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Once Bitten, Thrice Wise: The Varying Effects Of Victimization On Routine Activities And Risk Management, J. Michael Vecchio 2017 Loyola University Chicago

Once Bitten, Thrice Wise: The Varying Effects Of Victimization On Routine Activities And Risk Management, J. Michael Vecchio

J. Michael Vecchio

While the relationship between offending and victimization is well established, less is understood about what contributes to the varied effects of victimization on future behavior. Drawing on qualitative interviews from a sample of at-risk men, the study explores recognized and unrecognized effects of victimization on subsequent behavior and management of lifestyle risks both within and across narratives. Findings demonstrate a range of perceived effects on behavior and risk management, with the presence or absence of substantive effects related to whether the event was both severe and directly attributable to involvement in at-risk behavior. Consequences for the victimization–termination hypothesis are ...


Youth Gangs: An Overview Of Key Findings And Directions For The Future, Terrance J. Taylor, J. Michael Vecchio 2017 University of Missouri - St Louis

Youth Gangs: An Overview Of Key Findings And Directions For The Future, Terrance J. Taylor, J. Michael Vecchio

J. Michael Vecchio

Youth gangs have received considerable attention for many decades. Undoubtedly, their disproportionate involvement in violence is one main reason for this attention. While gang members spend most of their lives engaging in the same types of behaviors as other youth (sleeping, eating, playing video games, going to school), they are also much more likely than non-gang members to be involved in violence and other criminal activity. Indeed, scholars have often highlighted the functional nature of violence as it pertains to gangs. Gangs come in a variety of forms: prison gangs, outlaw motorcycle gangs, extremist groups, and drug trafficking organizations, among ...


Leaving The Gang: A Review And Thoughts On Future Research, Dena C. Carson, J. Michael Vecchio 2017 Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis

Leaving The Gang: A Review And Thoughts On Future Research, Dena C. Carson, J. Michael Vecchio

J. Michael Vecchio

Researchers have examined aspects of gangs and their members for almost a century. This work, however, focuses primarily on youth prior to joining as well as during gang involvement. While comparatively less is known about the leaving processes, work in this area has been increasing in recent years. This chapter will discuss the growing body of research on the processes associated with leaving the gang. Specifically, it will review difficulties associated with defining gang desistance, theoretical perspectives on desistance, variations in motives, methods, and consequences of leaving, barriers to desistance, as well as make recommendations for policy and future research.


The Punishment Marketplace: Competing For Capitalized Power In Locally Controlled Immigration Enforcement, Daniel L. Stageman 2017 CUNY John Jay College

The Punishment Marketplace: Competing For Capitalized Power In Locally Controlled Immigration Enforcement, Daniel L. Stageman

Publications and Research

Neoliberal economics play a significant role in US social organization, imposing market logics on public services and driving the cultural valorization of free market ideology. The neoliberal ‘project of inequality’ is upheld by an authoritarian system of punishment built around the social control of the underclass—among them unauthorized immigrants. This work lays out the theory of the punishment marketplace: a conceptualization of how US systems of punishment both enable the neoliberal project of inequality, and are themselves subject to market colonization. The theory describes the rescaling of federal authority to local centers of political power. Criminal justice policy activism ...


Child And Adolescent Commercial Sexual Exploitation In Mexico: The Exploiters And The State, Sonia M. Frias, Mariajosé Gómez-Zaldívar 2017 National Autonomous University of Mexico

Child And Adolescent Commercial Sexual Exploitation In Mexico: The Exploiters And The State, Sonia M. Frias, Mariajosé Gómez-Zaldívar

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

Commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is a form of violence in which children, mainly girls and female adolescents, are reduced to sexual objects for rent. In this study, we argue that the concept of who is an exploiter must be broadened to include everyone who directly or indirectly benefits from CSEC. This paper is based on life stories of 10 female residents from a shelter, which we call Casa Libertad (a fictitious name) in Mexico City, for female victims of violence. Researchers also used semi-structured interviews with experts on CSEC to examine the exploiters' profiles. The research challenges the ...


Unpacking The Mind Of Evil: A Sociological Perspective On The Role Of Intent And Motivations In Genocide, Timothy Williams, Dominik Pfeiffer 2017 University of Marburg

Unpacking The Mind Of Evil: A Sociological Perspective On The Role Of Intent And Motivations In Genocide, Timothy Williams, Dominik Pfeiffer

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

For quite some time, theories on the role of intent in genocide were conceptually frozen in polarised liberal and post-liberal, or purpose- and knowledge-based approaches, respectively. In accordance with recent criminological thought that moves beyond the narrow debate, this article develops a new sociological perspective on the role of intent in genocide. Drawing on frame analysis it is argued that intent is mainly relevant for framing genocidal action at the macro level. However, individual low-level perpetrators act from a large number of different motivations, of which ideologies of intent are only one. Others range from obedience to authority, coercion and ...


