Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Medical Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

15,365 Full-Text Articles 44,025 Authors 2,376,081 Downloads 285 Institutions

All Articles in Medical Sciences

Faceted Search

15,365 full-text articles. Page 1 of 604.

Ketogenic Diet Effects On Inflammatory Allodynia And Ongoing Pain In Rodents, David N. Ruskin, Isabella C. Sturdevant, Livia S. Wyss, Susan A. Masino 2021 Trinity College Hartford

Ketogenic Diet Effects On Inflammatory Allodynia And Ongoing Pain In Rodents, David N. Ruskin, Isabella C. Sturdevant, Livia S. Wyss, Susan A. Masino

Faculty Scholarship

© 2021, The Author(s). Ketogenic diets are very low carbohydrate, high fat, moderate protein diets used to treat medication-resistant epilepsy. Growing evidence suggests that one of the ketogenic diet’s main mechanisms of action is reducing inflammation. Here, we examined the diet’s effects on experimental inflammatory pain in rodent models. Young adult rats and mice were placed on the ketogenic diet or maintained on control diet. After 3–4 weeks on their respective diets, complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) was injected in one hindpaw to induce inflammation; the contralateral paw was used as the control. Tactile sensitivity (von Frey ...


Early Protein Intake Predicts Functional Connectivity And Neurocognition In Preterm Born Children, Emma G. Duerden, Benjamin Thompson, Tanya Poppe, Jane Alsweiler, Greg Gamble, Yannan Jiang, Myra Leung, Anna C. Tottman, Trecia Wouldes, Steven P. Miller, Jane E. Harding, Jane M. Alsweiler, Janene B. Biggs, Coila Bevan, Joanna M. Black, Frank H. Bloomfield, Kelly Fredell, Greg D. Gamble, Jane E. Harding, Sabine Huth, Yannan Jiang, Christine Kevan, Myra Leung, Geraint Phillips, Tanya Poppe, Jennifer A. Rogers, Heather Stewart, Benjamin S. Thompson 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Early Protein Intake Predicts Functional Connectivity And Neurocognition In Preterm Born Children, Emma G. Duerden, Benjamin Thompson, Tanya Poppe, Jane Alsweiler, Greg Gamble, Yannan Jiang, Myra Leung, Anna C. Tottman, Trecia Wouldes, Steven P. Miller, Jane E. Harding, Jane M. Alsweiler, Janene B. Biggs, Coila Bevan, Joanna M. Black, Frank H. Bloomfield, Kelly Fredell, Greg D. Gamble, Jane E. Harding, Sabine Huth, Yannan Jiang, Christine Kevan, Myra Leung, Geraint Phillips, Tanya Poppe, Jennifer A. Rogers, Heather Stewart, Benjamin S. Thompson

Brain and Mind Institute Researchers' Publications

© 2021, The Author(s). Nutritional intake can promote early neonatal brain development in very preterm born neonates (< 32 weeks’ gestation). In a group of 7-year-old very preterm born children followed since birth, we examined whether early nutrient intake in the first weeks of life would be associated with long-term brain function and neurocognitive skills at school age. Children underwent resting-state functional MRI (fMRI), intelligence testing (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 5th Ed) and visual-motor processing (Beery-Buktenica, 5th Ed) at 7 years. Relationships were assessed between neonatal macronutrient intakes, functional connectivity strength between thalamic and default mode networks (DMN), and neuro-cognitive function using multivariable regression. Greater functional connectivity strength between thalamic networks and DMN was associated with greater intake of protein in the first week (β = 0.17; 95% CI 0.11, 0.23, p < 0.001) but lower intakes of fat (β = − 0.06; 95% CI − 0.09, − 0.02, p = 0.001) and carbohydrates (β = − 0.03; 95% CI − 0.04, − 0.01, p = 0.003). Connectivity strength was also associated with protein intake during the first month (β = 0.22; 95% CI 0.06, 0.37, p = 0.006). Importantly, greater thalamic-DMN connectivity strength was associated with higher processing speed indices (β = 26.9; 95% CI 4.21, 49.49, p = 0.02) and visual processing scores (β = 9.03; 95% CI 2.27, 15.79, p = 0.009). Optimizing early protein intake may contribute to promoting long-term brain health in preterm-born children.


