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Milk Exosomes: Nature's Abundant Nanoplatform For Theranostic Applications, Benilde Adriano, Nycol Cotto, Neeraj Chauhan, Meena Jaggi, Subhash C. Chauhan, Murali M. Yallapu 2021 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Milk Exosomes: Nature's Abundant Nanoplatform For Theranostic Applications, Benilde Adriano, Nycol Cotto, Neeraj Chauhan, Meena Jaggi, Subhash C. Chauhan, Murali M. Yallapu

School of Medicine Publications and Presentations

Exosomes are a unique subpopulation of naturally occurring extracellular vesicles which are smaller intracellular membrane nanoparticle vesicles. Exosomes have proven to be excellent nanocarriers for carrying lipids, proteins, mRNAs, non-coding RNAs, and DNAs, and disseminating long-distance intercellular communications in various biological processes. Among various cell-line or biological fluid derived exosomes, milk exosomes are abundant in nature and exhibit many nanocarrier characteristics favorable for theranostic applications. To be an effective delivery carrier for their clinical translation, exosomes must inbuilt loading, release, targeting, and imaging/tracking characteristics. Considering the unmet gaps of milk exosomes in theranostic technology it is essential to focus ...


Theranostic Applications Of Sirna Bioconjugates In Cancer Detection And Treatment, Sunil S. Shah 2021 Seton Hall University

Theranostic Applications Of Sirna Bioconjugates In Cancer Detection And Treatment, Sunil S. Shah

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Abstract

The emerging field of RNA nanotechnology has led to rapid advances in the applications of RNA in chemical biology, medicinal chemistry, and biotechnology. At the forefront of its utility is the ability to self-assemble multiple siRNAs into nanostructure formulations capable of targeting selected oncogenes and potentiating the gene therapy of malignant tumors. Self-assembled siRNA integrates multiple siRNAs within a single molecular platform for silencing multiple oncogenic mRNA targets with high precision and efficacy to potentially induce cancer cell apoptosis through the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. Furthermore, the conjugation of siRNA self-assemblies with bio-active probes results in multi-functional theranostic (therapy ...


Development Of A Rapid Drug Detection Method For Insects Using Paper Spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (Psi-Ms), Alexandria Plyler 2021 Duquesne University

Development Of A Rapid Drug Detection Method For Insects Using Paper Spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (Psi-Ms), Alexandria Plyler

Undergraduate Research and Scholarship Symposium

Insects have the ability to reflect the chemical environment that they have developed in. Thus, necrogenous insects can reflect the chemical environment of cadavers they have fed on. Forensic scientists can potentially utilize insect larvae as an alternate biological matrix to detect drugs in cadavers that are skeletonized, burned, or otherwise badly damaged. Analysis of insects using paper spray ionization mass spectrometry (PSI-MS), an analytical method requiring little to no sample preparation, could prove a rapid, cost-effective, and non-destructive alternative form of toxicological analysis. Traditional tissue analysis via GC and LC-MS often require lengthy sample preparation, use expensive reagents, and ...


Analysis Of Multigenerational Behavioral Effects Of Dietary Benzo[A]Pyrene Exposure In Adult Zebrafish, Mary Beth Gillespie 2021 University of Mississippi

Analysis Of Multigenerational Behavioral Effects Of Dietary Benzo[A]Pyrene Exposure In Adult Zebrafish, Mary Beth Gillespie

Honors Theses

Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that is linked to negative reproductive and developmental effects in humans and animals. Because BaP is carcinogenic, and its continued presence in the environment allows it to be inhaled and ingested, better understanding of the effects of BaP is needed. To determine the behavioral effects of BaP exposure, zebrafish were used as a model. Wild-type zebrafish (5D) underwent two separate 21-day dietary exposures to 2.5 and 25 μg BaP/g fish to compare how BaP exposure affects locomotor activity. Following the dietary exposure, fish were mated to obtain and raise ...


Complementary And Alternative Medicine: The Effects Of Aromatherapy On New And Expectant Mothers, Heather Tran 2021 Dominican University of California

Complementary And Alternative Medicine: The Effects Of Aromatherapy On New And Expectant Mothers, Heather Tran

Nursing | Senior Theses

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is vastly expanding and is now being used in the clinical setting as an effective management of various symptoms. Pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period can be beautiful yet overwhelming moments in a woman’s life. The symptoms that are usually accompanied along this journey include nausea, vomiting, anxiety, pain, fatigue, stress and more. Aromatherapy has been proven to be a safe and natural, non-pharmacological method in reducing these symptoms that may make it harder for the mother to enjoy her pregnancy. This holistic approach to treatment is inexpensive, noninvasive, does not require a prescription ...


