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Targeting The Cerebrovasculature In Sepsis: A Focus On The Brain Microvascular Endothelium, Divine C. Nwafor 2023 West Virginia University

Targeting The Cerebrovasculature In Sepsis: A Focus On The Brain Microvascular Endothelium, Divine C. Nwafor

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a critical interface between the systemic circulation and the brain. It is a specialized multicellular unit composed of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs), pericytes, a basement membrane, and astrocytic end foot processes. BMECs are a principal component of the BBB that provide the structural framework needed for the stringent transport of molecules into the brain. BMEC dysfunction permits the trafficking of neurotoxins from systemic circulation into the brain, which ultimately exacerbates BBB dysfunction and neuroinflammation. Studies have shown that BBB dysfunction is a key determinant of cognitive decline in sepsis. However, there are critical knowledge ...


Childhood And Adolescent Obesity: Related Comorbidities And Interventions, Jasmine Wong 2022 Dominican University of California

Childhood And Adolescent Obesity: Related Comorbidities And Interventions, Jasmine Wong

Nursing | Senior Theses

Background

The prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity in the United States has steadily risen over the years and has become a public health concern. Obesity is defined as a BMI at or above the 95th percentile for children and teens of the same age and sex. Obese children and adolescents are at risk for poor health and poor quality of life. Furthermore, there are numerous comorbidities associated with childhood and adolescent obesity. While some of the associated diseases are acute, others can become chronic and result in lifelong conditions.

Objective

The purpose of the present thesis is to explore ...


Association Of Visceral Adiposity Index With Incident Nephropathy And Retinopathy: A Cohort Study In The Diabetic Population, Zhiyuan Wu, Siqi Yu, Xiaoping Kang, Yue Liu, Zongkai Xu, Zhiwei Li, Jinqi Wang, Xinlei Miao, Xiangtong Liu, Xia Li, Jingbo Zhang, Wei Wang, Lixin Tao, Xiuhua Guo 2022 Edith Cowan University

Association Of Visceral Adiposity Index With Incident Nephropathy And Retinopathy: A Cohort Study In The Diabetic Population, Zhiyuan Wu, Siqi Yu, Xiaoping Kang, Yue Liu, Zongkai Xu, Zhiwei Li, Jinqi Wang, Xinlei Miao, Xiangtong Liu, Xia Li, Jingbo Zhang, Wei Wang, Lixin Tao, Xiuhua Guo

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Background: The association between visceral adiposity index (VAI) and diabetic complications has been reported in cross-sectional studies, while the effect of VAI on complication development remains unclear. This study aims to evaluate the longitudinal association of VAI and Chinese VAI (CVAI) with the incidence of diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy using a Chinese cohort. Methods: A total of 8 948 participants with type 2 diabetes from Beijing Health Management Cohort were enrolled during 2013–2014, and followed until December 31, 2019. Nephropathy was confirmed by urine albumin/creatinine ratio and estimated glomerular filtration rate; retinopathy was diagnosed using fundus photograph. Results ...


Effectiveness Of Adeno-Associated Virus In H9c2 Cardiomyoblast And Hek293t Cell Lines, Cristian Saenz, Andres J. Medina, Genaro A. Ramirez-Correa 2022 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Effectiveness Of Adeno-Associated Virus In H9c2 Cardiomyoblast And Hek293t Cell Lines, Cristian Saenz, Andres J. Medina, Genaro A. Ramirez-Correa

MEDI 8127 Scholarly Activities Pre-Clerkship

Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) is a prevalent disease that affects many people throughout the world leading to issues such as diabetic cardiomyopathy. O-GlcNAcylation dysregulation, caused by increased levels of serum glucose, contributes to the pathophysiology of decreased cardiac function. O-GlcNAcylation modulates cardiac contraction by reacting with either serine or threonine residues. Our goal was to demonstrate the success of infection of adeno-associated virus 9 (AAV9) carrying the gene of alpha-cardiac actin (ACTC) mutated at Thr326. Here we show the expression of the mutant ACTC T326D in H9C2 cardiomyoblasts and HEK293T cell lines. Expression in H9C2 cells was significantly increased ...


Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis: A Case Report And Discussion Of Clinical And Imaging Features, Kristian Quevada, Kishan Patel, Pauline Germaine 2022 Cooper Medical School of Rowan University

Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis: A Case Report And Discussion Of Clinical And Imaging Features, Kristian Quevada, Kishan Patel, Pauline Germaine

Cooper Rowan Medical Journal

Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis (TPP) is a rare manifestation of thyrotoxicosis, resulting in periodic episodes of acute onset muscle weakness in the setting of hypokalemia. The thyrotoxic form of Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis (HPP) is less studied than the more well-known familial form due to fewer reported cases and smaller prevalence. This case study presents a 30-year-old African American male with multiple episodes of acute lower extremity muscle weakness, tachycardia, and a history of heat intolerance. Abnormal findings on thyroid ultrasound coupled with increased thyroid related immunoglobulins led to a diagnosis of TPP related to exacerbation of newly-found Graves’ disease. The case ...


Treating Cytokine Storm In Patients With Covid-19, Ahmed Abdelhaleem, Deekshitha Turaka, Shameera Shaik Masthan, Steven B Lippmann 2022 University of Louisville

Treating Cytokine Storm In Patients With Covid-19, Ahmed Abdelhaleem, Deekshitha Turaka, Shameera Shaik Masthan, Steven B Lippmann

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Covid-19 Newsletter (Vol. 124), Center for Disaster Medicine, New York Medical College 2022 Touro College and University System

Covid-19 Newsletter (Vol. 124), Center For Disaster Medicine, New York Medical College

COVID-19 Newsletter

No abstract provided.


Rural-Urban And Within-Rural Differences In Covid-19 Mortality Rates, Yue Sun, Kent Jason G. Cheng, Shannon M. Monnat 2022 Syracuse University

Rural-Urban And Within-Rural Differences In Covid-19 Mortality Rates, Yue Sun, Kent Jason G. Cheng, Shannon M. Monnat

Journal of Rural Social Sciences

Since late-2020, COVID-19 mortality rates have been higher in rural than in urban America, but there has also been substantial within-rural heterogeneity. Using CDC data, we compare COVID-19 mortality rates across the rural-urban continuum as well as within rural counties across different types of labor markets and by metropolitan adjacency. As of October 1, 2021, the cumulative COVID-19 mortality rate was 247.0 per 100,000 population in rural counties compared to 200.7 in urban counties. Higher COVID-19 mortality rates in rural counties are explained by lower average educational attainment and lower median household income. Within rural counties, mortality ...


Quality Of Life For Women With Chronic Lyme Disease: A Socioeconomic Investigation, Dale M. Jones 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Quality Of Life For Women With Chronic Lyme Disease: A Socioeconomic Investigation, Dale M. Jones

Doctoral Dissertations

This is a mixed methods investigation of how chronic Lyme disease, including Lyme-like diseases and co-infections, affects the quality of life of women who have chronic Lyme. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used during three phases of research: a 91-question survey instrument followed by focus group discussions and written narratives. The research considered the socioeconomic impact on quality of life in five areas: obtaining a diagnosis, relationships and personal support systems, struggles with the medical system, the ability to work, and access to treatment. There were 500 responses to the survey, of which 373 were analyzed; 11 participants in ...


Effect Of Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations Of Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin And Trimethoprim On In-Vitro Biofilm Formation In Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli, Shane Whelan 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

Effect Of Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations Of Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin And Trimethoprim On In-Vitro Biofilm Formation In Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli, Shane Whelan

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of sublethal concentrations of nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim on biofilm formation in 57 uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains (UPEC).

The MIC of nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim was determined for 57 UPEC isolates. Biofilm formation for each isolate with and without sub-lethal concentrations of each antibiotic was then quantified, and the statistical significance of changes in biofilm formation was ascertained by way of a Dunnett's test.

The effects of sub-MIC antibiotics on biofilm formation of UPEC were variable. A total of 22.8% of strains were induced to form biofilm ...


Covid-19 Newsletter (Vol. 123), Center for Disaster Medicine, New York Medical College 2022 Touro College and University System

Covid-19 Newsletter (Vol. 123), Center For Disaster Medicine, New York Medical College

COVID-19 Newsletter

No abstract provided.


Mortality From Aspiration Pneumonia: Incidence, Trends, And Risk Factors, Trisha Gupte, John D. Cramer M.D., Arthur Knack PhD, CCC-SLP 2022 Wayne State University School of Medicine

Mortality From Aspiration Pneumonia: Incidence, Trends, And Risk Factors, Trisha Gupte, John D. Cramer M.D., Arthur Knack Phd, Ccc-Slp

Medical Student Research Symposium

Aspiration pneumonia is a potentially preventable, aggressive type of pneumonia. Little is understood on the burden in mortality from aspiration pneumonia. Our objectives were to first examine the burden of mortality from aspiration pneumonia in the United States and second investigate comorbidities associated with aspiration pneumonia to understand risk factors. We conducted a case-control study of individuals who died of aspiration pneumonia matched to those who died of other causes. We analyzed all deaths in the United States using the Multiple Cause of Death Dataset from 1999-2017. Cases were matched with controls based on age, sex, and race. We calculated ...


Meta-Analysis Of 175 Patients With Covid-19 And Seizures, Status Epilepticus, Or Cortical Myoclonus: An Individual Patient Data Analysis, Aditi Kappagantu BS, Helena A. Brantz MS, Amman Bhasin BA, Cristina Jageka BS, Rooqash Ali MD, Izzy Saef MD, Brittany M. Stopa MPH, Ayaz Khawaja MD 2022 Wayne State University School of Medicine

Meta-Analysis Of 175 Patients With Covid-19 And Seizures, Status Epilepticus, Or Cortical Myoclonus: An Individual Patient Data Analysis, Aditi Kappagantu Bs, Helena A. Brantz Ms, Amman Bhasin Ba, Cristina Jageka Bs, Rooqash Ali Md, Izzy Saef Md, Brittany M. Stopa Mph, Ayaz Khawaja Md

Medical Student Research Symposium

Objective

To characterize management and outcomes of seizures, status epilepticus, and cortical myoclonus in COVID-19, with individual patient data analysis of published literature.

Methods

Systematic literature review was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Criteria included new-onset seizures, status epilepticus, and/or cortical myoclonus with concomitant COVID-19. COVID-19 severity was dichotomized into mild and severe cases. Good outcome was defined as discharge without severe deficits, and/or return to baseline.

Results

A total of 105 studies reporting 176 patients (male 56.3%;mean age 47.8,SD 25.6) were included. Status epilepticus occurred in 47 patients (26.7%) and ...


Lysosomal Zn 2+ Release Triggers Rapid, Mitochondria-Mediated, Non-Apoptotic Cell Death In Metastatic Melanoma, Wanlu Du, Mingxue Gu, Meiqin Hu, Timothy Nold, Prateeksunder Pinchi, Wei Chen, Michael Ryan, Ahmed Bannaga, Haoxing Xu 2022 University of Michigan - Ann Arbor

Lysosomal Zn 2+ Release Triggers Rapid, Mitochondria-Mediated, Non-Apoptotic Cell Death In Metastatic Melanoma, Wanlu Du, Mingxue Gu, Meiqin Hu, Timothy Nold, Prateeksunder Pinchi, Wei Chen, Michael Ryan, Ahmed Bannaga, Haoxing Xu

Medical Student Research Symposium

During tumor progression, lysosome function is often maladaptively upregulated to match the high energy demand required for cancer cell hyper-proliferation and invasion. Here, we report that mucolipin TRP channel 1 (TRPML1), a lysosomal Ca2+ and Zn2+ release channel that regulates multiple aspects of lysosome function, is dramatically upregulated in metastatic melanoma cells compared with normal cells. TRPML-specific synthetic agonists (ML-SAs) are sufficient to induce rapid (within hours) lysosomal Zn2+-dependent necrotic cell death in metastatic melanoma cells while completely sparing normal cells. ML-SA-caused mitochondria swelling and dysfunction lead to cellular ATP depletion. While pharmacological inhibition or genetic silencing of TRPML1 ...


Attitudes And Barriers Toward Covid-19 Vaccination Among People Experiencing Homelessness In Detroit, Mi, Sanjna Ghanshani, Sophie Wittenberg, Richard Bryce 2022 Wayne State University

Attitudes And Barriers Toward Covid-19 Vaccination Among People Experiencing Homelessness In Detroit, Mi, Sanjna Ghanshani, Sophie Wittenberg, Richard Bryce

Medical Student Research Symposium

Introduction: People experiencing homelessness (PEH) have a high risk of exposure to communicable diseases and limited access to health care services and treatment in their communities. Despite the availability of highly effective vaccines against COVID-19, the infection prevention practices and level of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among PEH in Detroit have not been well studied.

Methods: Medical students administered an electronic Qualtrics survey to consented participants during outreach visits to local homeless shelters and encampments organized by Street Medicine Detroit. The questionnaire comprised six topics, including hygiene and masking practices, experience with COVID-19 testing and vaccination, and attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccination ...


Identifying Predictors For Inflammation-Induced Preterm Birth: A Murine Study, Tzu Ning Liu BS, Jose Galaz MD, Nardhy Gomez-Lopez PhD 2022 Wayne State University School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology

Identifying Predictors For Inflammation-Induced Preterm Birth: A Murine Study, Tzu Ning Liu Bs, Jose Galaz Md, Nardhy Gomez-Lopez Phd

Medical Student Research Symposium

Introduction: Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. A large proportion of preterm deliveries is affected by intra-amniotic inflammation, which can occur in the presence (intra-amniotic infection) or absence (sterile intra-amniotic inflammation) of microbes. Studies have shown an association between intra-amniotic inflammation, cervical shortening, and changes in the cervicovaginal microbiome. However, their causal relationships are unknown. This study aims to determine the causality of intra-amniotic inflammation, cervical shortening, and cervicovaginal microbiome alterations.

Methods: Pregnant C57BL/6 dams received an ultrasound-guided intra-amniotic injection of an endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or the alarmin interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) on ...


Complications Of Pediatric Cochlear Implant Surgery, Andrew Stefan, Sabrina Bernardo, William Azkoul II, Bianca Siegel 2022 Wayne State University

Complications Of Pediatric Cochlear Implant Surgery, Andrew Stefan, Sabrina Bernardo, William Azkoul Ii, Bianca Siegel

Medical Student Research Symposium

Background:

Cochlear implantation (CI) surgery is the standard of care treatment for pediatric patients diagnosed with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss. While considered a relatively safe operation, any invasive procedure involving the cranium has risks. However, there are few recent studies in the United States that have analyzed complication rates among children who have received CI. Furthermore, existing studies fail to discuss specific risk factors that led to post-operative complications, nor offer solutions to reduce their incidence. This study aims to 1) determine the incidence of specific complications in pediatric CI patients and 2) identify evidence-based risk factors for ...


Thromboelastography Profiles Of Hemophilia A Patients On Emicizumab, Daniel J. VanZweden, Meera Chitlur, Charity J. Stadler 2022 Wayne State University

Thromboelastography Profiles Of Hemophilia A Patients On Emicizumab, Daniel J. Vanzweden, Meera Chitlur, Charity J. Stadler

Medical Student Research Symposium

Emicizumab is a new monoclonal antibody developed to dtreat people with Hemophilia A, especially those with antibodies. However, breakthrough bleeding can still occur in patients taking Emicizumab. TEG is a global coagulation assay which measures coagulability through viscosity. This study describes the use of tissue factor activated TEG in measuring bleeding profiles in patients taking Emicizumab. The goal of this prospective study is to determine if TEG can be used, which variables of TEG might be useful, and how much more useful it is than the current standard, aPtt. Findings include a 25% increased R time and 24% increased K ...


Corticosteroid Injection Exhibits Symptomatic Improvement In Cts Patients With Negative Emgs, Brooke G. Garnica, Aaron R. Prater, Elizabeth A. Washnock-Schmid, Alaa Hazime, Dr. Charles S. Day 2022 Wayne State University

Corticosteroid Injection Exhibits Symptomatic Improvement In Cts Patients With Negative Emgs, Brooke G. Garnica, Aaron R. Prater, Elizabeth A. Washnock-Schmid, Alaa Hazime, Dr. Charles S. Day

Medical Student Research Symposium

Introduction

While corticosteroid injections for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) are effective in patients with mild EMGs, no literature has examined the effectiveness of injections in patients with negative EMGs. We hypothesized that patients with negative EMGs will have minimal symptomatic and functional improvement.

Methods

The Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ) was administered to patients clinically diagnosed with CTS and a negative or mild EMG prior to corticosteroid injection. The BCTQ comprises functional (FSS) and symptom status (SSS) questions. The patient was re-evaluated at 2-weeks, 1-, 3-, and 6-months post-injection. Data were analyzed via one-way ANOVA tests. A post-hoc Benjamini-Hochberg FDR ...


Covid-19 Newsletter (Vol. 122), Center for Disaster Medicine, New York Medical College 2022 Touro College and University System

Covid-19 Newsletter (Vol. 122), Center For Disaster Medicine, New York Medical College

COVID-19 Newsletter

No abstract provided.


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