Lived Experience As An Emergency Responder, 2010 Utah Valley University
Lived Experience As An Emergency Responder, Rodger E. Broome
Rodger E. Broome
A non-reductive approach to inquiry of the emergency responders' life-worlds.
Cj Times Volume 4, Issue 1, 2010 Sacred Heart University
Cj Times Volume 4, Issue 1, Department Of Criminal Justice
CJ Times (Newsletter)
No abstract provided.
Realism, Punishment & Reform [A Reply To Braman, Kahan, And Hoffman, "Some Realism About Punishment Naturalism”], 2010 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School
Realism, Punishment & Reform [A Reply To Braman, Kahan, And Hoffman, "Some Realism About Punishment Naturalism”], Paul H. Robinson, Owen D. Jones, Robert O. Kurzban
Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law
Professors Donald Braman, Dan Kahan, and David Hoffman, in their article "Some Realism About Punishment Naturalism," to be published in an upcoming issue of the University of Chicago Law Review, critique a series of our articles: Concordance and Conflict in Intuitions of Justice (http://ssrn.com/abstract=932067), The Origins of Shared Intuitions of Justice (http://.ssrn.com/abstract=952726), and Intuitions of Justice: Implications for Criminal Law and Justice Policy (http://.ssrn.com/abstract=976026). Our reply, here, follows their article in that coming issue. As we demonstrate, they have misunderstood our views on, and thus the implications of, widespread agreement about punishing the "core" of wrongdoing. Although much of their …
Polishing The "Boots," Part 2, 2010 Utah Valley University
Polishing The "Boots," Part 2, Rodger E. Broome
Rodger E. Broome
Autocracy, Bureaucracy, and Complacency, the A-B-Cs of bad management.
Do Judges Vary In Their Treatment Of Race?, 2010 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School
Do Judges Vary In Their Treatment Of Race?, David S. Abrams, Marianne Bertrand, Sendhil Mullainathan
Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law
Are minorities treated differently by the legal system? Systematic racial differences in case characteristics, many unobservable, make this a difficult question to answer directly. In this paper, we estimate whether judges differ from each other in how they sentence minorities, avoiding potential bias from unobservable case characteristics by exploiting the random assignment of cases to judges. We measure the between-judge variation in the difference in incarceration rates and sentence lengths between African-American and White defendants. We perform a Monte Carlo simulation in order to explicitly construct the appropriate counterfactual, where race does not influence judicial sentencing. In our data set, …
Relational Aggression, Intimate Partner Violence, And Gender: An Exploratory Analysis, 2010 University of Nebraska at Omaha
Relational Aggression, Intimate Partner Violence, And Gender: An Exploratory Analysis, Emily M. Wright, Michael L. Benson
Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty Publications
This study explores the effects of romantic relational aggression on intimate partner violence. The concept of relational aggression denotes a type of nonphysical aggression that is specific to relationships and that has only recently been recognized in the psychological literature. Using responses to the Conflict Tactics Scale from adults participating in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, romantic relational aggression is examined with regard to male and female intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization. Results indicate that romantic relational aggression is a predictor of partner violence perpetration and victimization among both males and females.
Where To From Here?, 2010 Bond University
Where To From Here?, Wayne Petherick
The history of profiling is easy to trace - after all, it has already been recorded and is available for review (see Chapter 1; Petherick, 2003; Turvey, 2008). The future of profiling is another story entirely. Given the nature of the craft and the advances made in recent years, it stands to reason that only further improvements will be made. At least, this should be our hope.
An increase in use in the real world is matched by an increase in the number of scholarly works dedicated to the field. Most provide a general overview of profiling (Ainsworth, 2001; …
Criminal Profiling Methods, 2010 Bond University
Criminal Profiling Methods, Wayne Petherick
Extract:As an investigative aid, criminal profiling has received a great deal of attention from academic audiences and popular culture (Petherick, 2003), and significant advances have been made in both practical and theoretical terms. Even though our collective knowledge about this area has grown, there is still much about the process that remains a mystery. For example, there is little acknowledgment or understanding of the logic or reasoning employed within the profiling process (see Chapter 2), or that there are indeed different methods employed within the profiling community. Of more concern is the fact that many practitioners continue to confuse these …
Criminal Profiling As Expert Evidence, 2010 Bond University
Criminal Profiling As Expert Evidence, Wayne Petherick, David Field, Andrew Lowe, Elizabeth Fry
Profiling evidence has been accepted in courts in the United States in both trial and sentencing phases, but other jurisdictions have been more cautious in their acceptance. For example, courts in the United Kingdom and Australia have been reluctant to introduce profilers as experts, even though profiling has been given some exposure in courts operating at the lower end of the justice system. The reasons for this reluctance are varied but include a lack of uniformity processes and outcomes, fragmentation of methods, and conflict between profiling organizations and practitioners. In short, there are many methods of profiling, and not …
Routine Activities As Determinants Of Gender Differences In Delinquency, 2010 Butler University
Routine Activities As Determinants Of Gender Differences In Delinquency, Katherine B. Novak, Lizabeth A. Crawford
Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS
This study examined the extent to which gender differences in delinquency can be explained by gender differences in participation in, or response to, various routine activity patterns (RAPs) using data from the second and third waves of the National Education Longitudinal Survey of 1988. While differential participation in routine activities by gender failed to explain males’ high levels of deviance relative to females, two early RAPs moderated the effect of gender on subsequent deviant behavior. Participation in religious and community activities during the sophomore year in high school decreased, while unstructured and unsupervised peer interaction increased, levels of delinquency two …
Dereliction Of Duty: Training Schools For Delinquent Parents In The 1940s, 2010 University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
Dereliction Of Duty: Training Schools For Delinquent Parents In The 1940s, Sarah K. S. Shannon
The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare
Parental culpability for juvenile delinquency has permeated social welfare thought and practice throughout U.S. history. This article presents a case study of one Midwestern municipality's efforts to create a training school for parents as a remedy for delinquency in the 1940s. The case study illustrates how city leaders attempted to put theory about delinquency causation into practice by forging a collaborative intervention strategy among various community partners including public schools, social welfare agencies, and law enforcement. In light of the case study, this article examines historical and contemporary efforts to punish parents of juvenile delinquents.
