Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Criminology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

8,960 Full-Text Articles 5,831 Authors 5,951,989 Downloads 181 Institutions

All Articles in Criminology

Faceted Search

8,960 full-text articles. Page 1 of 92.

The Patterns Of Women Serial Killers In A Climate Of Changing Gender Norms, Lizzie Benkart 2019 Skidmore College

The Patterns Of Women Serial Killers In A Climate Of Changing Gender Norms, Lizzie Benkart

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

Existing research suggests that patterns of both men and women serial killers are hyper-gendered. In American society, however, gender norms for women have dramatically changed over time. This study proposes that the patterns of women serial killers reflect the femininity ideals of the time period in which they operated in. The shifts in gender norms are operationalized by three time periods representative of the waves of feminism. The Radford/Florida Gulf Coast University’s serial killer database is used to establish a sample of 1,321 serial killers. Using multivariate regression analyses and controlling for age of last kill, which ...


Supplemental Report On The Legal Needs Of Oregonian Seasonal Farmworkers, Aaron Roussell, Barbara Imle, Gisela Rodriguez Fernandez, Wynn Strange 2019 Portland State University

Supplemental Report On The Legal Needs Of Oregonian Seasonal Farmworkers, Aaron Roussell, Barbara Imle, Gisela Rodriguez Fernandez, Wynn Strange

Aaron Roussell

No abstract provided.


Telling A Good Story: The Effects Of Memory Retrieval And Context Processing On Eyewitness Suggestibility, Jessica A. LaPaglia, Jason C.K. Chan 2019 Morningside College

Telling A Good Story: The Effects Of Memory Retrieval And Context Processing On Eyewitness Suggestibility, Jessica A. Lapaglia, Jason C.K. Chan

Jason C.K. Chan

Witnesses are likely to describe a crime many times before testifying or encountering misinformation about that crime. Research examining the effect of retrieval on later suggestibility has yielded mixed results. LaPaglia and Chan manipulated whether misinformation was presented in a narrative or misleading questions, and they found that retrieval increased suggestibility when misinformation was presented in a narrative, but reduced suggestibility when the same misinformation was presented in questions. In the current study, we aimed to address why these differences occurred. Specifically, we examined whether contextual detail and narrative coherence during misinformation exposure influenced the relation between retrieval and suggestibility ...


Screen Culture: A Closer Look At The Impact Of Screen Use On Developmental Outcomes, Dylan Leslie, Joseph Schwartz Phd 2019 University of Nebraska Omaha

Screen Culture: A Closer Look At The Impact Of Screen Use On Developmental Outcomes, Dylan Leslie, Joseph Schwartz Phd

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Excessive screen time among adolescents has long been considered a potential risk factor for a host of negative physical, mental and behavioral outcomes. There are important questions surrounding this association that remain unanswered. The temporal order of the association remains unestablished, as it is fully possible that preexisting physical, mental, and behavioral issues are causing excessive screen use. Similarly, selection bias remains possible, as influences that promote excessive screen use may also, simultaneously, impact negative physical health, mental health, and behavior. Finally, the developmental impact of increased screen time remains relatively unknown, as the majority of existing studies are exclusively ...


Examining Sexual Victimization Among Male And Female Inmates, Sara Toto 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Examining Sexual Victimization Among Male And Female Inmates, Sara Toto

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Sexual victimization can be damaging to victims, regardless of where it occurs. Yet, it is especially detrimental when such abuse occurs in the context of incarceration. The consequences of sexual violence occurring in prison are both immediate (i.e., physical pain and increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases) and long-term (i.e., mental health problems and reduced likelihood of successful reentry into society). Studies regarding the prevalence and predictors of such events in prisons are few. This research uses data collected on a sample of male and female prisoners to understand how often sexual perpetration and victimization occurs within ...


Electronically Monitored Youth: Perceptions Of Stigma, Marijana Kotlaja 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Electronically Monitored Youth: Perceptions Of Stigma, Marijana Kotlaja

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

This study examines the stigmatizing effects of electronic monitors (EM) among youth currently enrolled in an EM program. EM is viewed as a sanction that is less punitive than incarceration, more cost-effective and provides advantages over other alternatives. A total of 140 participants were randomly assigned to conditions (stigma salient vs. stigma non-salient) for an experiment in which they will be told the purpose of the study is to learn more about their thoughts and behaviors related to wearing an EM. This study can be deemed one of the first assessments to assess stigma consciousness and self-fulfilling prophecy (SFP) as ...


Public Perceptions Of The Police: The Role Of Social Media, Ebonie Epinger 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Public Perceptions Of The Police: The Role Of Social Media, Ebonie Epinger

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Policing in the US has come under fire over the past few years due to highly publicized shootings of unarmed black citizens. These events have monopolized the media, which can potentially undermine their legitimacy in the public eye. Extant research has explored the traditional media- such as television news, crime dramas, and crime reality shows- on citizens’ attitudes toward the police, with decidedly mixed results. Given the rise of social media and concern of the potentially biased portrayal of police by such media sources, research is needed which can assess what, if any, effect social media has on individuals’ attitudes ...


Sexual Assault Campus Climate Surveys: Insights From The First Wave, Kristen M. Budd, Alana Van Gundy, Rose Marie Ward, Glenn W. Muschert 2019 Miami University, Oxford

Sexual Assault Campus Climate Surveys: Insights From The First Wave, Kristen M. Budd, Alana Van Gundy, Rose Marie Ward, Glenn W. Muschert

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

One tool to help institutions of higher education (IHEs) to address campus sexual assault is the campus climate survey (CCS); yet little is known about the CCS implementation process. This study used a mixed methods approach to examine the implementation process of CCSs deployed during the 2015/16 academic year at 244 IHEs throughout the United States. Quantitative results indicate CCSs were designed primarily by the Title IX officer and campus administration; assessed victimization rates and knowledge about campus resources; and were voluntary. Qualitative findings generate concerns surrounding generalizability, participation rates, validity of data, and suggestions for improvement for future ...


Filling The Sex Trade Swamp: Robert Kraft And His Predecessors, Janice G. Raymond 2019 University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Filling The Sex Trade Swamp: Robert Kraft And His Predecessors, Janice G. Raymond

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


Mitigations: The Forgotten Side Of The Proportionality Principle, Paul H. Robinson 2019 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Mitigations: The Forgotten Side Of The Proportionality Principle, Paul H. Robinson

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In the first change to the Model Penal Code since its promulgation in 1962, the American Law Institute in 2017 set blameworthiness proportionality as the dominant distributive principle for criminal punishment. Empirical studies suggest that this is in fact the principle that ordinary people use in assessing proper punishment. Its adoption as the governing distributive principle makes good sense because it promotes not only the classic desert retributivism of moral philosophers but also crime-control utilitarianism, by enhancing the criminal law’s moral credibility with the community and thereby promoting deference, compliance, acquiescence, and internalization of its norms, rather than suffering ...


Telling A Good Story: The Effects Of Memory Retrieval And Context Processing On Eyewitness Suggestibility, Jessica A. LaPaglia, Jason C.K. Chan 2019 Morningside College

Telling A Good Story: The Effects Of Memory Retrieval And Context Processing On Eyewitness Suggestibility, Jessica A. Lapaglia, Jason C.K. Chan

Psychology Publications

Witnesses are likely to describe a crime many times before testifying or encountering misinformation about that crime. Research examining the effect of retrieval on later suggestibility has yielded mixed results. LaPaglia and Chan manipulated whether misinformation was presented in a narrative or misleading questions, and they found that retrieval increased suggestibility when misinformation was presented in a narrative, but reduced suggestibility when the same misinformation was presented in questions. In the current study, we aimed to address why these differences occurred. Specifically, we examined whether contextual detail and narrative coherence during misinformation exposure influenced the relation between retrieval and suggestibility ...


No Evidence Of “Weaponized Title Ix” Here: An Empirical Assessment Of Sexual Misconduct Reporting, Case Processing, And Outcomes, Tara N. Richards 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

No Evidence Of “Weaponized Title Ix” Here: An Empirical Assessment Of Sexual Misconduct Reporting, Case Processing, And Outcomes, Tara N. Richards

Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

Little is known about actual incidents of gender-based violence reported by college students or the campus adjudication process or outcomes of reported cases. Data from Annual Security Reports (ASRs) and Title IX Coordinators was used to examine the context, processes, and outcomes of reported incidents of sexual misconduct (n=1,054) at Institutions of Higher Education (IHEs) in a Mid-Atlantic state. Results showed that ASRs undercounted incidents of sexual misconduct. Few incidents reported to Title IX Coordinators resulted in a formal Title IX complaint, and fewer still resulted in a finding of responsibility or suspension/expulsion of the responsible student ...


The Profile Of The International Cyber Offender In The U.S., Lora I. Hadzhidimova, Brian K. Payne 2019 Old Dominion University

The Profile Of The International Cyber Offender In The U.S., Lora I. Hadzhidimova, Brian K. Payne

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

This study explores the characteristics of international cyber offenders prosecuted in the U.S. Our findings to a large extent correspond with general studies about cyber offenders with a few important exceptions. First, the average age of the offenders in our study is slightly higher than others that do not focus exclusively on international offenders. Second, while this research confirms that China is among the leading country in committing cybercrimes when it comes to committing particular types of cybercrimes, the offenders come from other countries as well such as Romania, Estonia, Ukraine, South Africa, and Nigeria. Third, our results show ...


Phishing And Cybercrime Risks In A University Student Community, Roderic Broadhurst, Katie Skinner, Nicholas Sifniotis, Bryan Matamoros-Macias, Yuguang Ipsen 2019 Bridgewater State University

Phishing And Cybercrime Risks In A University Student Community, Roderic Broadhurst, Katie Skinner, Nicholas Sifniotis, Bryan Matamoros-Macias, Yuguang Ipsen

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

In an exploratory quasi-experimental observational study, 138 participants recruited during a university orientation week were exposed to social engineering directives in the form of fake email or phishing attacks over several months in 2017. These email attacks attempted to elicit personal information from participants or entice them into clicking links which may have been compromised in a real-world setting. The study aimed to determine the risks of cybercrime for students by observing their responses to social engineering and exploring attitudes to cybercrime risks before and after the phishing phase. Three types of scam emails were distributed that varied in the ...


Awareness And Perception Of Cybercrimes And Cybercriminals, Hannarae Lee, Hyeyoung Lim 2019 Bridgewater State University

Awareness And Perception Of Cybercrimes And Cybercriminals, Hannarae Lee, Hyeyoung Lim

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Awareness is a starting point to recognize, understand, or know a situation or fact, and the perception makes a difference in how to deal with it. Although the term cybercrime may not be new to the most public and the police, not all of them are well aware of the nature and extent of cybercrimes, cybercriminals, and cyber-victims, which in turn affects their perceptions of matters. The four papers in this issue of the International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence and Cybercrime empirically examine these important topics and discuss policy implications.


Examining Perceptions Of Online Harassment Among Constables In England And Wales, Thomas J. Holt, Jin R. Lee, Roberta Liggett, Karen M. Holt, Adam Bossler 2019 Michigan State University

Examining Perceptions Of Online Harassment Among Constables In England And Wales, Thomas J. Holt, Jin R. Lee, Roberta Liggett, Karen M. Holt, Adam Bossler

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

The ubiquity of the Internet and computer technology has enabled individuals to engage in bullying, threats, and harassing communications online. Limited research has found that local line officers may not view these offenses as serious compared to real world crimes despite their negative physical and emotional impact on victims. The perceptions of officers can produce poor interactions with victims during calls for service, particularly victim blaming, which can reduce citizens’ confidence in police agencies generally. However, local law enforcement agencies are increasingly mandated to respond to these cases, calling to question how their views may impact the community. This study ...


Cybercrime And Digital Forensics: Bridging The Gap In Legislation, Investigation And Prosecution Of Cybercrime In Nigeria, Kabiru H. Mohammed, Yusuf D. Mohammed, Abiodun A. Solanke 2019 Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto

Cybercrime And Digital Forensics: Bridging The Gap In Legislation, Investigation And Prosecution Of Cybercrime In Nigeria, Kabiru H. Mohammed, Yusuf D. Mohammed, Abiodun A. Solanke

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

The advancement of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) opens new avenues and ways for cybercriminals to commit crime. The primary goal of this paper is to raise awareness regarding gaps that exist with regards to Nigeria’s capabilities to adequately legislate, investigate and prosecute cases of cybercrimes. The major source of cybercrime legislation in Nigeria is an act of the National Assembly which is majorly a symbolic legislation rather than a full and active legislation. In perusing these avenues of inquiry, the authors seek to identify systemic impediments which hinder law enforcement agencies, prosecutors, and investigators from properly carrying out ...


A Study Of Factors Influencing Hiring Decisions In The Context Of Ban The Box Policies, Ronald F. Day 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

A Study Of Factors Influencing Hiring Decisions In The Context Of Ban The Box Policies, Ronald F. Day

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation investigates whether NYC employers adhered to Ban the Box by removing the question about criminal history from employment forms, by refraining from inquiring about an applicant’s criminal record during the interview process, and by complying with other aspects of the policy. The study also documents employer perspectives on Ban the Box and on the hiring of individuals with criminal convictions, and examines whether more individuals with a criminal record were hired after the policy was implemented.

Using a mixed-methods approach, surveys were administered to companies in the nonprofit and private sectors, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with ...


Canada's Missing And Murdered Indigenous People And The Imperative For A More Inclusive Perspective, John G. Hansen, Emeka E. Dim 2019 University of Saskatchewan

Canada's Missing And Murdered Indigenous People And The Imperative For A More Inclusive Perspective, John G. Hansen, Emeka E. Dim

The International Indigenous Policy Journal

The National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls (MMIWG) emerged to bring attention to the overrepresentation of missing and murdered Indigenous women in Canada. It has raised awareness about systemic racism and sexism as well as social and economic conditions experienced by Canada's Indigenous population. Yet, research shows that Indigenous males are the most likely to be murdered in Canada (Mulligan, Axford, & Soecki, 2016). Since Indigenous men are going missing and are murdered in disturbing numbers, and they are fathers, brothers, and sons to Indigenous women and girls, it is understandable that many in the Indigenous ...


Financial Barriers And Utilization Of Medical Services In Prison: An Examination Of Co-Payments, Personal Assets, And Individual Characteristics, Brian R. Wyant PhD, Holly M. Harner 2019 La Salle University

Financial Barriers And Utilization Of Medical Services In Prison: An Examination Of Co-Payments, Personal Assets, And Individual Characteristics, Brian R. Wyant Phd, Holly M. Harner

Journal for Evidence-based Practice in Correctional Health

Although research has found that requiring incarcerated individuals to pay fees for medical service decreases use, there are still important unanswered questions about this association: 1) Is the copayment fee a barrier to those seeking medical attention? 2) If so, what individual factors are associated with viewing the copayments as the reason to avoid seeing a medical professional? Using 2012 survey data collected from 45 incarcerated persons housed in a maximum security prison on the East Coast, it was discovered that over 70% of the men surveyed reported avoiding medical services at least once in the past three months due ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress