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Financial Barriers And Utilization Of Medical Services In Prison: An Examination Of Co-Payments, Personal Assets, And Individual Characteristics, Brian R. Wyant PhD, Holly M. Harner 2019 La Salle University

Financial Barriers And Utilization Of Medical Services In Prison: An Examination Of Co-Payments, Personal Assets, And Individual Characteristics, Brian R. Wyant Phd, Holly M. Harner

Journal for Evidence-based Practice in Correctional Health

Although research has found that requiring incarcerated individuals to pay fees for medical service decreases use, there are still important unanswered questions about this association: 1) Is the copayment fee a barrier to those seeking medical attention? 2) If so, what individual factors are associated with viewing the copayments as the reason to avoid seeing a medical professional? Using 2012 survey data collected from 45 incarcerated persons housed in a maximum security prison on the East Coast, it was discovered that over 70% of the men surveyed reported avoiding medical services at least once in the past three months due ...


The Use Of Compassionate Release Policies For Elderly Offenders, Lindsey Martin 2019 Walden University

The Use Of Compassionate Release Policies For Elderly Offenders, Lindsey Martin

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

This research examined the use of compassionate release policy in response to the fastest-increasing segment of the prison population- elderly offenders. Though this policy is an approach to this problem, there was little available research regarding which correctional organizations in the United States adopt compassionate release and how it is used. The purpose of this nonexperimental comparative quantitative study was to examine the use of the policy in neighboring and distant state correctional systems relative to those organizations that used the policy more frequently to determine if the leader-laggard theory of policy diffusion was an effective policy-implementation framework. The research ...


Exploring The Factors Responsible For Occupational Stress Among Police Officers In Nigeria, Ahmed Lateef 2019 Walden University

Exploring The Factors Responsible For Occupational Stress Among Police Officers In Nigeria, Ahmed Lateef

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Over 90 percent of police officers in Nigeria are confronted with psychological illness and injuries as a result of occupational stress, which is compounded by a lack of attention to police officer welfare by government, insufficient annual leave, and poor salaries that contribute to poor performance. Using Karasek's demands on decision and control model as the foundation, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the impact of occupational stress on police officers in a metropolitan police agency in Nigeria. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 15 senior police officers who had at least 20 years experience ...


A Moratorium On The Presentation Of Dna Evidence, Declan Riley Kunkel 2018 University of North Georgia

A Moratorium On The Presentation Of Dna Evidence, Declan Riley Kunkel

International Social Science Review

In recent decades, DNA evidence has become something of a pop-culture phenomenon. All too often, DNA evidence is shown as irrefutable fact, a scientific fingerprint that allows for a black-and-white determination of guilt or innocence. Unfortunately, such depictions are inaccurate and dangerous. This paper attempts to address this danger by calling for a temporary moratorium on the presentation of DNA evidence at trial, implemented until federal standards are put in place to regulate the presentation of DNA evidence, and until robust studies indicate the prevalence of DNA transfer.This paper will demonstrate that DNA analysis schemes are dangerously flawed and ...


Psychosocial Analysis Of An Ethnography At The Cuyahoga County Public Defenders Office, Ernest M. Oleksy 2018 Cleveland State University

Psychosocial Analysis Of An Ethnography At The Cuyahoga County Public Defenders Office, Ernest M. Oleksy

The Downtown Review

Too often, social science majors become jaded with their field of study due to a misperception of the nature of many potential jobs which they are qualified for. Such discord is prevalent amongst undergraduates who strive for work in the criminal justice system. Hollywood misrepresentations become the archetypes of the aforementioned field, leaving out the necessity and ubiquity of accompanying desk work. Still other social science majors struggle to identify theoretical interpretations in praxis.


A Public Health Argument Against Arming Teachers, David I. Swedler 2018 Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation

A Public Health Argument Against Arming Teachers, David I. Swedler

Health Behavior Research

The peer-reviewed scientific literature does not support the idea that arming teachers will prevent school shootings. In this commentary, I draw on the criminal justice, injury prevention, and firearm safety literature to demonstrate how arming teachers will do more harm than good.


Victimization Of The Homeless: Public Perceptions, Public Policies, And Implications For Social Work Practice, Marion M. Turner, Simon P. Funge, Wesley J. Gabbard 2018 Western Kentucky University

Victimization Of The Homeless: Public Perceptions, Public Policies, And Implications For Social Work Practice, Marion M. Turner, Simon P. Funge, Wesley J. Gabbard

Journal of Social Work in the Global Community

Homeless individuals are particularly vulnerable to victimization, sometimes resulting in fatalities. Theories of victimization prove useful to understanding the risks inherent in being homeless as well as the public’s perception of the homeless population. Problematically, public policy that criminalizes this population may exacerbate the victimization of this group. Municipalities have turned to law enforcement and the criminal justice system to respond to people living in public spaces. Programs that ensure adequate income, affordable housing, and supportive services to prevent homelessness and address the needs of those who are homeless are essential. In addition, increased law enforcement training and the ...