The Fallacy Of Accuracy In Criminal Profiling, 2010 Bond University
The Fallacy Of Accuracy In Criminal Profiling, Wayne Petherick
The defining criterion by which the utility of a particular tool is often judged is its accuracy or sensitivity of detection. We place little faith in that which is inaccurate or in those things that do not detect what they are meant to detect. Things are no different in the profiling community, and the most common measure by which a profiler claims utility is how close his or her approximations are to an offender, if one is caught. As will be shown in this chapter, with the craft being the way it is, this is probably the worst possible …
A Snapshot Of Serial Arson In Australia, 2010 Bond University
A Snapshot Of Serial Arson In Australia, Rebekah Doley
Studies into arson commonly have two underlying assumptions: 1) that arsonists are in some way different from non-arsonists; and, 2) that repeat arson offenders are quantifiably different from one- time arson offenders. In general these suppositions have remained implicit in the research, with few empirical investigations examining their veracity or otherwise against a sound theoretical model. The current project sought to establish how applicable these assumptions are in the Australian context. In the process a profile of Australian arsonists has been clarified and the concept that arsonists can be differentiated from each other and from other types of offender on …
Metacognition In Criminal Profiling, 2010 Bond University
Metacognition In Criminal Profiling, Barry Woodhouse, Wayne Petherick
As with many professions, one of the more serious problems that confronts the profiling community is that of the inept examiner. Deliberately unethical behavior is one thing, but ongoing incompetence because of profiler ignorance is something else entirely. In some instances, ignorance is the result of a metacognitive deficit caused by a lack of study, a lack of training, or a general lack of mental dexterity. In such instances, the profiler will continually do the wrong thing, such as using flawed methods and erroneous logic, because he lacks the ability to recognize his own ineptitude; the profiler cannot perceive …
Victim Lifestyle Exposure, 2010 Bond University
Victim Lifestyle Exposure, Joe Diaz, Wayne Petherick, Brent Turvey
Extract: It has been said that for every crime there is at least one victim. However, victimity may not be assumed or otherwise presupposed. First, the existence of crime must be established; if there is no crime, there can be no victim. Then it is necessary to establish which participant is the victim. This cannot be assumed either as explained by von Hentig (cited in Wolfgang 1959, 245): Here are two human beings. As soon as they draw near to one another, male or female, young or old, rich or poor, ugly or attractive - a wide range of interactions, …
School Shootings, 2010 Bond University
School Shootings, Wayne Petherick, Brent Turvey
As with any attack that occurs at an educational facility - to include grade schools, colleges, and universities - school shootings are a particular form of workplace violence. The relationships are fairly straightforward in this regard. Instructors, administrators, and support staff are employed and work on site, and students are the "clients". Violent attacks may occur between or within any of these groups or their relationships.
Workplace Violence, 2010 Bond University
Workplace Violence, Wayne Petherick, Brent Turvey
Extract: Workplace violence is defined by one authority as "violence or the threat of violence against others" (OSHA 2002, 1). Because of sensational coverage by the popular media, the public perception of the frequency of different incarnations of workplace-related violence, such as homicide, is likely to be greatly distorted. Watching the evening news, it is not difficult to understand why. In our present culture, where sexuality, violence, and fear are valuable retail commodities, the workplace is routinely characterized with one or more of these when given airtime or column space. Stories without such marketable traits are seldom featured.
An Introduction To Crime And Deviance, 2010 Bond University
An Introduction To Crime And Deviance, Wayne Petherick, Claire Ferguson
Extract: Criminological knowledge as it relates to concepts of deviance have been stagnating. Historically, new texts contain very little new knowledge. They have tended towards the recycled rather than the original. Old theories are posited over and over again, with little consideration or regard to whether they even apply in the current universe of criminal behavior. New editions rarely contain little more than new case studies as if this somehow keeps them contemporary. At best, many works offer a different spin on old approaches or theories. It is for these reasons that we have endeavoured to make this book a …
Behavioral Consistency, The Homology Assumption And The Problems Of Induction, 2010 Bond University
Behavioral Consistency, The Homology Assumption And The Problems Of Induction, Wayne Petherick, Claire Ferguson
Extract: The ultimate goal of profiling is to identify the major behavioral and personality characteristics to narrow the suspect pool. Inferences about offender characteristics can be accomplished deductively, based on the analysis of discrete offender behaviors established within a particular case. They can also be accomplished inductively, involving prediction based on abstract offender averages from group data (these methods were detailed extensively in Chapter 2; see also Petherick & Turvey, 2008a). As discussed, these two approaches are by no means equal.
Alcohol, Drugs And Crime, 2010 Bond University
Alcohol, Drugs And Crime, Wayne Petherick, Nila Myers
There are a great many factors that contribute to criminality. These include, but are not limited to poverty, mental disorder, personality disorder, sub-cultures (such as gangs), personality differences, and socialization. One of the more prevalent though would be the use of alcohol and other drugs. This applies to both the offender and the victim. That is, many offenders are under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol at the time of their offense, and so are victims. In fact, victim use of drugs parallels that of offenders in many offense types.