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Ketogenic Diet Effects On Inflammatory Allodynia And Ongoing Pain In Rodents, David N. Ruskin, Isabella C. Sturdevant, Livia S. Wyss, Susan A. Masino 2021 Trinity College Hartford

Ketogenic Diet Effects On Inflammatory Allodynia And Ongoing Pain In Rodents, David N. Ruskin, Isabella C. Sturdevant, Livia S. Wyss, Susan A. Masino

Faculty Scholarship

© 2021, The Author(s). Ketogenic diets are very low carbohydrate, high fat, moderate protein diets used to treat medication-resistant epilepsy. Growing evidence suggests that one of the ketogenic diet’s main mechanisms of action is reducing inflammation. Here, we examined the diet’s effects on experimental inflammatory pain in rodent models. Young adult rats and mice were placed on the ketogenic diet or maintained on control diet. After 3–4 weeks on their respective diets, complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) was injected in one hindpaw to induce inflammation; the contralateral paw was used as the control. Tactile sensitivity (von Frey ...


Differential Ketogenic Diet-Induced Shift In Csf Lipid/Carbohydrate Metabolome Of Pediatric Epilepsy Patients With Optimal Vs. No Anticonvulsant Response: A Pilot Study, Susan A. Masino, David N. Ruskin, Natalie R. Freedgood, Marie Lindefeldt, Maria Dahlin 2021 Trinity College

Differential Ketogenic Diet-Induced Shift In Csf Lipid/Carbohydrate Metabolome Of Pediatric Epilepsy Patients With Optimal Vs. No Anticonvulsant Response: A Pilot Study, Susan A. Masino, David N. Ruskin, Natalie R. Freedgood, Marie Lindefeldt, Maria Dahlin

Faculty Scholarship

Background: The low carbohydrate, high fat ketogenic diet can be an effective anticonvulsant treatment in some pediatric patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Its mechanism(s) of action, however, remain uncertain. Direct sampling of cerebrospinal fluid before and during metabolic therapy may reveal key changes associated with differential clinical outcomes. We characterized the relationship between seizure responsiveness and changes in lipid and carbohydrate metabolites. Methods: We performed metabolomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid samples taken before and during ketogenic diet treatment in patients with optimal response (100% seizure remission) and patients with no response (no seizure improvement) to search for differential diet effects ...


Early Protein Intake Predicts Functional Connectivity And Neurocognition In Preterm Born Children, Emma G. Duerden, Benjamin Thompson, Tanya Poppe, Jane Alsweiler, Greg Gamble, Yannan Jiang, Myra Leung, Anna C. Tottman, Trecia Wouldes, Steven P. Miller, Jane E. Harding, Jane M. Alsweiler, Janene B. Biggs, Coila Bevan, Joanna M. Black, Frank H. Bloomfield, Kelly Fredell, Greg D. Gamble, Jane E. Harding, Sabine Huth, Yannan Jiang, Christine Kevan, Myra Leung, Geraint Phillips, Tanya Poppe, Jennifer A. Rogers, Heather Stewart, Benjamin S. Thompson 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Early Protein Intake Predicts Functional Connectivity And Neurocognition In Preterm Born Children, Emma G. Duerden, Benjamin Thompson, Tanya Poppe, Jane Alsweiler, Greg Gamble, Yannan Jiang, Myra Leung, Anna C. Tottman, Trecia Wouldes, Steven P. Miller, Jane E. Harding, Jane M. Alsweiler, Janene B. Biggs, Coila Bevan, Joanna M. Black, Frank H. Bloomfield, Kelly Fredell, Greg D. Gamble, Jane E. Harding, Sabine Huth, Yannan Jiang, Christine Kevan, Myra Leung, Geraint Phillips, Tanya Poppe, Jennifer A. Rogers, Heather Stewart, Benjamin S. Thompson

Brain and Mind Institute Researchers' Publications

© 2021, The Author(s). Nutritional intake can promote early neonatal brain development in very preterm born neonates (< 32 weeks’ gestation). In a group of 7-year-old very preterm born children followed since birth, we examined whether early nutrient intake in the first weeks of life would be associated with long-term brain function and neurocognitive skills at school age. Children underwent resting-state functional MRI (fMRI), intelligence testing (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 5th Ed) and visual-motor processing (Beery-Buktenica, 5th Ed) at 7 years. Relationships were assessed between neonatal macronutrient intakes, functional connectivity strength between thalamic and default mode networks (DMN), and neuro-cognitive function using multivariable regression. Greater functional connectivity strength between thalamic networks and DMN was associated with greater intake of protein in the first week (β = 0.17; 95% CI 0.11, 0.23, p < 0.001) but lower intakes of fat (β = − 0.06; 95% CI − 0.09, − 0.02, p = 0.001) and carbohydrates (β = − 0.03; 95% CI − 0.04, − 0.01, p = 0.003). Connectivity strength was also associated with protein intake during the first month (β = 0.22; 95% CI 0.06, 0.37, p = 0.006). Importantly, greater thalamic-DMN connectivity strength was associated with higher processing speed indices (β = 26.9; 95% CI 4.21, 49.49, p = 0.02) and visual processing scores (β = 9.03; 95% CI 2.27, 15.79, p = 0.009). Optimizing early protein intake may contribute to promoting long-term brain health in preterm-born children.


Dysregulation Of Systemic Immunity In Aging And Dementia, Jenny Lutshumba, Barbara S. Nikolajczyk, Adam D. Bachstetter 2021 University of Kentucky

Dysregulation Of Systemic Immunity In Aging And Dementia, Jenny Lutshumba, Barbara S. Nikolajczyk, Adam D. Bachstetter

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Neuroinflammation and the tissue-resident innate immune cells, the microglia, respond and contribute to neurodegenerative pathology. Although microglia have been the focus of work linking neuroinflammation and associated dementias like Alzheimer’s Disease, the inflammatory milieu of brain is a conglomerate of cross-talk amongst microglia, systemic immune cells and soluble mediators like cytokines. Age-related changes in the inflammatory profile at the levels of both the brain and periphery are largely orchestrated by immune system cells. Strong evidence indicates that both innate and adaptive immune cells, the latter including T cells and B cells, contribute to chronic neuroinflammation and thus dementia. Neurodegenerative ...


Comparative Untargeted Metabolome Analysis Of Ruminal Fluid And Feces Of Nelore Steers (Bos Indicus), Jessica Moraes Malheiros, Banny Silva Barbosa Correia, Caroline Ceribeli, Daniel Rodrigues Cardoso, Luiz Alberto Colnago, Stanislau Bogusz Junior, James Mark Reecy, Gerson Barreto Mourão, Luiz Lehmann Coutinho, Julio Cesar Pascale Palhares, Alexandre Berndt, Luciana Correia de Almeida Regitano 2021 Embrapa Southeast Livestock

Comparative Untargeted Metabolome Analysis Of Ruminal Fluid And Feces Of Nelore Steers (Bos Indicus), Jessica Moraes Malheiros, Banny Silva Barbosa Correia, Caroline Ceribeli, Daniel Rodrigues Cardoso, Luiz Alberto Colnago, Stanislau Bogusz Junior, James Mark Reecy, Gerson Barreto Mourão, Luiz Lehmann Coutinho, Julio Cesar Pascale Palhares, Alexandre Berndt, Luciana Correia De Almeida Regitano

Animal Science Publications

We conducted a study to identify the fecal metabolite profile and its proximity to the ruminal metabolism of Nelore steers based on an untargeted metabolomic approach. Twenty-six Nelore were feedlot with same diet during 105 d. Feces and rumen fluid were collected before and at slaughter, respectively. The metabolomics analysis indicated 49 common polar metabolites in the rumen and feces. Acetate, propionate, and butyrate were the most abundant polar metabolites in both bio-samples. The rumen presented significantly higher concentrations of the polar compounds when compared to feces (P < 0.05); even though, fecal metabolites presented an accentuated representability of the ruminal fluid metabolites. All fatty acids present in the ruminal fluid were also observed in the feces, except for C20:2n6 and C20:4n6. The identified metabolites offer information on the main metabolic pathways (higher impact factor and P < 0.05), as synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies; the alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolisms, the glycine, serine; and threonine metabolism and the pyruvate metabolism. The findings reported herein on the close relationship between the ruminal fluid and feces metabolic profiles may offer new metabolic information, in addition to facilitating the sampling for metabolism investigation in animal production and health routines.


Roles And Regulation Of Satellite Cells In Skeletal Muscle Regeneration, Sydney M. Vlasman 2021 Portland State University

Roles And Regulation Of Satellite Cells In Skeletal Muscle Regeneration, Sydney M. Vlasman

University Honors Theses

Skeletal muscle has an innate ability to self-regenerate in response to certain stimuli. In the case of trauma, muscle resident stem cells are required to meet the regenerative needs of the tissue. These resident stem cells, called satellite cells (SCs), are crucial in the regenerative process following injury; understanding the major factors which regulate satellite cell activity can provide valuable insight for regenerative medicine. The ability to implement and properly activate satellite cells has immense potential in the treatment of conditions including trauma, degenerative disorders, and age-related sarcopenia. This review will discuss the current understanding of satellite cell-mediated regeneration and ...


Differential Effect Of Proinflammatory Cytokines On Corneal And Conjunctival Epithelial Cell Mucins And Glycocalyx, Kiumars Shamloo, Priya Mistry, Ashley Barbarino, Christopher Ross, Vishal Jhanji 2021 Chapman University

Differential Effect Of Proinflammatory Cytokines On Corneal And Conjunctival Epithelial Cell Mucins And Glycocalyx, Kiumars Shamloo, Priya Mistry, Ashley Barbarino, Christopher Ross, Vishal Jhanji

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Purpose: Ocular surface mucins and glycocalyx are critical for providing ocular hydration as well lubrication and repelling pathogens or allergens. Elevated levels of tear proinflammatory cytokines in dry eye may have detrimental effect on mucins and glycocalyx. The present study tested the effect of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ on membrane-tethered mucins expression, glycocalyx, and viability of ocular surface epithelial cells.

Methods: Stratified cultures of human corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells were exposed to different concentrations of IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ for 24 hours. The mucins gene and protein expressions were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ...


An Investigation Into Over The Counter Painkiller Use, Shane M. Cusack, Angeline D. Lagali, Andreia Stavrianos 2021 Munster Technological University

An Investigation Into Over The Counter Painkiller Use, Shane M. Cusack, Angeline D. Lagali, Andreia Stavrianos

International Undergraduate Journal of Health Sciences

This study comprises a survey to examine the use, risks, and awareness of over-the-counter (OTC) pain medication. The survey was a paper-based survey extended to the general public in Cork, Ireland from February 24th 2020 to March 14th 2020. A Microsoft Excel template (16.34 2020) was used to analyse the results of the 106 valid responses that were received. Responses showed that 105/106 individuals had taken an OTC painkiller in their lifetime. Paracetamol was the most used OTC painkiller with 98.1% of people having taken it in the past. The overall majority of individuals ...


Microangiopathic Haemolytic Anaemia Diagnosis And Management In Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura And Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome: A Review, Adam P. Korneluk 2021 Munster Technological University

Microangiopathic Haemolytic Anaemia Diagnosis And Management In Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura And Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome: A Review, Adam P. Korneluk

International Undergraduate Journal of Health Sciences

Microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia (MAHA) describes non-immune haemolysis by intravascular fragmentation of red blood cells, resulting from microvascular thrombosis characteristic of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). TMA-associated MAHAs include several diseases but are mostly associated with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). TTP is caused by a severe deficiency in ADAMTS13 proteinase, responsible for regulating coagulation, either due to presence of anti-ADAMTS13 (acquired iTTP; immune-mediated) or mutations in ADAMTS13 itself (congenital cTTP). HUS is caused by abnormal and uncontrolled complement activation, either by bacterial toxin activity (typical dHUS) or lack of normal regulatory proteins (atypical aHUS). This review focuses on TTP ...


Diabetes Mellitus And Immunomodulation: A Double-Edged Sword., James Harte 2021 Munster Technological University

Diabetes Mellitus And Immunomodulation: A Double-Edged Sword., James Harte

International Undergraduate Journal of Health Sciences

Diabetes is an endocrinological disorder characterised by chronic hyperglycaemia due to abnormalities in insulin secretion, insulin action or a combination of both. According to the International Diabetes Federation, 463 million people worldwide are living with diabetes; 700 million people will be affected by 2045. The severity of the disease is dependent on the type and the stage of progression; when not correctly managed, diabetes can lead to potentially life-threatening micro- and macrovascular complications.

Prior to the discovery of insulin in 1922, the life expectancy of children with diabetes was short and the prognosis was very poor. The advocated treatment for ...


Coagulopathy In Covid-19: A Review, Shannon Ginty 2021 Munster Technological University

Coagulopathy In Covid-19: A Review, Shannon Ginty

International Undergraduate Journal of Health Sciences

Recent data has demonstrated that the pathophysiology of severe COVID-19 infection is associated with a significant pulmonary coagulopathy. Thrombotic complications have been reported in approximately 35-45% of patients with severe COVID-19. Entry of SARS-CoV-2 into the host cells leads to dysregulation in inflammatory signalling pathways, disrupting the normal coagulation mechanism. The hypercoagulability with abnormal clot formation is attributed to the inappropriately elevated immune response, culminating in a ‘cytokine storm’ with high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and subsequent thrombosis. The coagulopathy in COVID-19 affects many coagulation parameters such as D-dimer levels, fibrinogen levels, platelet count and prothrombin time. Coagulation parameters must ...


Full Issue: The International Undergraduate Journal Of Health Sciences, Volume 1, Issue 1, June 2021, 2021 Munster Technological University

Full Issue: The International Undergraduate Journal Of Health Sciences, Volume 1, Issue 1, June 2021

International Undergraduate Journal of Health Sciences

The full June 2021 issue (Volume 1, Issue 1) of the International Undergraduate Journal of Health Sciences


Effect Of The Lysosomotropic Agent Chloroquine On Mtorc1 Activation And Protein Synthesis In Human Skeletal Muscle, Michael S. Borack, Jared M. Dickinson, Christopher S. Fry, Paul T. Reidy, Melissa M. Markofski, Rachel R. Deer, Kristofer Jennings, Elena Volpi, Blake B. Rasmussen 2021 University of Texas Medical Branch

Effect Of The Lysosomotropic Agent Chloroquine On Mtorc1 Activation And Protein Synthesis In Human Skeletal Muscle, Michael S. Borack, Jared M. Dickinson, Christopher S. Fry, Paul T. Reidy, Melissa M. Markofski, Rachel R. Deer, Kristofer Jennings, Elena Volpi, Blake B. Rasmussen

Athletic Training and Clinical Nutrition Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Previous work in HEK-293 cells demonstrated the importance of amino acid-induced mTORC1 translocation to the lysosomal surface for stimulating mTORC1 kinase activity and protein synthesis. This study tested the conservation of this amino acid sensing mechanism in human skeletal muscle by treating subjects with chloroquine-a lysosomotropic agent that induces in vitro and in vivo lysosome dysfunction.

METHODS: mTORC1 signaling and muscle protein synthesis (MPS) were determined in vivo in a randomized controlled trial of 14 subjects (10 M, 4 F; 26 ± 4 year) that ingested 10 g of essential amino acids (EAA) after receiving 750 mg of chloroquine (CHQ ...


Cd151 Drives Cancer Progression Depending On Integrin Α3Β1 Through Egfr Signaling In Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Jianjie Zhu, Tingting Cai, Jieqi Zhou, Wenwen Du, Yuanyuan Zeng, Ting Liu, Yulong Fu, Yue Li, Qian Qian, Xiuwei H. Yang, Qinglin Li, Jian-an Huang, Zeyi Liu 2021 Soochow University, China

Cd151 Drives Cancer Progression Depending On Integrin Α3Β1 Through Egfr Signaling In Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Jianjie Zhu, Tingting Cai, Jieqi Zhou, Wenwen Du, Yuanyuan Zeng, Ting Liu, Yulong Fu, Yue Li, Qian Qian, Xiuwei H. Yang, Qinglin Li, Jian-An Huang, Zeyi Liu

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Background
Tetraspanins CD151, a transmembrane 4 superfamily protein, has been identified participating in the initiation of a variety of cancers. However, the precise function of CD151 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unclear. Here, we addressed the pro-tumoral role of CD151 in NSCLC by targeting EGFR/ErbB2 which favors tumor proliferation, migration and invasion.

Methods
First, the mRNA expression levels of CD151 in NSCLC tissues and cell lines were measured by RT-PCR. Meanwhile, CD151 and its associated proteins were analyzed by western blotting. The expression levels of CD151 in NSCLC samples and its paired adjacent lung tissues were then ...


Analysis Of Occupational Therapy’S Role To Promote Healthy Sleep Participation To Support Caregivers Of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Sophia N. Roman 2021 University of St. Augustine for Health Sciences

Analysis Of Occupational Therapy’S Role To Promote Healthy Sleep Participation To Support Caregivers Of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Sophia N. Roman

Student Capstone Projects

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face sleep disturbances. Healthy sleep habits are essential for children with ASD and their caregivers to properly engage in their everyday lives. Occupational therapists are trained to evaluate clients in areas that contribute to sleep dysfunction and to focus on promoting optimal sleep performance. There is limited research on caregivers’ perceptions of their child’s sleep disturbances, these disturbances’ influence on occupational engagement, and whether occupational therapists have collaborated with caregivers of children with ASD to treat this area of occupation. Collecting data from caregivers by using a questionnaire can provide occupational therapy (OT ...


Report Of The Pathogenesis And Pathophysiology Of Lyme Disease Subcommittee Of The Hhs Tick Borne Disease Working Group, Sam T. Donta, Leith J. States, Wendy A. Adams, Troy Bankhead, Nicole Baumgarth, Monica E. Embers, Robert B. Lochhead, Brian Stevenson 2021 Falmouth Hospital

Report Of The Pathogenesis And Pathophysiology Of Lyme Disease Subcommittee Of The Hhs Tick Borne Disease Working Group, Sam T. Donta, Leith J. States, Wendy A. Adams, Troy Bankhead, Nicole Baumgarth, Monica E. Embers, Robert B. Lochhead, Brian Stevenson

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

An understanding of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of Lyme disease is key to the ultimate care of patients with Lyme disease. To better understand the various mechanisms underlying the infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, the Pathogenesis and Pathophysiology of Lyme Disease Subcommittee was formed to review what is currently known about the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of Lyme disease, from its inception, but also especially about its ability to persist in the host. To that end, the authors of this report were assembled to update our knowledge about the infectious process, identify the gaps that exist in our understanding of the ...


Neural Network Model For Estimation Of The Induced Electric Field During Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Oluwaponmile F. Afuwape, Olumide Olafasakin, David C. Jiles 2021 Iowa State University

Neural Network Model For Estimation Of The Induced Electric Field During Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Oluwaponmile F. Afuwape, Olumide Olafasakin, David C. Jiles

Electrical and Computer Engineering Publications

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique with applications in brain mapping and effective neuronal connectivity. In its repetitive mode, it is used for the treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. It functions on the principle of electromagnetic induction, where generated magnetic fields (H-field) induce electric field (E-field) that stimulates the brain’s neurons. With TMS studies, accurate estimation of the induced E-field is usually necessary. However, this requires a lot of processes, including the three-dimensional head model generation from magnetic resonance images (MRI) using the SimNIBS software and finite element analysis to calculate the induced E-field. These ...


Evaluation Of Somatic Mutations In Solid Metastatic Pan-Cancer Patients, Moom Roosan, Isa Mambetsariev, Rebecca Pharaon, Jeremy Fricke, Angel R. Baroz, Joseph Chao, Chen Chen, Mohd W. Nasser, Ramakanth Chirravuri-Venkata, Maneesh Jain, Lynette Smith, Susan E. Yost, Karen L. Reckamp, Raju Pillai, Leonidas Arvanitis, Michelle Afkhami, Edward W. Wang, Vincent Chung, Mihaela Cristea, Marwan Fakih, Marianna Koczywas, Erminia Massarelli, Joanne Mortimer, Yuan Yuan, Surinder K. Batra, Sumanta Pal, Ravi Salgia 2021 Chapman University

Evaluation Of Somatic Mutations In Solid Metastatic Pan-Cancer Patients, Moom Roosan, Isa Mambetsariev, Rebecca Pharaon, Jeremy Fricke, Angel R. Baroz, Joseph Chao, Chen Chen, Mohd W. Nasser, Ramakanth Chirravuri-Venkata, Maneesh Jain, Lynette Smith, Susan E. Yost, Karen L. Reckamp, Raju Pillai, Leonidas Arvanitis, Michelle Afkhami, Edward W. Wang, Vincent Chung, Mihaela Cristea, Marwan Fakih, Marianna Koczywas, Erminia Massarelli, Joanne Mortimer, Yuan Yuan, Surinder K. Batra, Sumanta Pal, Ravi Salgia

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Metastasis continues to be the primary cause of all cancer-related deaths despite the recent advancements in cancer treatments. To evaluate the role of mutations in overall survival (OS) and treatment outcomes, we analyzed 957 metastatic patients with seven major cancer types who had available molecular testing results with a FoundationOne CDx® panel. The most prevalent genes with somatic mutations were TP53, KRAS, APC, and LRP1B. In this analysis, these genes had mutation frequencies higher than in publicly available datasets. We identified that the somatic mutations were seven mutually exclusive gene pairs and an additional fifty-two co-occurring gene pairs. Mutations in ...


Antibiotic Tolerance And Heteroresistance: Associated Fitness Costs And Potential In Evading Antibiotic Killing, Tina H. Dao 2021 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Antibiotic Tolerance And Heteroresistance: Associated Fitness Costs And Potential In Evading Antibiotic Killing, Tina H. Dao

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a prominent human pathogen that causes both invasive and non-invasive diseases, such as otitis media, pneumonia, meningitis, and bacteremia. Although it is frequently an asymptomatic colonizer of the human nasopharynx, S. pneumoniae is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the immune compromised population, young children, and the elderly. Up until the 1970s, S. pneumoniae was susceptible to almost all antibiotics. Since then, this pathogen has gained resistance to a variety of antibiotic treatments, including beta-lactams, macrolides, and fluoroquinolones.

In the first chapter, we focused on fluoroquinolone resistance in S. pneumoniae. Fluoroquinolones are one of the ...


Dean's Update, June 2021, Jerry Nadler 2021 New York Medical College

Dean's Update, June 2021, Jerry Nadler

SOM Dean's Research Newsletter

No abstract provided.


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