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Pharmacokinetics Of Single Feeding Of Cannabidiol In Cattle: A Pilot Study, Haley Cornette 2023 Murray State University

Pharmacokinetics Of Single Feeding Of Cannabidiol In Cattle: A Pilot Study, Haley Cornette

Honors College Theses

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a substance that has been used in complementary medicine for many years. However, modern medicine has little knowledge of how this substance is utilized and metabolized in ruminant animals. Regulations on quality assurance and use in animals are lacking, and CBD supplementation in livestock is not approved. If CBD supplements can be shown to be safe and effective, detection in the animal will be important for determining regulation of use. A withdrawal period can then be established to allow time for deterioration of product to safe levels before livestock products enter human markets. This study sought to ...


Equine Kinesiology Tape Application To Equine Hock Joints: Impact On Lameness And Movement Evaluation, Kiara Jones 2022 Murray State University

Equine Kinesiology Tape Application To Equine Hock Joints: Impact On Lameness And Movement Evaluation, Kiara Jones

Honors College Theses

Discomfort in the hocks of horses can cause lameness, resulting in poor performance. Diagnosis by veterinarians typically includes evaluating movement or use of ultrasound or radiography to evaluate tendons, ligaments, or bones. Treatment methods and times vary depending on diagnosis, but often include joint injections, medications, and stall rest. Treatments can be costly both financially and regarding time off from practice or competition. Alternative practices such as using equine kinesiology tape to support joints may improve comfort and movement for lower cost. The objective of this project was to evaluate the ease of use and effects of equine kinesiology tape ...


Validation Of A Method For Pantoprazole And Its Sulfone Metabolite In Goat Plasma Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Sherry Cox, Lainey Harvill, Sarah Bullock, Joseph Smith, Joan Bergman 2022 UTK

Validation Of A Method For Pantoprazole And Its Sulfone Metabolite In Goat Plasma Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Sherry Cox, Lainey Harvill, Sarah Bullock, Joseph Smith, Joan Bergman

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Large Animal Clinical Sciences

No abstract provided.


In Vivo Efficacy Of Pyrantel Pamoate As A Post-Exposure Prophylactic For Rat Lungworm (Angiostrongylus Cantonensis), John Jacob, Argon Steel, Lisa Kaluna, Steven Hess, Israel Leinbach, Carmen Antaky, Robert Sugihara, Lindsey Hamilton, Peter Follett, Kathleen Howe, Steven Jacquier, Supakit Wongwiwatthananukit, Susan Jarvi 2022 University of Hawaii at Hilo

In Vivo Efficacy Of Pyrantel Pamoate As A Post-Exposure Prophylactic For Rat Lungworm (Angiostrongylus Cantonensis), John Jacob, Argon Steel, Lisa Kaluna, Steven Hess, Israel Leinbach, Carmen Antaky, Robert Sugihara, Lindsey Hamilton, Peter Follett, Kathleen Howe, Steven Jacquier, Supakit Wongwiwatthananukit, Susan Jarvi

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Rat lungworm (Angiostrongylus cantonensis) is a neurotropic nematode, and the leading cause of eosinophilic meningitis worldwide. The parasite is usually contracted through ingestion of infected gastropods, often hidden in raw or partially cooked produce. Pharmaceutical grade pyrantel pamoate was evaluated as a post-exposure prophylactic against A. cantonensis. Pyrantel pamoate is readily available over-the-counter in most pharmacies in the USA and possesses anthelmintic activity exclusive to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Administering pyrantel pamoate immediately after exposure should theoretically paralyze the larvae in the GIT, causing the larvae to be expelled via peristalsis without entering the systemic circulation. In this study, pyrantel ...