Differential Ketogenic Diet-Induced Shift In Csf Lipid/Carbohydrate Metabolome Of Pediatric Epilepsy Patients With Optimal Vs. No Anticonvulsant Response: A Pilot Study, Susan A. Masino, David N. Ruskin, Natalie R. Freedgood, Marie Lindefeldt, Maria Dahlin 2021 Trinity College

Differential Ketogenic Diet-Induced Shift In Csf Lipid/Carbohydrate Metabolome Of Pediatric Epilepsy Patients With Optimal Vs. No Anticonvulsant Response: A Pilot Study, Susan A. Masino, David N. Ruskin, Natalie R. Freedgood, Marie Lindefeldt, Maria Dahlin

Faculty Scholarship

Background: The low carbohydrate, high fat ketogenic diet can be an effective anticonvulsant treatment in some pediatric patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Its mechanism(s) of action, however, remain uncertain. Direct sampling of cerebrospinal fluid before and during metabolic therapy may reveal key changes associated with differential clinical outcomes. We characterized the relationship between seizure responsiveness and changes in lipid and carbohydrate metabolites. Methods: We performed metabolomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid samples taken before and during ketogenic diet treatment in patients with optimal response (100% seizure remission) and patients with no response (no seizure improvement) to search for differential diet effects ...


Machine Learning Classification Of Traumatic Brain Injury Patients Versus Healthy Controls Using Arterial Spin Labeled Perfusion Mri, Vanessa I. Grass 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Machine Learning Classification Of Traumatic Brain Injury Patients Versus Healthy Controls Using Arterial Spin Labeled Perfusion Mri, Vanessa I. Grass

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most common causes of death and disability worldwide, yet accurate in vivo detection of TBI neuropathology remains challenging due to complexities in the structural and functional changes observed post-injury as well as limitations in conventional neuroimaging modalities. Although advanced neuroimaging techniques such as arterial spin labeling (ASL) can noninvasively assess cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes observed post-injury, this technique is underutilized in TBI research partly due to the low signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) inherent in ASL imaging. The aim of the current study is to examine the use of machine learning, specifically a Support ...


Reiki For Recovery: Incorporating Japanese Health Practices To Increase Contemporary Resiliency In American Health, Leif Peterson 2021 The University of San Francisco

Reiki For Recovery: Incorporating Japanese Health Practices To Increase Contemporary Resiliency In American Health, Leif Peterson

Master's Projects and Capstones

The Japanese health practice of Reiki attempts to maximize the latent ability of the human system to heal itself. The Reiki system, established over a century ago, combines multiple Asian health traditions, experimenting with practices that maximize the natural processes of the body to perform its own repairs. Reiki encourages healthy behaviors that balance the mind and body, return the human system to a lowered stress level, and allow for an optimal recovery state for the patient. This paper illustrates how this Japanese health-affirming method can be integrated and utilized within existing health and medical practices. An area that is ...


Structural Alterations In Cortical And Thalamocortical White Matter Tracts After Recovery From Prefrontal Cortex Lesions In Macaques, Ramina Adam, David J. Schaeffer, Kevin Johnston, Ravi S. Menon, Stefan Everling 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Structural Alterations In Cortical And Thalamocortical White Matter Tracts After Recovery From Prefrontal Cortex Lesions In Macaques, Ramina Adam, David J. Schaeffer, Kevin Johnston, Ravi S. Menon, Stefan Everling

Brain and Mind Institute Researchers' Publications

Unilateral damage to the frontoparietal network typically impairs saccade target selection within the contralesional visual hemifield. Severity of deficits and the degree of recovery have been associated with widespread network dysfunction, yet it is not clear how these behavioural and functional brain changes relate with the underlying structural white matter tracts. Here, we investigated whether recovery after unilateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) lesions was associated with changes in white matter microstructure across large-scale frontoparietal cortical and thalamocortical networks. Diffusion-weighted imaging was acquired in four male rhesus macaques at pre-lesion, week 1, and week 8-16 post-lesion when target selection deficits largely recovered ...


The Effect Of Polyunsaturated And Saturated Fatty Acids On Seizure Presence And Severity In A Cohort Of Subjects In An Epilepsy Monitoring Unit, Jana K. Wells 2021 University of Nebraska Medical Center

The Effect Of Polyunsaturated And Saturated Fatty Acids On Seizure Presence And Severity In A Cohort Of Subjects In An Epilepsy Monitoring Unit, Jana K. Wells

Theses & Dissertations

Ketogenic diet therapies (KDTs) have been used to treat epilepsy for nearly 100 years. Although effective, restrictive diet patterns and unknown impacts on long-term health outcomes often prevent their use as first-line therapy. To date, a distinct mechanism of action for KDTs has not been determined and evidence suggests fatty acids (FAs) may play a role in eliciting anti-seizure effects. This dissertation aimed to provide insights into the effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) on seizure presence and severity through the analysis of dietary intake in a cohort of patients admitted to an epilepsy monitoring ...


Water Exchange Rate Across The Blood-Brain Barrier Is Associated With Csf Amyloid-Β 42 In Healthy Older Adults, Brian T. Gold, Xingfeng Shao, Tiffany L. Sudduth, Gregory A. Jicha, Donna M. Wilcock, Elayna R. Seago, Danny J. J. Wang 2021 University of Kentucky

Water Exchange Rate Across The Blood-Brain Barrier Is Associated With Csf Amyloid-Β 42 In Healthy Older Adults, Brian T. Gold, Xingfeng Shao, Tiffany L. Sudduth, Gregory A. Jicha, Donna M. Wilcock, Elayna R. Seago, Danny J. J. Wang

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

INTRODUCTION: We tested if water exchange across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), estimated with a noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique, is associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and neuropsychological function.

METHODS: Forty cognitively normal older adults (67–86 years old) were scanned with diffusion‐prepared, arterial spin labeling (DP‐ASL), which estimates water exchange rate across the BBB (kw). Participants also underwent CSF draw and neuropsychological testing. Multiple linear regression models were run with kw as a predictor of CSF concentrations and neuropsychological scores.

RESULTS: In multiple brain regions, BBB kw was positively associated ...


Implementation Of A National Telestroke Program: A Unit-Based Staff Education Inititative, Leigh Ann Raymond 2021 Xavier University

Implementation Of A National Telestroke Program: A Unit-Based Staff Education Inititative, Leigh Ann Raymond

Master of Science in Nursing Scholarly Project

Abstract

A national telestroke program (NTSP) was implemented at a medical center in the latter half of 2020. Following two inpatient strokes, it was discovered that only 67 members of the 370-member inpatient nursing staff had been assigned the required online learning modules. A unit-based nursing educational initiative was developed utilizing available online learning modules to address the gaps in knowledge in recognizing acute stroke signs, symptoms and providing timely care. The educational initiative, however, supplemented and complimented the online learning modules by incorporating an in-person poster presentation on inpatient strokes that included a small group discussion of an inpatient ...


Simian Varicella Virus Antibody Response In Recombinant Svv-Siv Immunized Primates, Kiser Horne 2021 University of Mississippi

Simian Varicella Virus Antibody Response In Recombinant Svv-Siv Immunized Primates, Kiser Horne

Honors Theses

Since its emergence in the early 1980’s HIV has killed approximately 32 million people, and continues to kill over half a million people every year. Significant research into potential vaccines and cures for HIV has been ongoing for decades but has been largely unsuccessful. One of the more promising technologies that is being investigated to develop an HIV vaccine is recombinant vaccine technology. The study presented in this thesis aims to use simian varicella virus (SVV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) to act as a model for recombinant vaccine development. If a recombinant SVV-SIV vaccine can be proven safe ...


Sarcopenia Screening By Registered Dietitian Nutritionists (Rdns) In The United States (U.S.), Madison Marcom 2021 East Tennessee State University

Sarcopenia Screening By Registered Dietitian Nutritionists (Rdns) In The United States (U.S.), Madison Marcom

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Sarcopenia is a disease of muscle wasting primarily seen in older adults. Although this term was first coined over three decades ago, there is a lack of consensus on a definition, screening criteria, and treatment protocol for sarcopenia. The primary purpose of this study is to determine whether registered dietitian nutritionists (RDNs) in the United States (U.S.) screen for sarcopenia. Study participants were recruited through a randomized email list and included RDNs throughout the U.S. Respondents completed a survey questioning knowledge of sarcopenia, screening tools and company protocols in place, and the need and desire for sarcopenia education ...


Muting, Not Fragmentation, Of Functional Brain Networks Under General Anesthesia, Corson N. Areshenkoff, Joseph Y. Nashed, R. Matthew Hutchison, Melina Hutchison, Ron Levy, Douglas J. Cook, Ravi S. Menon, Stefan Everling, Jason P. Gallivan 2021 Queen's University, Centre for Neuroscience Studies, Kingston

Muting, Not Fragmentation, Of Functional Brain Networks Under General Anesthesia, Corson N. Areshenkoff, Joseph Y. Nashed, R. Matthew Hutchison, Melina Hutchison, Ron Levy, Douglas J. Cook, Ravi S. Menon, Stefan Everling, Jason P. Gallivan

Brain and Mind Institute Researchers' Publications

© 2021 Changes in resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) under general anesthesia have been widely studied with the goal of identifying neural signatures of consciousness. This work has commonly revealed an apparent fragmentation of whole-brain network structure during unconsciousness, which has been interpreted as reflecting a break-down in connectivity and a disruption of the brain's ability to integrate information. Here we show, by studying rs-FC under varying depths of isoflurane-induced anesthesia in nonhuman primates, that this apparent fragmentation, rather than reflecting an actual change in network structure, can be simply explained as the result of a global reduction in FC. Specifically ...