The Effects Of Dexmedetomidine On Preventing/Decreasing Severity Of Delirium When Given To Surgical Intensive Care Unit Patients: A Systematic Review Of Randomized Control Trials, Lindsey Hettish 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effects Of Dexmedetomidine On Preventing/Decreasing Severity Of Delirium When Given To Surgical Intensive Care Unit Patients: A Systematic Review Of Randomized Control Trials, Lindsey Hettish

The Eleanor Mann School of Nursing Undergraduate Honors Theses

The purpose of this systematic review was to integrate research evidence from studies published from 2010 to 2020 on the relationship between administration of dexmedetomidine and severity/prevalence of postprocedural delirium in patients in the surgical intensive care unit. In this review, clinical trial studies were recovered by searching the MEDLINE Complete and PubMed databases and utilizing MeSH terminology search. The MeSH terms utilized to search for applicable articles on PubMed included: “intensive care units” or “critical care” or “critical care nursing”, and “delirium”, “dexmedetomidine”, and “surgical procedures, operative”. On MEDLINE Complete, the search terms utilized were “ICU or intensive ...


Identification And Characterization Of Butyrate-Producing Species In The Human Gut Microbiome, Grace Maline 2021 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Identification And Characterization Of Butyrate-Producing Species In The Human Gut Microbiome, Grace Maline

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) including ulcerative colitis, indeterminate colitis, and Crohn’s disease are increasingly common conditions that places a high physical and financial burden on individuals and global healthcare systems. Though many treatments exist for these conditions, their unpredictable nature and causation make them difficult to manage across the variety of IBD patients. Additionally, many of these treatments come with undesirable side effects or modes of delivery. Therefore, it is worthwhile to explore the use of Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs) such as butyrate whose affects in the human gut include decreased inflammation and decreased risk of colorectal cancer ...


Finding The Balance​ The Effects Of Α-Cyclodextrin, 2-Hydroxypropyl-Β-Cyclodextrin, And Cholesterol Bacteroides Vulgatus And Clostridium Bolteae​, Bethany Weaver 2021 Olivet Nazarene University

Finding The Balance​ The Effects Of Α-Cyclodextrin, 2-Hydroxypropyl-Β-Cyclodextrin, And Cholesterol Bacteroides Vulgatus And Clostridium Bolteae​, Bethany Weaver

Honors Program Projects

Atherosclerosis is a cardiovascular disease that is characterized by the hardening of arteries through the formation of cholesterol plaques. Cyclodextrins could potentially treat atherosclerosis by shrinking plaques. These cyclic oligosaccharides can make complexes with cholesterol but have also shown toxic side effects. This study looked for potential negative effects of cyclodextrins and cholesterol on gut bacteria. It was hypothesized that Bacteroides vulgatus will have decreased growth when grown in broth with cholesterol. In contrast, Clostridium bolteae will have decreased growth when grown in broth with cyclodextrins. Due to the fact that these bacteria are anaerobic, Clostridium bolteae and Bacteroides vulgatus ...


Hydrogen Peroxide Colitis: The Accidental Enema, Ramin Karimi, Ashish Sharma, Kevin Tran, Sebastian Montgomery 2021 Coliseum Medical Center

Hydrogen Peroxide Colitis: The Accidental Enema, Ramin Karimi, Ashish Sharma, Kevin Tran, Sebastian Montgomery

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

Chemical colitis is defined as inflammation of the large intestine or colon as a result of exposure from a harsh chemical through an enema or other procedure. In this case, the chemical is hydrogen peroxide, which is commonly used as an antiseptic for minor abrasions. Hydrogen peroxide enemas were once popular for difficult to treat constipation. However, resultant colitis and proctitis limited its use. When administered rectally in a high enough concentration, intense abdominal pain and transient bloody diarrhea can occur, with the majority of affected patients making a full recovery with supportive management. Here we discuss a case of ...


