods of five years from 1985-2015, we used the panel data model. In this model, we used panel data which consist of random effect and fixed effect, based on Hausman test, we selected one of them. The GDP per capita growth was used as a dependent and import, export, government spending as independent main variables. Also, gross capital formation (GCF), inflation, population growth, and HDI which consist of life ...


Are Volatility Expectations In Different Countries Interdependent? A Data-Driven Solution To Structural Var Identification For Implied Equity Volatility Indices, Timothy H. de Silva 2018 Claremont McKenna College

Are Volatility Expectations In Different Countries Interdependent? A Data-Driven Solution To Structural Var Identification For Implied Equity Volatility Indices, Timothy H. De Silva

CMC Senior Theses

Over the past couple of decades, the number of volatility indices has increased rapidly. These indices seek to represent the market’s expectation of realized volatility over the coming month, based on the prices of options traded on each underlying equity index. Although the dynamics of realized volatility spillover have been studied extensively, very few studies exists that examine the spillover between these volatility indices. By using DAG-based structural vector autoregression, this paper provides evidence that implied volatility spillover differs from realized volatility spillover. Through solving the well-known VAR identification problem for these indices, this paper finds that Asia, more ...


The Effect Of Changes In Racial Composition On Housing Prices: A Study Of The Most Diverse Place In The World, Youseph Anwar 2017 CUNY Hunter College

The Effect Of Changes In Racial Composition On Housing Prices: A Study Of The Most Diverse Place In The World, Youseph Anwar

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

This study attempts to illustrate that increases in minority residents may lead to decreases in housing prices. I observe the effects of changes in racial composition on housing prices in Queens, NY from 2011-2015. The following econometric tools are implemented: a fixed effects model, quantile, hedonic, and OLS regressions.


Agent-Based Computational Modeling And Macroeconomics, Leigh Tesfatsion 2017 Iowa State University

Agent-Based Computational Modeling And Macroeconomics, Leigh Tesfatsion

Leigh Tesfatsion

How should economists model the relationship between macroeconomic phenomena and microeconomic structure? Economists have been struggling to answer this question for decades. Nevertheless, the Walrasian equilibrium model devised by the nineteenth century French economist Leon Walras (1834-1910) still remains the fundamental paradigm that frames the way many economists think about this issue. Competitive models directly adopt the paradigm. Imperfectly competitive models typically adopt the paradigm as a benchmark of coordination success. Although often critiqued for its excessive abstraction and lack of empirical salience, the paradigm has persisted.


Inference In Continuous Systems With Mildly Explosive Regressors, Ye CHEN, Peter C. B. PHILLIPS, Jun YU 2017 Singapore Management University

Inference In Continuous Systems With Mildly Explosive Regressors, Ye Chen, Peter C. B. Phillips, Jun Yu

Research Collection School Of Law

New limit theory is developed for co-moving systems with explosive processes, connecting continuous and discrete time formulations. The theory uses double asymptotics with infill (as the sampling interval tends to zero) and large time span asymptotics. The limit theory explicitly involves initial conditions, allows for drift in the system, is provided for single and multiple explosive regressors, and is feasible to implement in practice. Simulations show that double asymptotics deliver a good approximation to the finite sample distribution, with both finite sample and asymptotic distributions showing sensitivity to initial conditions. The methods are implemented in the US real estate market ...


Volatility Spillovers And Linkages In Asian Stock Markets, Hwee Kwan CHOW-TAN 2017 Singapore Management University

Volatility Spillovers And Linkages In Asian Stock Markets, Hwee Kwan Chow-Tan

Research Collection School Of Economics

Diebold–Yilmaz spillover indexes are computed for weekly return volatilities based on daily benchmark stock indexes of the US, the UK, and 10 Asian countries. We found (i) the strengthening of overall volatility spillovers is not a temporary surge but persisted after the crisis; (ii) the susceptibility of individual Asian stock markets to inward volatility transfers is linked to its degree of openness; and (iii) the Asian bourses are becoming more important emitters of financial shocks since the crisis. Rolling regressions on volatility linkages reveal the relative dominance of the US over the Japanese and Chinese bourses, and the level ...


Identifying Latent Group Structures In Nonlinear Panels, Wuyi WANG, Liangjun SU 2017 Singapore Management University

Identifying Latent Group Structures In Nonlinear Panels, Wuyi Wang, Liangjun Su

Research Collection School Of Economics

We propose a procedure to identify latent group structures in nonlinear panel data models where some regression coefficients are heterogeneous across groups but homogeneous within a group and the group number and membership are unknown. To identify the group structures, we consider the order statistics for the preliminary unconstrained consistent estimators of the regression coefficients and translate the problem of classification into the problem of break detection. Then we extend the sequential binary segmentation algorithm of Bai (1997) for break detection from the time series setup to the panel data framework. We demonstrate that our method is able to identify ...


Inference In Continuous Systems With Mildly Explosive Regressors, Ye CHEN, Peter C. B. PHILLIPS, Jun YU 2017 Singapore Management University

Inference In Continuous Systems With Mildly Explosive Regressors, Ye Chen, Peter C. B. Phillips, Jun Yu

Research Collection School Of Economics

New limit theory is developed for co-moving systems with explosive processes, connecting continuous and discrete time formulations. The theory uses double asymptotics with infill (as the sampling interval tends to zero) and large time span asymptotics. The limit theory explicitly involves initial conditions, allows for drift in the system, is provided for single and multiple explosive regressors, and is feasible to implement in practice. Simulations show that double asymptotics deliver a good approximation to the finite sample distribution, with both finite sample and asymptotic distributions showing sensitivity to initial conditions. The methods are implemented in the US real estate market ...


Variational Bayes Estimation Of Time Series Copulas For Multivariate Ordinal And Mixed Data, Ruben Loaiza-Maya, Michael S. Smith 2017 Melbourne Business School

Variational Bayes Estimation Of Time Series Copulas For Multivariate Ordinal And Mixed Data, Ruben Loaiza-Maya, Michael S. Smith

Michael Stanley Smith

We propose a new variational Bayes method for estimating high-dimensional copulas with discrete, or discrete and continuous, margins. The method is based on a variational approximation to a tractable augmented posterior, and is substantially faster than previous likelihood-based approaches. We use it to estimate drawable vine copulas for univariate and multivariate Markov ordinal and mixed time series. These have dimension $rT$, where $T$ is the number of observations and $r$ is the number of series, and are difficult to estimate using previous methods. The vine pair-copulas are carefully selected to allow for heteroskedasticity, which is a common feature of ordinal ...


Disaster And Recovery: The Effects Of Post-Disaster Aid On Economic Development, Joshua M. Drouin 2017 Murray State University

Disaster And Recovery: The Effects Of Post-Disaster Aid On Economic Development, Joshua M. Drouin

Steeplechase

The effects of aid on economic development is topic typically studied from the perspective of corruption and allocative efficiency. We examine aid to less developed nations from a different viewpoint; assuming aid reaches the intended recipients, does it actually benefit them? We utilize Indonesia and the 2004 earthquake and tsunami as a natural experiment to observe the influx of aid, and compare the regions development before and after the disaster. By establishing a baseline before the disaster, and utilizing a new start point after the destruction, we can gauge the reconstruction efforts and observe whether aid is beneficial or harmful ...


Singapore’S Life Program: Actuarial Framework, Longevity Risk And Impact Of Annuity Fund Return, Koon Shing KWONG, Yiu Kuen TSE, Wai-Sum CHAN 2017 Singapore Management University

Singapore’S Life Program: Actuarial Framework, Longevity Risk And Impact Of Annuity Fund Return, Koon Shing Kwong, Yiu Kuen Tse, Wai-Sum Chan

Research Collection School Of Economics

The Central Provident Fund (CPF) is a defined-contribution savings plan forming the key pillar of the pension system in Singapore. The CPF Lifelong Income For the Elderly (LIFE) program, which provides lifetime income for retirees, is a mandatory pension scheme for all Singapore residents. In this paper we construct an actuarial framework to analyze the LIFE program. We use this framework to study the plan payout outcomes with respect to changes in mortality and annuity fund return assumptions. We also examine the effects of some possible changes in the program on the payouts and bequests.


Random Coefficient Continuous Systems: Testing For Extreme Sample Path Behaviour, Yubo TAO, Peter C. B. PHILLIPS, Jun YU 2017 Singapore Management University

Random Coefficient Continuous Systems: Testing For Extreme Sample Path Behaviour, Yubo Tao, Peter C. B. Phillips, Jun Yu

Research Collection School Of Economics

This paper studies a continuous time dynamic system with a random persistence parameter. The exact discrete time representation is obtained and related to several discrete time random coefficient models currently in the literature. The model distinguishes various forms of unstable and explosive behaviour according to specific regions of the parameter space that open up the potential for testing these forms of extreme behaviour. A two-stage approach that employs realized volatility is proposed for the continuous system estimation, asymptotic theory is developed, and test statistics to identify the different forms of extreme sample path behaviour are proposed. Simulations show that the ...


Root-N Consistency Of Intercept Estimators In A Binary Response Model Under Tail Restrictions, Lili TAN, Yichong ZHANG 2017 Yunnan University

Root-N Consistency Of Intercept Estimators In A Binary Response Model Under Tail Restrictions, Lili Tan, Yichong Zhang

Research Collection School Of Economics

The intercept of the binary response model is irregularly identified when the supports of both the special regressor V and the error term ε are the whole real line. This leads to the estimator of the intercept having potentially a slower than √n convergence rate, which can result in a large estimation error in practice. This paper imposes addition tail restrictions which guarantee the regular identification of the intercept and thus the √n-consistency of its estimator. We then propose an estimator that achieves the √n rate. Finally, we extend our tail restrictions to a full-blown model with endogenous regressors.


Singapore’S Life Program: Actuarial Framework, Longevity Risk And Impact Of Annuity Fund Return, Koon Shing KWONG, Yiu Kuen TSE, Wai-Sum CHAN 2017 Singapore Management University

Singapore’S Life Program: Actuarial Framework, Longevity Risk And Impact Of Annuity Fund Return, Koon Shing Kwong, Yiu Kuen Tse, Wai-Sum Chan

Research Collection School Of Economics

The Central Provident Fund (CPF) is a defined-contribution savings plan forming the key pillar of the pension system in Singapore. The CPF Lifelong Income For the Elderly (LIFE) program, which provides lifetime income for retirees, is a mandatory pension scheme for all Singapore residents. In this paper we construct an actuarial framework to analyze the LIFE program. We use this framework to study the plan payout outcomes with respect to changes in mortality and annuity fund return assumptions. We also examine the effects of some possible changes in the program on the payouts and bequests.


Volatility Spillovers And Linkages In Asian Stock Markets, Hwee Kwan CHOW-TAN 2017 Singapore Management University

Volatility Spillovers And Linkages In Asian Stock Markets, Hwee Kwan Chow-Tan

Research Collection School Of Economics

Diebold-Yilmaz spilloverindexes are computed for weekly return volatilities based on daily benchmarkstock indexes of US, UK and ten Asian countries. We found (i) the strengthening ofoverall volatility spillovers is not a temporary surge but persisted after thecrisis; (ii) the susceptibility ofindividual Asian stock markets to inward volatility transfers is linked to itsdegree of openness; and (iii) the Asian bourses are becoming more importantemitters of financial shocks since the crisis. Rolling regressions on volatilitylinkages reveal the relative dominance of the US over the Japanese and Chinesebourses, and the level of influence on Asian stock markets from the Chinesebourse has risen to ...


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