The Migration Of Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii From The Battlefields Of Iraq And Afghanistan To The Healthcare Facilities Of The Veterans Health Administration, Jeffery Rogers 2021 University of Nebraska Medical Center

The Migration Of Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii From The Battlefields Of Iraq And Afghanistan To The Healthcare Facilities Of The Veterans Health Administration, Jeffery Rogers

Capstone Experience

Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) pose a great threat to health across the globe. That threat is also felt in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Wounded warriors returning home from the battlefields of Iraq and Afghanistan may have brought with them MDROs, such as the bacterium Acinetobacter baumannii, as they have transitioned from military service into the VHA facilities. This study investigates the interconnectedness of military service in the Department of Defense (DoD) and a lifetime of care at VHA through a longitudinal tracking of a linked cohort of combat veterans with battlefield injuries and subsequent MDR infections of A. baumannii. This ...


Non-Selective Primary Human Tumor Cell Line Generation From Surgical Resections To Be Paired With Flash Frozen And Paraffin Embedded Tissue: Advancements In Democratizing Translational Research Materials To Rural Institutions, Jennifer Hawkins, Rebecca Russell, Logan M. Lawrence, Amrita Valluri, Jessica Wellman, Krista Denning 2021 Marshall University

Non-Selective Primary Human Tumor Cell Line Generation From Surgical Resections To Be Paired With Flash Frozen And Paraffin Embedded Tissue: Advancements In Democratizing Translational Research Materials To Rural Institutions, Jennifer Hawkins, Rebecca Russell, Logan M. Lawrence, Amrita Valluri, Jessica Wellman, Krista Denning

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Translational cancer research relies on the availability of human patient tissue demonstrating the specific disease process under investigation. Biobanks of human tissue have historically been and remain to date the primary access point for cancer research samples. Biorepositories routinely supply researchers with varying sample types for use in biomedical studies; most commonly formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue, or fresh snap-frozen tissue. In conjunction with preserved tissue samples, viable tumor cell lines derived from patient tissue have emerged to be a new gold standard in cancer research particularly in drug discovery and functional prognostic assays. Tissue banks providing these samples are ...


Perivascular Adipose Tissue In Relation To Diet, Thermogenesis And Cardiovascular Health, Ginger Paquette, Caitlin Stieber, Ashely Soucy, Benjamin Tero, Lucy Liaw 2021 University of Southern Maine

Perivascular Adipose Tissue In Relation To Diet, Thermogenesis And Cardiovascular Health, Ginger Paquette, Caitlin Stieber, Ashely Soucy, Benjamin Tero, Lucy Liaw

Thinking Matters Symposium

Adipose tissue is a diverse and crucial component to vascular health due to its role in energy storage and heat production. The primary function of white adipose tissue (WAT) is energy storage while the function of mitochondria-rich brown adipose tissue (BAT) is heat production. Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), which surrounds blood vessels, contains both WAT and BAT adipocytes. Dietary calorie restriction is associated with increased lifespan with decreased adiposity. Increased prevalence of WAT-like PVAT, due to high-fat diets and obesity, leads to increased metabolic disfunction and cardiovascular-disease. We used a calorie-restriction model in C57BL6/J mice to test the hypothesis ...


Inherited Bone-Marrow Failure Syndrome, James Joseph 2021 University of Southern Maine

Inherited Bone-Marrow Failure Syndrome, James Joseph

Thinking Matters Symposium

The inherited bone marrow failure syndromes are heterogeneous group of rare genetic disorders characterized by bone marrow failure, congenital anomalies, and cancer predisposition. This includes disorders associated with pancytopenia, such as fanconi anemia and dyskeratosis congenita, as well as disorders with predominantly, but not exclusively, single lineage cytopenias. These syndromes are associated with mutations in 33 genes, and this has led to further understanding of hematopoiesis and how this is disrupted in patients with bone marrow failure. Other fundamental biological pathways were examined in patients, such as the DNA repair-fa/BRCA pathway. Fanconi anemia/ BRCA is a human tumor suppressor ...