Political Competition And Predictors Of Hate Crime: A County-Level Analysis, Eaven Holder 2018 East Tennessee State University

Political Competition And Predictors Of Hate Crime: A County-Level Analysis, Eaven Holder

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Research on hate crime has tended to utilize sociological frameworks to best explain the incidence of such offending, but little research has been conducted to determine whether political factors may play a role. Although Olzak (1990) touched upon the relationship between racial violence and third-party politics during the American Progressive era (1882-1914), the research did not fully articulate how political competition may influence the commission of hate crime. The current study seeks to fill this gap, while also extending concepts associated with social disorganization theory and the defended communities perspective. It does so by utilizing a longitudinal research design to ...


Technology And The American Criminal Justice System, Taylor Hunt 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Technology And The American Criminal Justice System, Taylor Hunt

Information Systems Undergraduate Honors Theses

The American prison population has grown to over 2.3 million citizens incarcerated (“United States of Incarceration,” 2016) and there are more than 900,000 police officers in the nation (“Law Enforcement Facts,” n.d.). These over 3 million people use technology every day in either their work or incarcerated lives. As the effectiveness of the criminal justice system is being questioned, now is the time to perform an assessment of the technology used and make technological recommendations to lower crime, incarceration, and recidivism rates simultaneously. To obtain that technology assessment, a student research study was conducted and consisted of ...


A Leak In The Pipeline: College In Jail From The Participants’ Perspective, Kathy Mora 2018 CUNY John Jay College

A Leak In The Pipeline: College In Jail From The Participants’ Perspective, Kathy Mora

Student Theses

Offering college-level coursework to people in correctional facilities has proven to be a good investment in reducing recidivism and violence, however, how incarcerated students evaluate ‘prison to college pipeline’ programs, and how they access education after release is less understood. This study is a participant-observation approach with semi-structured surveys of a college class in Rikers Island that aims to answer the question: How do incarcerate students describe their experience with college in jail and their post-release plans to continue their education? This study uses 25 surveys of persons who participated in a college program in Rikers Island. A significant theme ...


A Primer On Criminological Theory 2018.Pdf, R. Alan Thompson, Anne Hudson 2018 DePaul University

A Primer On Criminological Theory 2018.Pdf, R. Alan Thompson, Anne Hudson

Anne Hudson

This primer on criminological theory is intended to serve as a general introduction to the various theories that will be covered in Dr. Thompson's Criminal Justice class. It includes sections related to Measuring the extent of crime, Classical theories, Biological theories, and Sociological positivism. This is a draft version that will be updated and uploaded again in April, 2019.


Falling Between The Cracks: Understanding Why States Fail In Protecting Our Children From Crime, Michal Gilad 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Falling Between The Cracks: Understanding Why States Fail In Protecting Our Children From Crime, Michal Gilad

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The article is the first to take an inclusive look at the monumental problem of crime exposure during childhood, which is estimated to be one of the most damaging and costly public health and public safety problem in our society today. It takes-on the challenging task of ‘naming’ the problem by coining the term Comprehensive Childhood Crime Impact or in short the Triple-C Impact. Informed by scientific findings, the term embodies the full effect of direct and indirect crime exposure on children due to their unique developmental characteristics, and the spillover effect the problem has on our society as a ...


Demanding Accountability In Domestic Violence Courts, Johnna Pike 2018 Newbury College - Brookline

Demanding Accountability In Domestic Violence Courts, Johnna Pike

Violence Against Women conference

This presentation explores whether specialized domestic violence courts are achieving their stated objective of abuser accountability. Domestic violence emerged from the private realm of family life into the public consciousness during the 1970s. Since then, there has been a largely successful movement to reframe domestic violence as a “real” social problem necessitating meaningful criminal justice intervention. Within the criminal justice system, victim and feminist groups have mostly prevailed in controlling the discourse around domestic violence as a gender-based offense. As a result, a criminal court model aimed at empowering victims and at holding abusers accountable has emerged. However, the efficacy ...


The Sponge Theory: Introducing A New Interpersonal Communication Theory, Ben Brandley 2018 University of New Mexico

The Sponge Theory: Introducing A New Interpersonal Communication Theory, Ben Brandley

Shared Knowledge Conference

Abstract Law enforcement is an extremely stressful career. In exploration of the influence of career stress on law enforcement officers’ relationships, data was collected from eighteen in-depth interviews and ninety hours of participant observation with American peace officers. The results of this research found that while all of the officers admitted to the omnipresent nature of their career stress, the majority of them repeatedly devalued the impact of present or potential detriments caused by that stress. For example, they often invalidated emotions through jadedness and dark humor, challenged the stance that their organizational culture is harmful (e.g. many officers ...


The Critical Need For Mental Health Education To Be Mandated In New Mexico's Public Schools, Bonnie L. Murphy 2018 University of New Mexico

The Critical Need For Mental Health Education To Be Mandated In New Mexico's Public Schools, Bonnie L. Murphy

Shared Knowledge Conference

Based on a review of research and best practices in mental health awareness and skills, this inquiry project argues for state legislative policies that would require mental health awareness and skills in the K-12 curriculum. Mental health affects individual accomplishments in every stage of people’s lives beginning in early childhood and throughout the life cycle. Prevention and treatment of mental illness plays a key role in the ability of an individual to cope with loss and develop resiliency and perseverance in challenging times and to make better decisions that improve the individual’s life and the lives of those ...


The Uncommon Ground: Drunk Drivers’ Self-Presentations And Accountings Of Drunk Driving, Lars Fynbo 2018 VIVE - The Danish Center for Social Science Research

The Uncommon Ground: Drunk Drivers’ Self-Presentations And Accountings Of Drunk Driving, Lars Fynbo

The Qualitative Report

The paper analyses the self-presentations of three convicted drunk drivers: two women and one man. It applies symbolic interaction theory to analyze how the interviewees account of themselves and their driving under the influence (DUI) convictions. The analysis shows how uncontrolled and unpredictable features of the data generating process impacts on the interviewees’ self-presentations. One interviewee, a 28-year-old man, uses his dog and tattoos to close-in on his problem with alcohol consumption. Another interviewee, a 61-year-old woman, uses legitimate cultural scripts of being a responsible woman to neutralize the fact that she has been drunk driving frequently for many years ...


Understanding Micro-Spatial Crime Patterns: A Comprehensive Trajectory Analysis Of Violent Crime At Street Segments In St. Louis, Mo, Aaron Levin 2018 University of Missouri, St. Louis

Understanding Micro-Spatial Crime Patterns: A Comprehensive Trajectory Analysis Of Violent Crime At Street Segments In St. Louis, Mo, Aaron Levin

Dissertations

Spatial crime studies have existed for over a century, but the last 20 years have seen a turn in focus toward micro-spatial units such as street blocks and street segments. A particular subfield of this modern micro-spatial perspective is called crime trajectory analysis, which can isolate patterns of crime at small spatial units over time. Though several crime trajectory analyses have been conducted for coastal cities, the technique has never been applied to Midwestern data. This project fills that research gap by using the group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM) algorithm to uncover patterns of violent crime at street segments in St ...


A General Mitigation For Disturbance-Driven Crimes?: Psychic State, Personal Choice, And Normative Inquiries, Paul H. Robinson 2018 University of Pennsylvania Law School

A General Mitigation For Disturbance-Driven Crimes?: Psychic State, Personal Choice, And Normative Inquiries, Paul H. Robinson

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

It is argued here that the narrow provoked “heat of passion” mitigation available under current law ought to be significantly expanded to include not just murder but all felonies and not just “heat of passion” but potentially all mental or emotional disturbances, whenever the offender’s situation and capacities meaningfully reduce the offender’s blameworthiness for the violation. In determining eligibility for mitigation, the jury should take into account (a) the extent to which the offender was acting under the influence of mental or emotional disturbance (the psychic state inquiry), (b) given the offender’s situation and capacities, the extent ...


Social Justice Guest Speaker Series: Does More Immigration Mean More Crime In The United States?, Ramiro Martinez Ph.D. 2018 Northeastern University

Social Justice Guest Speaker Series: Does More Immigration Mean More Crime In The United States?, Ramiro Martinez Ph.D.

Social Justice & Activism

Professor Martinez is a quantitative criminologist. Within that broad arena, his work contributes to violent crime research. His core research agenda asks how does violence vary across ecological settings, and, does violent crime and violent deaths vary across racial/ethnic and immigrant groups? In 2011, he was a recipient of American Society of Criminology DPCC’s Lifetime Achievement for outstanding scholarship in the area of race, crime, and justice. In 2007 he was a recipient of American Society of Criminology DPCC’s Coramae Richey Mann Award for outstanding scholarship in the area of race, crime, and justice. In 2006 he ...


A Bit Like Cash: Understanding Cash-For-Bitcoin Transactions Through Individual Vendors, Stephanie J. Robberson, Mark R. McCoy 2018 University of Central Oklahoma

A Bit Like Cash: Understanding Cash-For-Bitcoin Transactions Through Individual Vendors, Stephanie J. Robberson, Mark R. Mccoy

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

As technology improves and economies become more globalized, the concept of currency has evolved. Bitcoin, a cryptographic digital currency, has been embraced as a secure and convenient type of money. Due to its security and privacy for the user, Bitcoin is a good tool for conducting criminal trades. The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) has regulations in place to make identification information of Bitcoin purchasers accessible to law enforcement, but enforcing these rules with cash-for-Bitcoin traders is difficult. This study surveyed cash-for-Bitcoin vendors in Oklahoma, Texas, Arkansas, Missouri, Kansas, Colorado, and New Mexico to determine personal demographic information, knowledge of ...


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