The Effects Of Progesterone Induced Blocking Factor And 17-Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate On The Pathophysiology Of Preeclampsia, Kyleigh M. Comley 2021 University of Mississippi

The Effects Of Progesterone Induced Blocking Factor And 17-Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate On The Pathophysiology Of Preeclampsia, Kyleigh M. Comley

Honors Theses

Preeclampsia (PE) is responsible for about 20% of the 13 million preterm births each year worldwide, including 100,000 cases annually in the United States. Despite being a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity, the mechanisms of pathogenesis are still largely unknown. PE is progesterone deficient state characterized by hypertension, chronic immune activation, endothelial dysfunction and severe forms can lead to seizures. Treatment of seizures includes the administration of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) though not all PE patients are responsive, and it does not decrease PE-associated hypertension. To resolve these conditions, PE patients are delivered early thereby making PE the ...


The Effect Of Chronic Alcohol Consumption On Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage In Young Men, Emma Hamilton, Grant Hilliard 2021 University of Mississippi

The Effect Of Chronic Alcohol Consumption On Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage In Young Men, Emma Hamilton, Grant Hilliard

Honors Theses

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on exercise-induced muscle damage of the knee extensors in young men. METHODS: Twenty-one males (age 21.9 ± 1.1 yr; weight 183.4 ± 27.6 lbs; height 174.0 ± 13.1 cm) performed 100 maximal eccentric contractions at 30°/sec of the knee extensors using their non-dominant leg. The isometric and isokinetic muscle strengths (60°/sec and 180°/sec) were measured pre-exercise and immediately, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h, and 120 h post-exercise. Muscle soreness and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity were measured pre-exercise and 24 h, 48 ...


Synthesis Of Novel Long Chain Unsaturated Fatty Acid Analogs Of Capsaicin, Eli Bettiga 2021 University of Mississippi

Synthesis Of Novel Long Chain Unsaturated Fatty Acid Analogs Of Capsaicin, Eli Bettiga

Honors Theses

A number of key studies have shown that the natural product capsaicin displays in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects against a variety of cancers, however, both the analgesic and cancer-related therapeutic potential of capsaicin have been limited by its unpleasant pungent side effects and modest potency. N-acyl vanillylamides (N-AVAMs) are a unique class of compounds that are simple side chain modified capsaicin derivatives. Limited structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of N-AVAMs demonstrated that substitution of the capsaicin side-chain with longer unsaturated fatty acid groups results in non-pungent analogs with improved anti-invasive activity relative to capsaicin. In an effort to ultimately ...


Drug Repurposing And Dosage Form Development Of Anti-Covid-19, Kevin Kwok 2021 Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, West Java, Indonesia

Drug Repurposing And Dosage Form Development Of Anti-Covid-19, Kevin Kwok

Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research

The COVID-19 pandemic has been occurring approximately for more than 1 year. This pandemic has been a health issue that hits all countries in the world caused by the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virus from one individual to another. The symptoms showed from the infected are fever, shortness of breath, dry cough, headache, and sore throat, among others. The SARS-CoV-2 virus is transmitted through sneezing, coughing, talking, and touching infected objects. Along with this transmission, the SARS-CoV-2 virus will continue to mutate. This mutation becomes an obstacle as well as a challenge to find drugs that can overcome the SARS-CoV-2 virus ...


Ciliary Extracellular Vesicles Are Distinct From The Cytosolic Extracellular Vesicles, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Richard Beuttler, James J. Moresco, John R. Yates III, Surya M. Nauli 2021 Chapman University

Ciliary Extracellular Vesicles Are Distinct From The Cytosolic Extracellular Vesicles, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Richard Beuttler, James J. Moresco, John R. Yates Iii, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell‐derived membrane vesicles that are released into the extracellular space. EVs encapsulate key proteins and mediate intercellular signalling pathways. Recently, primary cilia have been shown to release EVs under fluid‐shear flow, but many proteins encapsulated in these vesicles have never been identified. Primary cilia are ubiquitous mechanosensory organelles that protrude from the apical surface of almost all human cells. Primary cilia also serve as compartments for signalling pathways, and their defects have been associated with a wide range of human genetic diseases called ciliopathies. To better understand the mechanism of ciliopathies, it is imperative ...