Epigenome-Wide Association Study Of Kidney Function Identifies Trans-Ethnic And Ethnic-Specific Loci, Charles E. Breeze, Anna Batorsky, Mi Kyeong Lee, Mindy D. Szeto, Xiaoguang Xu, Daniel L. McCartney, Rong Jiang, Amit Patki, Holly J. Kramer, James M. Eales, Laura Raffield, Leslie Lange, Ethan Lange, Peter Durda, Yongmei Liu, Russ P. Tracy, David Van Den Berg, NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Consortium, TOPMed MESA Multi-Omics Working Group, Kathryn L. Evans, William E. Kraus, Donna K. Arnett 2021 National Cancer Institute

Epigenome-Wide Association Study Of Kidney Function Identifies Trans-Ethnic And Ethnic-Specific Loci, Charles E. Breeze, Anna Batorsky, Mi Kyeong Lee, Mindy D. Szeto, Xiaoguang Xu, Daniel L. Mccartney, Rong Jiang, Amit Patki, Holly J. Kramer, James M. Eales, Laura Raffield, Leslie Lange, Ethan Lange, Peter Durda, Yongmei Liu, Russ P. Tracy, David Van Den Berg, Nhlbi Trans-Omics For Precision Medicine (Topmed) Consortium, Topmed Mesa Multi-Omics Working Group, Kathryn L. Evans, William E. Kraus, Donna K. Arnett

Epidemiology Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation (DNAm) is associated with gene regulation and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a measure of kidney function. Decreased eGFR is more common among US Hispanics and African Americans. The causes for this are poorly understood. We aimed to identify trans-ethnic and ethnic-specific differentially methylated positions (DMPs) associated with eGFR using an agnostic, genome-wide approach.

METHODS: The study included up to 5428 participants from multi-ethnic studies for discovery and 8109 participants for replication. We tested the associations between whole blood DNAm and eGFR using beta values from Illumina 450K or EPIC arrays. Ethnicity-stratified analyses were performed using linear ...


The Effect Of Chronic Alcohol Consumption On Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage In Young Men, Emma Hamilton, Grant Hilliard 2021 University of Mississippi

The Effect Of Chronic Alcohol Consumption On Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage In Young Men, Emma Hamilton, Grant Hilliard

Honors Theses

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on exercise-induced muscle damage of the knee extensors in young men. METHODS: Twenty-one males (age 21.9 ± 1.1 yr; weight 183.4 ± 27.6 lbs; height 174.0 ± 13.1 cm) performed 100 maximal eccentric contractions at 30°/sec of the knee extensors using their non-dominant leg. The isometric and isokinetic muscle strengths (60°/sec and 180°/sec) were measured pre-exercise and immediately, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h, and 120 h post-exercise. Muscle soreness and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity were measured pre-exercise and 24 h, 48 ...


The Effects Of Progesterone Induced Blocking Factor And 17-Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate On The Pathophysiology Of Preeclampsia, Kyleigh M. Comley 2021 University of Mississippi

The Effects Of Progesterone Induced Blocking Factor And 17-Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate On The Pathophysiology Of Preeclampsia, Kyleigh M. Comley

Honors Theses

Preeclampsia (PE) is responsible for about 20% of the 13 million preterm births each year worldwide, including 100,000 cases annually in the United States. Despite being a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity, the mechanisms of pathogenesis are still largely unknown. PE is progesterone deficient state characterized by hypertension, chronic immune activation, endothelial dysfunction and severe forms can lead to seizures. Treatment of seizures includes the administration of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) though not all PE patients are responsive, and it does not decrease PE-associated hypertension. To resolve these conditions, PE patients are delivered early thereby making PE the ...


Magnitude Based Inference, Sharlo Bayless, Trevor J. Bihl 2021 Wright State University - Main Campus

Magnitude Based Inference, Sharlo Bayless, Trevor J. Bihl

Medical Student Research Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Though its use is widespread in research, null hypothesis significance testing is not without flaws. Out of a desire to provide a more practical approach to solving statistical problems in certain fields, Magnitude Based Inference (MBI) was created. MBI is a statistical method that was developed by Will G Hopkins and Alan M Batterham, two researchers in Sports and Exercise Science, in 2009.The main issues that they wanted to address with null hypothesis significance testing (NHST),were: 1) the need for a large sample size,2) the confusing language, and 3) the arbitrary selection of a p value of ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress