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Emerging Advances Of Nanotechnology In Drug And Vaccine Delivery Against Viral Associated Respiratory Infectious Diseases (Varid), Amir Seyfoori, Mahdieh Shokrollahi Barough, Pooneh Mokarram, Mazaher Ahmadi, Parvaneh Mehrbod, Alireza Sheidary, Tayyebeh Madrakian, Mohammad Kiumarsi, Tavia Walsh, Kielan D McAlinden, Chandra C Ghosh, Pawan Sharma, Amir A Zeki, Saeid Ghavami, Mohsen Akbari 2021 University of Victoria

Emerging Advances Of Nanotechnology In Drug And Vaccine Delivery Against Viral Associated Respiratory Infectious Diseases (Varid), Amir Seyfoori, Mahdieh Shokrollahi Barough, Pooneh Mokarram, Mazaher Ahmadi, Parvaneh Mehrbod, Alireza Sheidary, Tayyebeh Madrakian, Mohammad Kiumarsi, Tavia Walsh, Kielan D Mcalinden, Chandra C Ghosh, Pawan Sharma, Amir A Zeki, Saeid Ghavami, Mohsen Akbari

Center for Translational Medicine Faculty Papers

Viral-associated respiratory infectious diseases are one of the most prominent subsets of respiratory failures, known as viral respiratory infections (VRI). VRIs are proceeded by an infection caused by viruses infecting the respiratory system. For the past 100 years, viral associated respiratory epidemics have been the most common cause of infectious disease worldwide. Due to several drawbacks of the current anti-viral treatments, such as drug resistance generation and non-targeting of viral proteins, the development of novel nanotherapeutic or nano-vaccine strategies can be considered essential. Due to their specific physical and biological properties, nanoparticles hold promising opportunities for both anti-viral treatments and …


Circumcision As An Intervening Strategy Against Hiv Acquisition In The Male Genital Tract, Adhikarimayum Lakhikumar Sharma, Joseph Hokello, Mudit Tyagi 2021 Thomas Jefferson University

Circumcision As An Intervening Strategy Against Hiv Acquisition In The Male Genital Tract, Adhikarimayum Lakhikumar Sharma, Joseph Hokello, Mudit Tyagi

Center for Translational Medicine Faculty Papers

Unsafe sex with HIV-infected individuals remains a major route for HIV transmission, and protective strategies, such as the distribution of free condoms and pre-or post-prophylaxis medication, have failed to control the spread of HIV, particularly in resource-limited settings and high HIV prevalence areas. An additional key strategy for HIV prevention is voluntary male circumcision (MC). International health organizations (e.g., the World Health Organization, UNAIDS) have recommended this strategy on a larger scale, however, there is a general lack of public understanding about how MC effectively protects against HIV infection. This review aims to discuss the acquisition of HIV through the …


A Novel In Vitro Method For Pelvic Floor Dysfunction In Pcos Women, Ruben Vila 2021 Portland State University

A Novel In Vitro Method For Pelvic Floor Dysfunction In Pcos Women, Ruben Vila

University Honors Theses

Background:

Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome and Pelvic Floor Dysfunction are reproductive diseases with comorbidities whose novel relationship deserves further investigation.

Methods:

Levator Ani Muscle/Paravaginal Attachment was dissected from female Rhesus Macaque and subjected to tissue dissociation. Cells were treated with serum level hormones E2, T, and DHT. PCR, ICC, and IHC were used, followed by statistical analysis.

Results:

RNA analysis show differences in relative expression for endpoints ER, PR, AR, Ki-67, Col1A, and Vimentin. IHC along with ICC showed expression and localization in vivo.

Conclusions:

A novel in vitro model was created from macaque Levator Ani Muscle/Paravaginal Attachment for Pelvic …


An Update On The Hiv Dna Vaccine Strategy, Joseph Hokello, Adhikarimayum Lakhikumar Sharma, Mudit Tyagi 2021 Kampala International University-Western Campus

An Update On The Hiv Dna Vaccine Strategy, Joseph Hokello, Adhikarimayum Lakhikumar Sharma, Mudit Tyagi

Center for Translational Medicine Faculty Papers

In 2020, the global prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was estimated to be 38 million, and a total of 690,000 people died from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)–related complications. Notably, around 12.6 million people living with HIIV/AIDS did not have access to life-saving treatment. The advent of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the mid-1990s remarkably enhanced the life expectancy of people living with HIV/AIDS as a result of improved immune functions. However, HAART has several drawbacks, especially when it is not used properly, including a high risk for the development of drug resistance, as well as undesirable …


Reflecting On The Now: Race, Gender, Socio-Economic Status And Covid-19, Ariana Montemayor, Sydney M. Scanlon 2021 Old Dominion University

Reflecting On The Now: Race, Gender, Socio-Economic Status And Covid-19, Ariana Montemayor, Sydney M. Scanlon

VA Engage Journal

Early in 2020, we began a project for our Women and Technology class at Old Dominion University to highlight women working in health sciences. However, our original project idea drastically changed with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 focused our attention on issues regarding societal inequalities and health disparities. Therefore, we decided to create a new project that emphasized the societal inequalities and the disproportionate impact COVID had on People of Color, women and low-income individuals. In this paper, we critically reflect on the journey of our project from conception to completion, as well as how we, and the …


Interventional Treatment With The Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (Tips) Procedure May Offer A Preferable Alternative To Systemic Anticoagulation In Patients With Cirrhosis And Portal Vein Thrombosis, Molly N. Pantelic 2021 Wayne State University School of Medicine

Interventional Treatment With The Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (Tips) Procedure May Offer A Preferable Alternative To Systemic Anticoagulation In Patients With Cirrhosis And Portal Vein Thrombosis, Molly N. Pantelic

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

A clinical decision report appraising:

Wang Z, Jiang MS, Zhang HL, et al. Is post-tips anticoagulation therapy necessary in patients with cirrhosis and portal vein thrombosis? A randomized controlled trial. Radiology. 2016;279(3):943-951. https://doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2015150369

for a patient with cryptogenic cirrhosis, gastroesophageal varices, pancreatic cancer, and portal vein thrombosis.


Luspatercept Diminishes The Need For Red Blood Cell Replacement In Transfusion-Dependent Β-Thalassemia Patients, Joudeh B. Freij 2021 Wayne State University School of Medicine

Luspatercept Diminishes The Need For Red Blood Cell Replacement In Transfusion-Dependent Β-Thalassemia Patients, Joudeh B. Freij

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

A clinical decision report appraising:

Cappellini MD, Viprakasit V, Taher AT, et al. A phase 3 trial of luspatercept in patients with transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(13):1219-1231. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1910182

for a patient with transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia.


Sleeve Gastrectomy Improves Metabolic Syndrome In Psychologically Stable Patients With Schizophrenia, Irene Chen 2021 Wayne State University

Sleeve Gastrectomy Improves Metabolic Syndrome In Psychologically Stable Patients With Schizophrenia, Irene Chen

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

A clinical decision report appraising:

Archid R, Archid N, Meile T, Hoffman J, Wulff D, Teufel M, Muthig M, Quante M, Konigsrainer A, Lange J. Patients with schizophrenia do not demonstrate worse outcome after sleeve gastrectomy: a short-term cohort study. Obesity Surgery. 2019;29:506-510. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11695-018-3578-0

for a patient with schizophrenia and obesity.


External Beam Radiation Therapy Carries Lower Risk Of Sexual Dysfunction As Compared To Radical Prostatectomy In Treatment Of Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer, Aamod S. Dekhne 2021 Wayne State University School of Medicine

External Beam Radiation Therapy Carries Lower Risk Of Sexual Dysfunction As Compared To Radical Prostatectomy In Treatment Of Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer, Aamod S. Dekhne

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

A clinical decision report appraising:

Donovan JL, Hamdy FC, Lane JA, et al. Patient-Reported Outcomes after Monitoring, Surgery, or Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2016;375(15):1425-1437. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1606221

for a patient with localized prostate cancer and concerns regarding future sexual dysfunction.


Clinical Decision Science: Experience Can Be Shared; Can It Be Taught?, James Peter Meza 2021 Wayne State University School of Medicine

Clinical Decision Science: Experience Can Be Shared; Can It Be Taught?, James Peter Meza

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

The editor reflects on the biopsychosocial model of clinical decision making and whether it can be taught in clinical medicine.


The Driving Simulator Visual Field In Glaucoma – A Novel Task To Test Available Field Of View, Deepta Ghate 2021 University of Nebraska Medical Center

The Driving Simulator Visual Field In Glaucoma – A Novel Task To Test Available Field Of View, Deepta Ghate

Theses & Dissertations

Glaucoma causes peripheral vision loss and impaired driving performance. We developed a novel driving simulator visual field task (DSVF) in a panoramic driving simulator to map the available field of view under different perceptual task loads in naturalistic settings. Our hypothesis is that “available field of view” will decrease with increasing task load in both glaucoma subjects and controls. This is a cross-sectional study with 28 glaucoma subjects and 19 controls. DSVF (60̊ x 20̊ visual field at 2.5 m) was tested in a high-fidelity interactive driving simulator in 4 different scenarios: a) no distractions b) no driving condition with …


The Population Affected By The Syndemic Of Covid-19 And Poverty Is More Likely To Be Hospitalized With Sars-Cov-2 Pneumonia, Julio A. Ramirez, Stephen P. Furmanek, Meredith Cahill, Stephen S. Hanson, Ruth Carrico, Forest W. Arnold 2021 University of Louisville

The Population Affected By The Syndemic Of Covid-19 And Poverty Is More Likely To Be Hospitalized With Sars-Cov-2 Pneumonia, Julio A. Ramirez, Stephen P. Furmanek, Meredith Cahill, Stephen S. Hanson, Ruth Carrico, Forest W. Arnold

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background

Lockdown measures to control COVID-19 have exacerbated the poverty epidemic. We hypothesized that the synergistic interaction of COVID-19 and poverty epidemics favors the development of more severe forms of COVID-19 in the population living in poverty. To test this hypothesis, we assessed whether an ecological association exists between the geographic distribution of hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and markers of poverty in the city of Louisville, KY.

Methods

Using the geomasked home addresses of hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in the city of Louisville, a kernel density heatmap was created. Kuldorff’s spatial scan statistic was used to calculate areas …


Biomaterials For Soft Tissue Applications, Alisha P. Pedersen 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Biomaterials For Soft Tissue Applications, Alisha P. Pedersen

Doctoral Dissertations

Biomaterial applications in the biomedical field have resulted in great advancements in the availability and efficacy of medical devices and therapeutic options for a host of conditions. Applications of biomaterials span all organ systems and tissue types, and have served a range of purposes including mechanical support, drug delivery, tissue regeneration, and reduction of surgical complications. Biomaterials are delineated by their ability to be utilized on or within the body with minimal-to-no adverse reaction and can be manipulated to feature various structures, degradative properties, topographies, and inclusion of bioactive substances or drugs. Soft tissue applications of biomaterials is an expansive …


A Fully-Automated, Deep Learning-Based Framework For Ct-Based Localization, Segmentation, Verification And Planning Of Metastatic Vertebrae, Tucker Netherton, Tucker James Netherton 2021 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

A Fully-Automated, Deep Learning-Based Framework For Ct-Based Localization, Segmentation, Verification And Planning Of Metastatic Vertebrae, Tucker Netherton, Tucker James Netherton

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Palliative radiotherapy is an effective treatment for the palliation of symptoms caused by vertebral metastases. Visible evidence of disease is localized on medical images as part of the treatment planning process. However, complicating factors such as time pressures, anatomic variants in the spine, and similarities in adjacent vertebrae are associated with wrong level treatments of the spine. In addition, erroneous manual contouring of anatomic structures is a major failure mode in radiotherapy treatment planning.

The purpose of this study is to mitigate the challenges associated with treatment planning of the spine by automating the treatment planning process for three-dimensional conformal …


Non-Selective Primary Human Tumor Cell Line Generation From Surgical Resections To Be Paired With Flash Frozen And Paraffin Embedded Tissue: Advancements In Democratizing Translational Research Materials To Rural Institutions, Jennifer Hawkins, Rebecca Russell, Logan M. Lawrence, Amrita Valluri, Jessica Wellman, Krista Denning 2021 Marshall University

Non-Selective Primary Human Tumor Cell Line Generation From Surgical Resections To Be Paired With Flash Frozen And Paraffin Embedded Tissue: Advancements In Democratizing Translational Research Materials To Rural Institutions, Jennifer Hawkins, Rebecca Russell, Logan M. Lawrence, Amrita Valluri, Jessica Wellman, Krista Denning

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Translational cancer research relies on the availability of human patient tissue demonstrating the specific disease process under investigation. Biobanks of human tissue have historically been and remain to date the primary access point for cancer research samples. Biorepositories routinely supply researchers with varying sample types for use in biomedical studies; most commonly formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue, or fresh snap-frozen tissue. In conjunction with preserved tissue samples, viable tumor cell lines derived from patient tissue have emerged to be a new gold standard in cancer research particularly in drug discovery and functional prognostic assays. Tissue banks providing these samples are …


Streptococcus Anginosus Lung Infection And Empyema: A Case Report And Review Of The Literature, Nishita Tripathi, Kuldeep Ghosh, Anupama Raghuram 2021 University of Louisville

Streptococcus Anginosus Lung Infection And Empyema: A Case Report And Review Of The Literature, Nishita Tripathi, Kuldeep Ghosh, Anupama Raghuram

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Streptococcus milleri group (SMG) also referred to as the Streptococcus anginosus group. These are Gram-positive, variable hemolysis, catalase negative, microaerophilic, non-motile facultative anaerobes which have been known to cause abscesses in humans. We report a case of empyema caused by Streptococcus anginosus in a patient with an unresolved pneumonia for over a month. In early October 2018, the patient presented to an emergency room with the complaints of shortness of air, productive cough, chills, subjective fever and weight loss for 4 weeks. A chest X-ray revealed a left lower lobe pneumonia. He was treated with 250 mg of azithromycin for …


Characteristics And Outcomes Of Bacteremic Pneumococcal Pneumonia Of Patients With And Without Hiv Infection In Argentina, Alejandra González 2021 Posadas Hospital

Characteristics And Outcomes Of Bacteremic Pneumococcal Pneumonia Of Patients With And Without Hiv Infection In Argentina, Alejandra González

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main causative agent of pneumonia, with a 10 to 25 percent rate of isolation in blood cultures. Controversies exist regarding the prognostic impact of a history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on community-acquired pneumonia.

The aim of our work was to analyze and compare the clinical presentation, radiological findings and progression of pneumococcal pneumonia in patients infected with and not infected with HIV. We retrospectively analyzed adult patients with positive blood cultures for Streptococcus pneumoniae and clinical and radiological findings compatible with pneumonia in the period between January 2012 and May 2017. Age, sex, comorbidities, …


Differential Effects Of Kim-1 In Subcutaneous And Orthotopic Renca Models Of Kidney Cancer, Demitra M. Yotis DY 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Differential Effects Of Kim-1 In Subcutaneous And Orthotopic Renca Models Of Kidney Cancer, Demitra M. Yotis Dy

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) is the most common and fatal type of kidney cancer. Over 30% of patients that are diagnosed with RCC exhibit metastases. Almost 88% of patients with distant metastases succumb to the disease within 5 years of diagnosis. Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a cell surface glycoprotein that is not expressed in a healthy kidney but becomes highly expressed on proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) following injury. Data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) reveals that >90% of RCC tumours express KIM-1 mRNA and that higher expression levels correlate with increased overall survival rates of patients. The …


Invasive Pneumococcal Serotype 3 Disease Despite Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine-23, B. Frank Parker Jr, Forest W. Arnold 2021 University of Louisville, Louisville, KY

Invasive Pneumococcal Serotype 3 Disease Despite Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine-23, B. Frank Parker Jr, Forest W. Arnold

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Pneumococcal disease has a high global morbidity and mortality. We report a case of a 63-year old female with a history of vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine-23 (PPSV-23) who was transferred to a tertiary care facility with fever and seizures due to an unknown etiology. The diagnosis of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was based the identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the blood (culture; serogroup 3) and cerebrospinal fluid (antigen), and the finding of purulence under pressure at craniotomy. The pneumococcal vaccine should provide protection from IPD. The findings reported here display that IPD can overcome immunity proffered by the pneumococcal …


To Preprint Or Not To Preprint, Forest W. Arnold, Kimberley A. Buckner, Alex Glynn, Jessica Petrey, Jose Bordon 2021 University of Louisville

To Preprint Or Not To Preprint, Forest W. Arnold, Kimberley A. Buckner, Alex Glynn, Jessica Petrey, Jose Bordon

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


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