Sporadic Worldwide “Clusters” Of Feed Driven Zilpaterol Identifications In Racing Horses: A Review And Analysis, Jacob Machin, Kimberly Brewer, Abelardo Morales Briceno, Clara Fenger, George Maylin, Thomas Tobin 2022 University of Kentucky

Sporadic Worldwide “Clusters” Of Feed Driven Zilpaterol Identifications In Racing Horses: A Review And Analysis, Jacob Machin, Kimberly Brewer, Abelardo Morales Briceno, Clara Fenger, George Maylin, Thomas Tobin

Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center Faculty Publications

Zilpaterol is a β2-adrenergic agonist medication approved in certain countries as a cattle feed additive to improve carcass quality. Trace amounts of Zilpaterol can transfer to horse feed, yielding equine urinary “identifications” of Zilpaterol. These “identifications” occur because Zilpaterol is highly bioavailable in horses, resistant to biotransformation and excreted as unchanged Zilpaterol in urine, where it has a 5 day or so terminal half-life.

In horses, urinary steady-state concentrations are reached 25 days (5 half-lives) after exposure to contaminated feed. Zilpaterol readily presents in horse urine, yielding clusters of feed related Zilpaterol identifications in racehorses. The first cluster, April ...


Comparison Of Abdominal Computed Tomography To Ultrasound In The Diagnosis Of Canine Biliary Disease Manifesting As Acute Abdominal Signs, Shanna Christine Marroquin 2022 Mississippi State University

Comparison Of Abdominal Computed Tomography To Ultrasound In The Diagnosis Of Canine Biliary Disease Manifesting As Acute Abdominal Signs, Shanna Christine Marroquin

Theses and Dissertations

Biliary diseases are uncommon, potentially fatal causes of acute abdomen in dogs. Little information is present comparing the performance of computed tomography (CT) to ultrasound in identifying canine biliary pathology. Thirty-five client-owned dogs presenting for acute abdomen signs received an abdominal ultrasound and contrast-enhanced abdominal CT. Two authors reviewed the randomized, anonymized CT and ultrasound studies. Twenty-eight dogs had biliary pathology and seven dogs serving as controls had no evidence of biliary disease. The final diagnoses of patients with biliary pathology included cholelithiasis, gallbladder mucoceles, cholangiohepatitis/cholangitis, extrahepatic biliary obstruction, gallbladder wall edema, gallbladder wall mass, and cystic mucosal hyperplasia ...


Relative Palatability And Efficacy Of Brodifacoum-25d Conservation Rodenticide Pellets For Mouse Eradication On Midway Atoll, Peter J. Kappes, Shane R. Siers, Israel L. Leinbach, Robert T. Sugihara, Wesley J. Jolley, Jonathan H. Plissner, Elizabeth N. Flint, Kelly L. Goodale, Gregg R. Howald 2022 USDA APHIS National Wildlife Research Center

Relative Palatability And Efficacy Of Brodifacoum-25d Conservation Rodenticide Pellets For Mouse Eradication On Midway Atoll, Peter J. Kappes, Shane R. Siers, Israel L. Leinbach, Robert T. Sugihara, Wesley J. Jolley, Jonathan H. Plissner, Elizabeth N. Flint, Kelly L. Goodale, Gregg R. Howald

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Invasive mice (Mus spp.) can negatively impact island species and ecosystems. Because fewer island rodent eradications have been attempted for mice compared to rats (Rattus spp.), less is known about efficacy and palatability of rodenticide baits for mouse eradications. We performed a series of bait acceptance and efficacy cage trials using a standard formulation of brodifacoum-based rodenticide on wild-caught mice from Sand Island, Midway Atoll, to help inform a proposed eradication there. Mice were offered ad libitum brodifacoum pellets along with various alternative food sources, and a “no choice” treatment group received only bait pellets. Mortality in the no choice ...


Liquid Chromatography With Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method Development For The Determination Of Β–Defensins In Bovine Milk, Symone T. Whalin 2022 Western Kentucky University

Liquid Chromatography With Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method Development For The Determination Of Β–Defensins In Bovine Milk, Symone T. Whalin

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Bovine mastitis, caused by a wide array of pathogens, results in a substantial economic loss for the dairy cattle livestock industry. β-defensins are a part of the bovine’s innate immune system and act as the first line of defense against mastitis. Only foundational research has been done on β-defensins’ ability to treat and prevent mastitis. There have been no analytical methods reported in the literature for analyzing β-defensins in bovine milk. This research aims to create an analytical approach to determine β-defensins in bovine milk. It is challenging to determine an analyte in a complex sample matrix, and milk ...


Barriers To Client Compliance And Understanding Of Heartworm Prevention In The Canine Patient, Emily Fischels 2022 Murray State University

Barriers To Client Compliance And Understanding Of Heartworm Prevention In The Canine Patient, Emily Fischels

Honors College Theses

Dirofilaria immitis is a common and largely preventable mosquito-borne parasite that causes dirofilariasis, or heartworm disease, in a number of animal species. The necessity of heartworm prevention in the canine patient is undisputed and well-known among veterinary professionals, yet there are still many dogs not protected from this fatal parasite. Heartworm prevention traditionally requires a once-a-month administration of medication; therefore, its efficacy relies on owner compliance. The barriers to canines receiving heartworm prevention were assessed using a survey targeted at pet owners whose dogs have seen the veterinarian in the past year. The main barriers identified were inadequate client communication ...


Time Course Investigation Of The Dermal Leukocyte Response To Lipoteichoic Acid In Chickens, Ian Gilbert 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Time Course Investigation Of The Dermal Leukocyte Response To Lipoteichoic Acid In Chickens, Ian Gilbert

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is component of the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria that stimulates inflammation during bacterial infection. However, few studies have investigated the in vivo immune response to LTA, and none of the in vivo studies done have been performed in birds. For this project, the pulp (a skin-derivative) of growing feathers (GFs) of chickens were used as a test site to investigate the in vivo effects of intradermally injected LTA. In Study 1, the pulp of 12 GFs of 11-week-old Light-brown Leghorn (LBL) males were injected with 10 μL of differing concentrations of LTA (0.1, 1.0 ...


The Impact Of The Covid-19 Pandemic On Antimicrobial Stewardship Practices And Their Effect On Veterinary Medicine, Erin N. Bradstreet 2022 University of Maine - Main

The Impact Of The Covid-19 Pandemic On Antimicrobial Stewardship Practices And Their Effect On Veterinary Medicine, Erin N. Bradstreet

Honors College

Antimicrobials are essential in the treatment of diseases in both humans and animals, but antimicrobial resistance threatens their efficacy. As more microorganisms become resistant to an ever-growing list of antimicrobials, diseases that used to be simple to treat are becoming increasingly difficult to manage. The major factors contributing to antimicrobial resistance are overuse and misuse of antimicrobials. In order to combat the problem of resistance, antimicrobial stewardship programs that aim to improve antimicrobial prescribing and use practices are becoming increasingly widespread. These programs are quite common in human medicine, but the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted many aspects of life, including antimicrobial ...


Characterization Of The Fecal Microbiome In Dogs Receiving Medical Management For Congenital Portosystemic Shunts, Nathan Squire 2022 University of Tennessee College of Comparative and Experimental Medicine

Characterization Of The Fecal Microbiome In Dogs Receiving Medical Management For Congenital Portosystemic Shunts, Nathan Squire

Masters Theses

Background: The GI microbiome has not been characterized in dogs being medically managed for congenital portosystemic shunts [CPSS].

Objectives: To characterize the fecal microbiome in a population of dogs being medically managed for CPSS.

Animals: 27 client-owned dogs.

Methods: Prospective cohort study enrollment of fecal samples was performed with follow-up data collected retrospectively. The overall fecal dysbiosis index [DI] and individual bacterial abundances were determined using real-time qPCR. Medical management, clinical findings, clinicopathologic, and outcome variables were collected, and logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate associations between these variables and overall DI and bacterial abundances. Numerical variables were evaluated ...


Evaluating The Microbial Quality And Use Of Antimicrobials In Raw Pet Foods, Leslie Pearl Cancio 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Evaluating The Microbial Quality And Use Of Antimicrobials In Raw Pet Foods, Leslie Pearl Cancio

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Raw meat-based diets (RMBDs) are emerging pet foods that pose food safety risks because of the potential presence of pathogens that could cause illness to humans. In this research, the microbial quality of select RMBD products sold by pet food companies online and the use of chemical antimicrobials to reduce the microbial load in chicken liver, a common RMBD ingredient, were evaluated.

Ground meat blends and livers from four animal species (beef, pork, chicken, turkey) were purchased from four online companies that delivers directly to consumers through parcel businesses. Products were procured at three different times during one year and ...


Evaluation Of Protective Efficacy Of Viral Vector Based Swine Influenza Vaccine And A Method For B Cell Culture For Monoclonal Antibody Generation, Sushmita Kumari 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Evaluation Of Protective Efficacy Of Viral Vector Based Swine Influenza Vaccine And A Method For B Cell Culture For Monoclonal Antibody Generation, Sushmita Kumari

Dissertations & Theses in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Influenza A virus of the swine (IAV-S) is an economically important swine pathogen that has the potential to spread to humans, thus posing an ongoing public health concern due to its zoonotic potential. Hemagglutinin (HA), the most abundant viral envelope protein, is known to be the key protective antigen. Anti-HA antibodies alone, have been shown to prevent IAV infection. In this study we evaluated the feasibility of a recombinant tri segmented Pichinde virus (PICV) as a viral vector to deliver IAV-S hemagglutinin antigen in pigs. Four groups of weaned pigs (T01-04) were immunized twice with PBS, rPICV-GFP as a vector ...


Failure Of Passive Transfer In Camel Calves: 4 Cases (2010-2019), Amanda James, Joseph Smith, Julie Sheldon, Ricardo Videla 2022 UTK CVM

Failure Of Passive Transfer In Camel Calves: 4 Cases (2010-2019), Amanda James, Joseph Smith, Julie Sheldon, Ricardo Videla

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Large Animal Clinical Sciences

Failure of passive transfer is a management concern for all ruminant species, but is not well described in the literature for camel calves. This case series presents four camel calves (Camelus dromedarius and Camelus bactrianus) referred to a North American veterinary teaching hospital for diagnosis and management of failure of passive transfer. Diagnostics utilized included hematology, serum biochemistry, and immunologic methods as described for crias. Management included antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and plasma transfusion therapies. Three of the four calves survived to discharge, and common diagnostic practices such as evaluation of total solids, total protein, immunoglobulin G, and sodium sulfite appear to ...


Editorial: Special Issue “Innovative Techniques And Approaches In The Control And Prevention Of Rabies Virus”, Amy T. Gilbert, Ryan M. Wallace, Charles E. Rupprecht 2022 USDA National Wildlife Research Center

Editorial: Special Issue “Innovative Techniques And Approaches In The Control And Prevention Of Rabies Virus”, Amy T. Gilbert, Ryan M. Wallace, Charles E. Rupprecht

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Rabies is an ancient lethal scourge that has plagued humankind for centuries. Globally, 60,000 human deaths are estimated to occur each year from rabies virus (RABV) transmission in domestic dogs, mostly affecting children. While rabies is recognized as a neglected disease, there is cause for optimism in the context of growing global recognition, collaboration and commitment to advance a tripartite agenda to eliminate human deaths transmitted from rabid dogs by 2030, also known as “Zero By Thirty” (ZBT). Nevertheless, the ZBT goal must also confront competing challenge(s) of tracking and mitigating human morbidity and mortality during a global ...


Can We Use Antipredator Behavior Theory To Predict Wildlife Responses To High-Speed Vehicles?, Ryan B. Lunn, Bradley Blackwell, Travis L. DeVault, Esteban Fernández-Juricic 2022 Purdue University

Can We Use Antipredator Behavior Theory To Predict Wildlife Responses To High-Speed Vehicles?, Ryan B. Lunn, Bradley Blackwell, Travis L. Devault, Esteban Fernández-Juricic

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Animals seem to rely on antipredator behavior to avoid vehicle collisions. There is an extensive body of antipredator behavior theory that have been used to predict the distance/time animals should escape from predators. These models have also been used to guide empirical research on escape behavior from vehicles. However, little is known as to whether antipredator behavior models are appropriate to apply to an approaching high-speed vehicle scenario. We addressed this gap by (a) providing an overview of the main hypotheses and predictions of different antipredator behavior models via a literature review, (b) exploring whether these models can generate ...


A Novel Endo Gia™ Staple Cartridge For Canine Lung Lobectomies, Alissa St. Blanc 2022 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

A Novel Endo Gia™ Staple Cartridge For Canine Lung Lobectomies, Alissa St. Blanc

LSU Master's Theses

The canine lungs are well suited for ventilation, gas exchange, and gas transport. In diseased states, changes within bronchi and pulmonary parenchyma alter the blood-gas interface. Diagnostic workups to characterize pulmonary disease may include blood gas analysis, bronchoalveolar lavage, tracheobronchoscopy, radiography and/or computed tomography. Surgical pulmonary diseases include cysts, bullae, and blebs; congenital anomalies; consolidation or abscessation; bronchiectasis; lacerations; lung lobe torsions; and neoplasia. Surgical options may include laceration repair, partial or total lung lobectomy, and pneumonectomy. These options are most commonly utilized in cases that fail medical management. Lung lobectomies were originally performed using suture ligation. Stapling devices ...


Antibody Dependent Enhancement Of Infectious Bronchitis Virus In Poultry, Zachary Hamilton, Barry Simpson Dr., Donald L. Reynolds, DVM, Dr. 2022 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Antibody Dependent Enhancement Of Infectious Bronchitis Virus In Poultry, Zachary Hamilton, Barry Simpson Dr., Donald L. Reynolds, Dvm, Dr.

UCARE Research Products

Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is a coronavirus infection of chickens that causes respiratory disease and reproductive problems in chickens. Currently, there are vaccines that are effective against IB. However, new variants and strains of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) routinely emerge. A vaccine that is not the same strain as the virus is not completely effective in protecting against other variants because the vaccine will not allow the host antibodies to completely neutralize the strain. This is a problem because it makes IB difficult to control and diagnose.

Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) is a phenomenon whereby non-neutralizing antibodies, or low levels ...


Understanding Continent-Wide Variation In Vulture Ranging Behavior To Assess Feasibility Of Vulture Safe Zones In Africa: Challenges And Possibilities, Adam Kane, Ara Monadjem, H. K.Ortwin Aschenborn, Keith Bildstein, André Botha, Claire Bracebridge, Evan R. Buechley, Ralph Buij, John P. Davies, Maria Diekmann, Colleen T. Downs, Nina Farwig, Toby Galligan, Gregory Kaltenecker, Chris Kelly, Ryno Kemp, Holger Kolberg, Monique L. MacKenzie, John Mendelsohn, Msafiri Mgumba, Ran Nathan, Aaron Nicholas, Darcy Ogada, Morgan Pfeiffer, W. Louis Phipps, Matteuns D. Pretorius, Sascha Rösner, Dana G. Schabo, Gabriel Lita Shatumbu, Orr Spiegel, Lindy J. Thompson, Jan A. Venter, Munir Virani, Kerri Wolter, Corinne J. Kendall 2022 University College Dublin

Understanding Continent-Wide Variation In Vulture Ranging Behavior To Assess Feasibility Of Vulture Safe Zones In Africa: Challenges And Possibilities, Adam Kane, Ara Monadjem, H. K.Ortwin Aschenborn, Keith Bildstein, André Botha, Claire Bracebridge, Evan R. Buechley, Ralph Buij, John P. Davies, Maria Diekmann, Colleen T. Downs, Nina Farwig, Toby Galligan, Gregory Kaltenecker, Chris Kelly, Ryno Kemp, Holger Kolberg, Monique L. Mackenzie, John Mendelsohn, Msafiri Mgumba, Ran Nathan, Aaron Nicholas, Darcy Ogada, Morgan Pfeiffer, W. Louis Phipps, Matteuns D. Pretorius, Sascha Rösner, Dana G. Schabo, Gabriel Lita Shatumbu, Orr Spiegel, Lindy J. Thompson, Jan A. Venter, Munir Virani, Kerri Wolter, Corinne J. Kendall

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Protected areas are intended as tools in reducing threats to wildlife and preserving habitat for their long-term population persistence. Studies on ranging behavior provide insight into the utility of protected areas. Vultures are one of the fastest declining groups of birds globally and are popular subjects for telemetry studies, but continent-wide studies are lacking. To address how vultures use space and identify the areas and location of possible vulture safe zones, we assess home range size and their overlap with protected areas by species, age, breeding status, season, and region using a large continent-wide telemetry datasets that includes 163 individuals ...


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