Suppression Of Human Coronavirus 229e Infection In Lung Fibroblast Cells Via Rna Interference, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi, Jennifer Totonchy, Parvin Mahdipoor, Keykavous Parang, Hasan Uludağ 2021 Chapman University

Suppression Of Human Coronavirus 229e Infection In Lung Fibroblast Cells Via Rna Interference, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi, Jennifer Totonchy, Parvin Mahdipoor, Keykavous Parang, Hasan Uludağ

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Despite extensive efforts to repurpose approved drugs, discover new small molecules, and develop vaccines, COVID-19 pandemic is still claiming victims around the world. The current arsenal of antiviral compounds did not perform well in the past viral infections (e.g., SARS), which casts a shadow of doubt for use against the new SARS-CoV-2. Vaccines should offer the ultimate protection; however, there is limited information about the longevity of the generated immunity and the protection against possible mutations. This study uses Human Coronavirus 229E as a model coronavirus to test the hypothesis that effective delivery of virus-specific siRNAs to infected cells ...


430— Ifnγ And 5-Aza Drug Effects On Hla Expression In Human Leukemia And Epidermoid Carcinoma, Nick Turnquist 2021 SUNY Geneseo

430— Ifnγ And 5-Aza Drug Effects On Hla Expression In Human Leukemia And Epidermoid Carcinoma, Nick Turnquist

GREAT Day

Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) is a gene that codes for cell-surface proteins that are the basis of our bodies’ immune response, and are crucial for the combatting of pathogens or infections. For our experiment we observed two cell lines, a human Leukemia cell line (HL-60), and an epidermoid carcinoma cell line A-431. Our purpose for this experiment was to observe the effects of two drugs as well as the combination of them on the expression of HLA antigens in these cancerous cell lines. The drugs being used in this experiment are Gamma interferon, which is known to increase antigen presentation ...


The Interconnectivity Of Parkinson's Disease And Type Two Diabetes Mellitus, Erica Olfson 2021 Belmont University

The Interconnectivity Of Parkinson's Disease And Type Two Diabetes Mellitus, Erica Olfson

Honors Theses

This thesis is about the biochemical connection between Parkinson's disease and Type II Diabetes Mellitus.


Students Perceptions Of Alcohol Use On University Campuses, Phil J. Dohn 2021 University of South Dakota

Students Perceptions Of Alcohol Use On University Campuses, Phil J. Dohn

Honors Thesis

Background: College students are faced with the problem of balancing between the freedom attained for the first time in life and living responsibly away from parents. Most of the students rely on colleges as the platform through which they undergo desired developmental changes.

Aim: The study aims to examine student’s knowledge and attitudes towards the consumption of alcohol and policies developed by campuses.

Methods: The study employs meta-analysis technique in which data from several studies are combined. The method is used to determine the common effect especially because the effect size is consistent from a single study to another ...


Mediation Of The Uncoupled Enos Pathway Following Oxidative Stress Using Tetrahydrobiopterin And Nitric Oxide Donor Drugs To Restore Tetrahydrobiopterin Concentration, Brianna Munnich 2021 Olivet Nazarene University

Mediation Of The Uncoupled Enos Pathway Following Oxidative Stress Using Tetrahydrobiopterin And Nitric Oxide Donor Drugs To Restore Tetrahydrobiopterin Concentration, Brianna Munnich

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Presentation Location: Warming House, Olivet Nazarene University

Abstract

The eNOS pathway, found in the endothelium of blood vessels, is a key regulator of nitric oxide levels in the circulatory system. The pathway is controlled through several positive and negative feedback loops [2]. The cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a major control point in this pathway and under conditions of stress can be reduced into the dihydrobiopterin (BH2) [2,6,7,8,9]. When the reduced form is predominant, the pathway produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) rather than nitric oxide, causing stress and damage to the vessels [6,7,8,9]. In ...


Study Of Potential Drug For Alzheimer’S Disease: Small Organic Molecules, 1,5-Dhn And Tmpyp Inhibit Amyloid-Β Peptide Aggregation And Quench Hydroxyl Radicals, Matthew Murphy 2021 Stephen F Austin State University

Study Of Potential Drug For Alzheimer’S Disease: Small Organic Molecules, 1,5-Dhn And Tmpyp Inhibit Amyloid-Β Peptide Aggregation And Quench Hydroxyl Radicals, Matthew Murphy

Undergraduate Research Conference

Alzheimer disease (AD) is recognized as the six leading cause of the death in the United States. As of now, there is no cure for this fatal disease. The current treatment methods can only temporarily slow the worsening of symptoms. Research data suggested that an excess generation of hydroxyl radical in the brain causing the aggregation of Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide which is considered to be responsible for Alzheimer's disease. Thus, there is a pressing need to find a suitable drug which can quench hydroxyl radicals effectively and stop or slow down the formation of aggregation of Aβ peptide. The ...


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