First World Congress Of Victimology: Victim-Witness Intimidation, William C. Toomey 2017 St. John's University School of Law

First World Congress Of Victimology: Victim-Witness Intimidation, William C. Toomey

The Catholic Lawyer

No abstract provided.


Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 42: Police Shootings, Tasers, And Community Efforts To Improve Police Accountability, Philip M. Stinson 2017 Bowling Green State University - Main Campus

Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 42: Police Shootings, Tasers, And Community Efforts To Improve Police Accountability, Philip M. Stinson

Philip M Stinson

This episode of the Police Integrity Lost Podcast features an interview of Professor Phil Stinson by Eugene Puryear that originally aired on the Radio Sputnik show By Any Means Necessary on August 31, 2017.


The Emerging Adulthood Gap: Integrating Emerging Adulthood Into Life Course Criminology, Christopher Salvatore 2017 Montclair State University

The Emerging Adulthood Gap: Integrating Emerging Adulthood Into Life Course Criminology, Christopher Salvatore

International Social Science Review

The aim of this study is to provide a theoretical mechanism, the ‘emerging adulthood gap,’ to integrate emerging adulthood into the life course or developmental area of criminological theory. This paper will present the ‘what’ of the emerging adulthood gap by introducing the concept and integrating it into existing theoretical paradigms, the ‘how’ by examining how social circumstances have altered the life course leading to the evolution of emerging adulthood as a distinct stage of the life course and to the ‘emerging adulthood gap,’ and the ‘why’ of the ‘emerging adulthood gap’ by discussing the decreased level of informal social ...


Prosecuting Buyers In Human Trafficking Cases: An Analysis Of The Implications Of United States V. Jungers And United States V. Bonestroo, Andrea J. Nichols, Erin Heil 2017 Washington University in St. Louis; Forest Park College

Prosecuting Buyers In Human Trafficking Cases: An Analysis Of The Implications Of United States V. Jungers And United States V. Bonestroo, Andrea J. Nichols, Erin Heil

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

This article provides a review and analysis of United States v. Jungers and United States v. Bonestroo, important court cases providing precedent for charging buyers of sex as traffickers in cases involving minors. The decisions in these court cases, and in subsequent cases, further solidify the presence of end-demand efforts in the form of prosecution. Yet, the decisions in these cases raise additional questions about their implications for state-level prosecution, the prosecution of buyers in cases involving adults who experience sex trafficking, and the buyers of trafficked labor. Drawing from an analysis of relevant cases, this article analyzes the impact ...


Desisting In Prison: Myth And The Council For Unity Model, Kevin Moran 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Desisting In Prison: Myth And The Council For Unity Model, Kevin Moran

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation is a qualitative examination of aspects of the desistance process among incarcerated men in both prison and jail. Data collection for this project occurred in and around the correctional version of the Council For Unity program, which is also examined in this write up. The premise of this project is that a minority of men do desist whilst incarcerated and thus the research presented here analyzes how prisoners act towards their attempts to desist from crime in terms of the meaning this process has for them, their interaction with others during this process, and the interpretative progression by ...


Barriocide: Investigating The Temporal And Spatial Influence Of Neighborhood Structural Characteristics On Gang And Non-Gang Homicides In East Los Angeles, Matthew Valasik, Michael Barton, Shannon E. Reid, George E. Tita 2017 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Barriocide: Investigating The Temporal And Spatial Influence Of Neighborhood Structural Characteristics On Gang And Non-Gang Homicides In East Los Angeles, Matthew Valasik, Michael Barton, Shannon E. Reid, George E. Tita

Matthew Valasik

This study explored how changes in neighborhood structural characteristics predicted variation in gang versus non-gang homicides in a policing division of the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD). Longitudinal negative binomial models were examined to test the relationship between-neighborhood structural covariates with gang and non-gang homicides over a 35-year period. This study highlights the potential to estimate temporal effects not captured by cross-sectional analyses alone. The results underscore a unique feature that distinguishes gang homicides from other forms of non-gang violence, its tenacious clustering, and spatial dependence over time.


Restorative Justice: A Look At Victim Offender Mediation Programs, Katie L. Moran 2017 Fordham University

Restorative Justice: A Look At Victim Offender Mediation Programs, Katie L. Moran

21st Century Social Justice

This report conceptualizes the effectiveness and benefits of utilizing the restorative justice model of Victim Offender Mediation (VOM) within the criminal and juvenile justice systems to serve the rights of victims, offenders, and society more justly. Victim Offender Mediation is discussed as a possible alternative justice model which reframes the victim-offender relationship to foster and respect the dignity and worth of each participant. This restorative justice model combats victims’ feelings of helplessness by giving them back their voice, while having the potential to specifically offer relief to those secondarily victimized by the legal system in cases of simple rape. Offenders ...


Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 41: Police Body Cameras And The Planting Of Evidence, Philip M. Stinson 2017 Bowling Green State University - Main Campus

Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 41: Police Body Cameras And The Planting Of Evidence, Philip M. Stinson

Philip M Stinson

This episode of the Police Integrity Lost Podcast features an interview of Professor Phil Stinson by Eugene Puryear that originally aired on the Radio Sputnik show By Any Means Necessary on August 11, 2017.


Tragedy, Outrage & Reform: Crimes That Changed Our World: 1983 – Thurman Beating - Domestic Violence, Paul H. Robinson, Sarah M. Robinson 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Tragedy, Outrage & Reform: Crimes That Changed Our World: 1983 – Thurman Beating - Domestic Violence, Paul H. Robinson, Sarah M. Robinson

Faculty Scholarship

Can a crime make our world better? Crimes are the worst of humanity’s wrongs but, oddly, they sometimes do more than anything else to improve our lives. As it turns out, it is often the outrageousness itself that does the work. Ordinary crimes are accepted as the background noise of our everyday existence but some crimes make people stop and take notice – because they are so outrageous, or so curious, or so heart-wrenching. These “trigger crimes” are the cases that this book is about.

They offer some incredible stories about how people, good and bad, change the world around ...


The Triple-C Impact: Responding To Childhood Exposure To Crime And Violence, Michal Gilad 2017 University of Pennsylvania

The Triple-C Impact: Responding To Childhood Exposure To Crime And Violence, Michal Gilad

Faculty Scholarship

The article is the first to take an inclusive look at the monumental problem of crime exposure during childhood, which is estimated to be one of the most damaging and costly public health and public safety problem in our society today. It takes-on the challenging task of ‘naming’ the problem by coining the term Comprehensive Childhood Crime Impact or in short the Triple-C Impact. Informed by scientific findings, the term embodies the full effect of direct and indirect crime exposure on children due to their unique developmental characteristics, and the spillover effect the problem has on our society as a ...


The Divinity Of Crime: How Spirituality Can Strengthen The Resilience Of Criminal Organizations, David R. Vegvari 2017 CUNY John Jay College

The Divinity Of Crime: How Spirituality Can Strengthen The Resilience Of Criminal Organizations, David R. Vegvari

Student Theses

This thesis conducts a systematic analysis of open source data that discusses ideational factors of resilience in criminal organizations. It does this by looking at the role of spirituality – referred to as an individual’s moral or ethical codes influenced by cultural, ethnic, and religious values – and its effects on an organization’s durability, impenetrability, and adaptability. To understand spirituality as a factor of resilience in criminal organizations, it is delineated into four Dimensions of Spiritual Influence (DoSI). They are (1) trust, (2) spiritual neutralization, (3) strategic arenas, and (4) the logistical use of spiritual institutions. In order to analyze ...


A Cross-Sectional Exploration Of Household Financial Reactions And Homebuyer Awareness Of Registered Sex Offenders In A Rural, Suburban, And Urban County., John Charles Navarro 2017 University of Louisville

A Cross-Sectional Exploration Of Household Financial Reactions And Homebuyer Awareness Of Registered Sex Offenders In A Rural, Suburban, And Urban County., John Charles Navarro

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

As stigmatized persons, registered sex offenders betoken instability in communities. Depressed home sale values are associated with the presence of registered sex offenders even though the public is largely unaware of the presence of registered sex offenders. Using a spatial multilevel approach, the current study examines the role registered sex offenders influence sale values of homes sold in 2015 for three U.S. counties (rural, suburban, and urban) located in Illinois and Kentucky within the social disorganization framework. Homebuyers were surveyed to examine whether awareness of local registered sex offenders and the homebuyer’s community type operate as moderators between ...


The Effects Of Employment On Recidivism Among Delinquent Juveniles, Leigh Kassem 2017 East Tennessee State University

The Effects Of Employment On Recidivism Among Delinquent Juveniles, Leigh Kassem

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Current research indicates an association between intense adolescent work (twenty hours or more per week) and delinquent behavior. It has been widely speculated that this relationship is spurious, occurring only as a result of other factors which are common to both offending and intense employment. The current study attempts to fill a gap in the literature by utilizing the Pathways to Desistance dataset to examine the evolution of the relationship between work and self-reported offending in a longitudinal sample of juvenile offenders. Work intensity and consistency, social capital, and expectations for success were analyzed as potential predictors of recidivism or ...


Born To Run: A Grounded Theory Study Of Cheating In The Online Speedrunning Community, Christopher G. Brewer 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Born To Run: A Grounded Theory Study Of Cheating In The Online Speedrunning Community, Christopher G. Brewer

Master's Theses

Video games represent a growing genre of media quickly becoming one of the leading forms of entertainment (Jordan, 2014). This popularity has allowed new playstyles to emerge across the video game genre, such as e-Sports and speedrunning. In particular, the speedrunning community has somewhat redefined what it means to “cheat” in a video game by accepting the use certain software and hardware violations that could be seen as “cheating” to the general gaming community. This paper examined the social construction of cheating in this digital community through the use of grounded theory methods.


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