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Pathological Conditions, Signs and Symptoms Commons

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The Effects Of Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia On Oxidative Stress And Inflammation, Brina D. Snyder B.S. 2015 University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth

The Effects Of Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia On Oxidative Stress And Inflammation, Brina D. Snyder B.S.

Theses and Dissertations

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is increasingly implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Evidence points to OSA as contributing to inflammation similar to inflammation observed in neurodegeneration. The chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) experienced by OSA patients may be an early contributing factor to chronic inflammation that leads to neurodegeneration.

Experiments in this study identify circulating biomarkers affected by OSA and their early impact on neurodegeneration. In the first experiment, oxidative stress and inflammation were observed to increase in male rats exposed to CIH. In the second set of experiments, inflammation within brain nuclei implicated in the onset of Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer ...


Investigating The Mechanism Of Ectopic Mineralization In A Mouse Model Of Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (Dish), Neil A. Tenn 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Investigating The Mechanism Of Ectopic Mineralization In A Mouse Model Of Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (Dish), Neil A. Tenn

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) transfers adenosine across plasma membranes. Mice lacking ENT1 (ENT1-/-) develop pathological calcification of spinal tissues resembling diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) in humans. Our goal was to investigate the mechanism underlying ectopic mineralization in ENT1-/- mice. We detected aberrant alkaline phosphatase (ALP, promoter of mineralization) activity in the annulus fibrosus (AF) of ENT1-/- mice. In vitro, AF cells from ENT1-/- mice exhibited greater ALP activity than cells from wild-type (WT) mice. Inhibition of ENT1 in the presence of extracellular adenosine modeled in WT cells the phenotype of ENT1-/- cells. We also characterized differences in the ...


Chikungunya Virus: More Than A Mosquito Bite, Abigail Shaw 2015 Otterbein University

Chikungunya Virus: More Than A Mosquito Bite, Abigail Shaw

Nursing Student Class Projects (Formerly MSN)

Chikungunya fever is a viral infection caused by the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Although seldom fatal, CHIKV causes high fevers, polyarthralgia, and rash. The mosquito-borne virus has spread rapidly in the last ten years, causing over three million cases of CHIKV worldwide (Powers, 2015). The recent outbreak initiated in Africa and the islands of the Indian Ocean in 2004 has quickly spread to Asia, Europe and the Americas (CDC, 2015). According to the CDC (2015), until 2014, cases in the United States had only been linked to foreign travel outside of the Americas. As the outbreak has grown, cases of local ...


Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia Purpura, Ann Oliva 2015 Otterbein University

Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia Purpura, Ann Oliva

Nursing Student Class Projects (Formerly MSN)

Patients with Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia Purpura, or TTP, are often times seen in the emergency department and subsequently admitted to the inpatient or the critical care unit. The problems that TTP patients can present with vary greatly and astute nursing assessment plus knowledge of the pathophysiology behind the diagnosis is vital to deliver excellent nursing care. Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia Purpura or TTP is a rare but potentially fatal condition that occurs as result of decreased levels of ADAMTS-13, a cleaving protease for von Willebrand factor (vWF), which causes platelet aggregation and microvascular thrombi and subsequent end-organ damage, along with thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia ...


Malignant Hyperthermia: A Clinical Crisis, Eric Reing 2015 Otterbein University

Malignant Hyperthermia: A Clinical Crisis, Eric Reing

Nursing Student Class Projects (Formerly MSN)

Malignant hyperthermia, though uncommon, is a serious and life threatening condition. Malignant hyperthermia is an autosomal dominant disorder that affects skeletal muscle. It can be caused by various general anesthetic agents like succinylcholine and several inhaled anesthetics. Malignant hyperthermia is a relevant topic to certified registered nurse anesthetists due to the potentially fatal result if not recognized and treated promptly. In understanding the pathophysiology, risk factors, signs and symptoms, epidemiology, and current treatments the health care provider can help to prevent complications due to this disorder (Nagelhout, 2014).


Preparedness Of Nurses For Malignant Hyperthermia, Melissa Flemming 2015 Otterbein University

Preparedness Of Nurses For Malignant Hyperthermia, Melissa Flemming

Nursing Student Class Projects (Formerly MSN)

Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a potentially life threatening disorder that occurs following exposure to certain inhaled anesthetics such as halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, desflurane, enflurane, ether, and methoxyflurane alone or in combination with the depolarizing muscle relaxant, succinylcholine (Seifert,, Wahr, Pace, Cochrane, & Bagnola, 2014, p. 189). Patients experiencing malignant hyperthermia may progress to death if it is not recognized and treated early. Patient outcomes improve the earlier an intervention is given. Malignant hyperthermia is not a common condition and, therefore, nurses are frequently unfamiliar with the common signs, symptoms, and treatments. Malignant hyperthermia can occur in a variety of settings where ...


Raynaud’S Phenomenon, Sarah Gasper 2015 Otterbein University

Raynaud’S Phenomenon, Sarah Gasper

Nursing Student Class Projects (Formerly MSN)

Raynaud’s phenomenon (RP) is a widely prevalent clinical disorder commonly seen in outpatient settings. It is characterized by episodic vasospastic attacks of the digital arteries and arterioles that limit blood flow to the extremities, causing severe pain. Temperature changes and stress are the primary triggers that exacerbate this disease. The classic biphasic color changes of RP are pallor, cyanosis, and erythema and commonly affect the fingers and toes and more rarely, the nose, nipples, ears, lips, and penis. RP is divided into subcategories. Primary Raynaud’s phenomenon (PRP) is when no underlying medical disease exists and the condition happens ...


Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome: A Pathophysicological Dilemma, Samantha Davis 2015 Otterbein University

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome: A Pathophysicological Dilemma, Samantha Davis

Nursing Student Class Projects (Formerly MSN)

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare disease occurring from an adverse reaction to anti-psychotic use. The diagnosis and predictability of the disease is extremely difficult as it mimics other syndromes (Margetić & Aukst-Margetić, 2010). The disease onset can occur when initiating medications, escalating doses, or adding an adjunctive anti-psychotic to the regimen. Although causing the unpredictability, the disease can occur at any dose (Paul, Michael, John, & Lenox, 2012). Further increasing the difficulty of diagnostics, signs and symptoms are very wide spread. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders created a tool to assist in the clinical setting; it, “requires the presence of 2 core features of severe muscle rigidity and elevated temperature after recent initiation or change in dosage of an antipsychotic, along with 2 or more of the following symptoms: diaphoresis, dysphagia, tremor, incontinence, changes in level of consciousness, mutism, tachycardia, elevated or labile blood pressure, leukocytosis, and elevated creatine kinase (CK) levels” (Paul, Michael, John, & Lenox, 2012). The basis of diagnostics have been ...


What You Need To Know About Malignant Hyperthermia, Regan C. Siegman 2015 Otterbein University

What You Need To Know About Malignant Hyperthermia, Regan C. Siegman

Nursing Student Class Projects (Formerly MSN)

The first case of malignant hyperthermia (MH) that can be identified dates back to the 1960s when a patient with a known familial history of anesthesia complications demonstrated tachycardia, increased body temperature and hypotension following induction of anesthesia. After this incident, clinicians described MH as an increased metabolic state that has a range of signs associated with induction of inhaled anesthetics (Seifert, Wahr, Pace, Cochrane, & Bagnola, 2014). MH is a serious, life-threatening reaction that occurs after being exposed to certain inhaled and local anesthetics. Some of the inhaled volatile anesthetic agents that can trigger MH include halothane, sevoflurane, desflurane and ...


Progression Of Non-Alcoholic Steatosis To Steatohepatitis And Fibrosis Parallels Cumulative Accumulation Of Danger Signals That Promote Inflammation And Liver Tumors In A High Fat-Cholesterol-Sugar Diet Model In Mice, Michal Ganz, Terence N. Bukong, Timea Csak, Banishree Saha, Jin-Kyu Park, Aditya Ambade, Karen Kodys, Gyongyi Szabo 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Progression Of Non-Alcoholic Steatosis To Steatohepatitis And Fibrosis Parallels Cumulative Accumulation Of Danger Signals That Promote Inflammation And Liver Tumors In A High Fat-Cholesterol-Sugar Diet Model In Mice, Michal Ganz, Terence N. Bukong, Timea Csak, Banishree Saha, Jin-Kyu Park, Aditya Ambade, Karen Kodys, Gyongyi Szabo

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming a pandemic. While multiple 'hits' have been reported to contribute to NAFLD progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis and liver cancer, understanding the natural history of the specific molecular signals leading to hepatocyte damage, inflammation and fibrosis, is hampered by the lack of suitable animal models that reproduce disease progression in humans. The purpose of this study was first, to develop a mouse model that closely mimics progressive NAFLD covering the spectrum of immune, metabolic and histopathologic abnormalities present in human disease; and second, to characterize the temporal relationship between sterile/exogenous ...


Microrna-155 Deficiency Attenuates Liver Steatosis And Fibrosis Without Reducing Inflammation In A Mouse Model Of Steatohepatitis, Timea Csak, Shashi Bala, Dora Lippai, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano, Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Gyongyi Szabo 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Microrna-155 Deficiency Attenuates Liver Steatosis And Fibrosis Without Reducing Inflammation In A Mouse Model Of Steatohepatitis, Timea Csak, Shashi Bala, Dora Lippai, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano, Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Gyongyi Szabo

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND and AIM: MicroRNAs (miRs) regulate hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis. Fibrosis is the consequence of chronic tissue damage and inflammation. We hypothesized that deficiency of miR-155, a master regulator of inflammation, attenuates steatohepatitis and fibrosis.

METHODS: Wild type (WT) and miR-155-deficient (KO) mice were fed methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) or -supplemented (MCS) control diet for 5 weeks. Liver injury, inflammation, steatosis and fibrosis were assessed.

RESULTS: MCD diet resulted in steatohepatitis and increased miR-155 expression in total liver, hepatocytes and Kupffer cells. Steatosis and expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism were attenuated in miR-155 KO mice after MCD feeding ...


Cathosis: Cathepsins In Particle-Induced Inflammatory Cell Death: A Dissertation, Gregory M. Orlowski 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School Worcester

Cathosis: Cathepsins In Particle-Induced Inflammatory Cell Death: A Dissertation, Gregory M. Orlowski

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Sterile particles underlie the pathogenesis of numerous inflammatory diseases. These diseases can often become chronic and debilitating. Moreover, they are common, and include silicosis (silica), asbestosis (asbestos), gout (monosodium urate), atherosclerosis (cholesterol crystals), and Alzeihmer’s disease (amyloid Aβ). Central to the pathology of these diseases is a repeating cycle of particle-induced cell death and inflammation. Macrophages are the key cellular mediators thought to drive this process, as they are especially sensitive to particle-induced cell death and they are also the dominant producers of the cytokine responsible for much of this inflammation, IL-1β. In response to cytokines or microbial cues ...


Adipose Tissue Therapeutics For Scar Rehabilitation After Thermal Injury, Dylan Perry, Jorge R. Lujan-Hernandez, Ava Chappell, So Yun Min, Raghu Appasani, Raziel Rojas-Rodriguez, Michael S. Chin, Silvia Corvera, Janice F. Lalikos 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Adipose Tissue Therapeutics For Scar Rehabilitation After Thermal Injury, Dylan Perry, Jorge R. Lujan-Hernandez, Ava Chappell, So Yun Min, Raghu Appasani, Raziel Rojas-Rodriguez, Michael S. Chin, Silvia Corvera, Janice F. Lalikos

Senior Scholars Program

Background: Burn injuries are common and in the long term can lead to hypertrophic or keloid scars, pain and pruritus, limited mobility across joints, and disfigurement. Numerous reports suggest adipose derived tissues, including adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) and processed lipoaspirate, can improve acutely healing wounds from a variety of etiologies including excisional, thermal, and radiation injuries by both secretion of growth factors and direct differentiation. There are many options for scar treatment, including laser therapy, silicone sheets, steroid injection, and even skin grafting however these techniques either lack optimal efficacy or involve significant cost and morbidity. Clinical case series ...


The Plight Of The Lucluc: Examining The Deadly Mystery Of Nodding Syndrome, Ethan K. McGann 2015 Liberty University

The Plight Of The Lucluc: Examining The Deadly Mystery Of Nodding Syndrome, Ethan K. Mcgann

Senior Honors Theses

Nodding syndrome (NS) is an emerging epidemic neurological disease that is shrouded in mystery. It is currently only found in the post-conflict regions of South Sudan, northern Uganda, and Tanzania. NS occurs in children from the ages of five to fifteen and is characterized by a loss of motor control in the neck muscles. Seizure episodes can range in intensity from atonic to tonic-clonic, and the onset of the first episode generally marks the beginning of a decline in the child’s physical and mental health. NS is a progressive disease that generally results in physical wasting, stunted growth, behavioral ...


Leukoaraiosis And Sex Predict The Hyperacute Ischemic Core Volume, Nils Henninger, Eugene Lin, Diogo Haussen, Laura Lehman, Deepak Takhtani, Magdy Selim, Majaz Moonis 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Leukoaraiosis And Sex Predict The Hyperacute Ischemic Core Volume, Nils Henninger, Eugene Lin, Diogo Haussen, Laura Lehman, Deepak Takhtani, Magdy Selim, Majaz Moonis

Nils Henninger

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Leukoaraiosis (LA) and male sex have been associated with decreased cerebrovascular reactivity, which potentially adversely affects tissue viability in acute stroke. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the contribution of LA-severity and sex to the extent of the hyperacute ischemic core volume after intracranial large artery occlusion. METHODS: We analyzed data from 87 patients with acute intracranial large artery occlusion who had acute multimodal computed tomography-imaging. LA-severity was assessed using the van Swieten scale on noncontrast computed tomography. Computed tomography perfusion data were analyzed using automatic calculation of the mean transit time and hyperacute cerebral blood volume defects ...


Severity Of Pre-Existing Cerebral Small Vessel Disease Is Associated With Outcome After Traumatic Brain Injury, Nils Heninger, Saef Izzy, Raphael Carandang, Wiley Hall, Susanne Muehlschlegel 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Severity Of Pre-Existing Cerebral Small Vessel Disease Is Associated With Outcome After Traumatic Brain Injury, Nils Heninger, Saef Izzy, Raphael Carandang, Wiley Hall, Susanne Muehlschlegel

Nils Henninger

Background and purpose: It is now well accepted that traumatic white matter injury constitutes a critical determinant of post-traumatic functional impairment. However, the contribution of pre-existing white matter rarefaction on outcome following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is unknown. Hence, we sought to determine whether the burden of pre-existing cerebral small vessel disease related white matter rarefaction (leukoaraiosis) is independently associated with outcome after TBI. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed consecutive, prospectively enrolled patients of ≥50 years (n=136) that were admitted to a single neurological-trauma intensive care unit. Supratentorial white matter hypoattenuation on head CT was graded on a 5-point scale ...


Brain Blast 2015 Speakers Poster, Annie Leslie 2015 University of New England

Brain Blast 2015 Speakers Poster, Annie Leslie

Brain Blast

Poster from UNE's Brain Blast 2015 listing the expected presenters at this event.*


Clinical Guidelines: Where Environment Meets Medicine, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2015 Aurora Health Care

Clinical Guidelines: Where Environment Meets Medicine, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

N/A


Is Ginger An Effective Treatment For Moderate Or Severe Dysmenorrhea In Females Over The Age Of 18?, Katy N. DeGraw 2015 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

Is Ginger An Effective Treatment For Moderate Or Severe Dysmenorrhea In Females Over The Age Of 18?, Katy N. Degraw

PCOM Physician Assistant Studies Student Scholarship

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this selective EBM review is to determine whether or not ginger is a safe and effective treatment for moderate or severe dysmenorrhea in females over the age of 18.

STUDY DESIGN: Review of three randomized controlled studies. All three studies are published in English between 2009-2013.

DATA SOURCES: Three randomized placebo controlled studies found using PubMed and Medline.

OUTCOMES MEASURED: The outcomes that were measured were severity of pain, duration of pain, change in symptoms, and change in severity. This was done by using a visual analogue scale, 5-point Likert scale, Wilcoxon’s rank-sum test, and ...


Is Lubiprostone Effective In Treating Symptoms Of Chronic Constipation?, Christine M. MacDonald 2015 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

Is Lubiprostone Effective In Treating Symptoms Of Chronic Constipation?, Christine M. Macdonald

PCOM Physician Assistant Studies Student Scholarship

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this selective EBM review is to determine whether or not lubiprostone is effective in treating symptoms of chronic constipation.

STUDY DESIGN: Review of three English language primary randomized controlled trials from 2007- 2010.

DATA SOURCES: Three double-blind, randomized, controlled trials were found using PubMed. These studies compared treatment with lubiprostone to a visually matched placebo.

OUTCOME MEASURED: The frequency of each patient’s spontaneous bowel movements within the first 24 hours after initial treatment was recorded from the data collected from the patient’s daily diary.

RESULTS: All three trails demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in ...


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