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Race And Justice Outcomes: Contextualizing Racial Discrimination And Ferguson, Jason M. Williams 2017 Montclair State University

Race And Justice Outcomes: Contextualizing Racial Discrimination And Ferguson, Jason M. Williams

Ralph Bunche Journal of Public Affairs

While scores of literature may hint at the tumultuous relationship between the criminal justice system and Blacks, such literature, however, fail to assess, comprehensively, the intersectional purpose of present criminal justice processes and race. This paper will examine contemporary applications of justice along racial lines. It is argued that current justice outcomes are advantageous to the status quo. It is no secret that the American system of justice has a race problem; however, if the goal is to administer justice then, as this paper argues, the current system needs to be seriously examined and rebuilt. The paper also argues that ...


Search, Seizure And The Positive Law: Expectations Of Privacy Outside The Fourth Amendment, Daniel B. Yeager 2017 Selected Works

Search, Seizure And The Positive Law: Expectations Of Privacy Outside The Fourth Amendment, Daniel B. Yeager

Daniel B. Yeager

No abstract provided.


Bail Reform: New Directions For Pretrial Detention And Release, Megan Stevenson, Sandra G. Mayson 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Bail Reform: New Directions For Pretrial Detention And Release, Megan Stevenson, Sandra G. Mayson

Faculty Scholarship

Our current pretrial system imposes high costs on both the people who are detained pretrial and the taxpayers who foot the bill. These costs have prompted a surge of bail reform around the country. Reformers seek to reduce pretrial detention rates, as well as racial and socioeconomic disparities in the pretrial system, while simultaneously improving appearance rates and reducing pretrial crime. The current state of pretrial practice suggests that there is ample room for improvement. Bail hearings are often cursory, with no defense counsel present. Money-bail practices lead to high rates of detention even among misdemeanor defendants and those who ...


An Examination Of Within And Between Family Influences On The Intergenerational Transmission Of Violence And Maltreatment, Bradon A. Valgardson 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha

An Examination Of Within And Between Family Influences On The Intergenerational Transmission Of Violence And Maltreatment, Bradon A. Valgardson

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant problem that results in long-term mental and physical health issues. Previous research has identified a wide range of factors that potentially contribute to IPV perpetration, with childhood and adolescent maltreatment being some of the more commonly examined sources of influence. Despite these contributions, maltreatment has not been adequately distinguished from additional sources of influence that tend to cluster within families, such as other adverse family experiences and genetic influences. The current study attempts to better isolate the influence of maltreatment on IPV perpetration through the use of a sibling sample from the National ...


Cumulative Sexual Victimization And Mental Health Outcomes Among Incarcerated Women, Jennifer Hartsfield, Susan F. Sharp, Sonya Conner 2017 Bridgewater State University

Cumulative Sexual Victimization And Mental Health Outcomes Among Incarcerated Women, Jennifer Hartsfield, Susan F. Sharp, Sonya Conner

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

This research explores the relationship between three different types of self-reported sexual victimization and subsequent mental health problems in a sample of incarcerated women. Previous literature establishes a link between victimization histories and poor mental health outcomes. This study focuses on sexual victimization experienced as a child, as an adolescent and as an adult, both individually and cumulatively, in relation to entering prison with a mental health diagnosis as well as reporting current depressive symptoms while incarcerated. Each type of victimization is significantly related to both prior mental health diagnosis and current depression in prison. Furthermore, there is an additive ...


Pathways To Self-Injury: A Qualitative Exploration Of Social Psychological Processes, Thomas W. Wojciechowski 2017 University of Florida

Pathways To Self-Injury: A Qualitative Exploration Of Social Psychological Processes, Thomas W. Wojciechowski

The Qualitative Report

Self-injury is a deviant behavior often understood as the intentional infliction of harm onto one’s own body that exists absent of suicidal. This study uses a qualitative methodology to examine the etiology and perpetuation of self-injury using the terminology of relevant social-psychological theories to determine which processes best describe a causal pathway leading to self-injury and its perpetuation after the onset of the behavior. Data obtained from 16 semi-structured interviews with former and current self-injurers indicate that the processes described in general strain theory, social learning theory, and social control theory are all important for understanding the etiology and ...


New Hampshire Juvenile Sex Trafficking Survivor Urges Representatives To Vote Against Decriminalized Prostitution, Darlene Pawlik, Donna M. Hughes Dr. 2017 University of Rhode Island

New Hampshire Juvenile Sex Trafficking Survivor Urges Representatives To Vote Against Decriminalized Prostitution, Darlene Pawlik, Donna M. Hughes Dr.

Donna M. Hughes

I am a juvenile sex trafficking survivor. I was sold here in New Hampshire and other states as well. This is happening now too. Even with a law against prostitution, the more egregious elements are prevalent. Trafficking is not separate from prostitution, it is just the darker side of the very same coin. 


Crime Stats Should Inform The Public: Trump Is Misusing Them To Scare Us Instead, Philip M. Stinson 2017 Bowling Green State University - Main Campus

Crime Stats Should Inform The Public: Trump Is Misusing Them To Scare Us Instead, Philip M. Stinson

Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Sex Industry Advocates Aim To Decriminalize Prostitution In New Hampshire, Kelly Roy-Williams, Lisa Thompson, Donna M. Hughes Dr. 2017 University of Rhode Island

Sex Industry Advocates Aim To Decriminalize Prostitution In New Hampshire, Kelly Roy-Williams, Lisa Thompson, Donna M. Hughes Dr.

Donna M. Hughes

There is an organized effort in New Hampshire to fully decriminalize prostitution. What that means is that all laws controlling the buying and selling of sex will be removed from the law books, making prostitution legal. Law enforcement and public officials will then have no control over if, when, and where prostitution occurs, whether it’s in massage parlors (often called spas), hotels, apartments, residences, or strip clubs. Because commercial sex will be legal, pimps and “sex workers” will be able to freely advertise prostitution services. Pimps will be able to openly recruit women and girls into prostitution, without fear ...


Undocumented Fears: Immigration And The Politics Of Divide And Conquer In Hazleton, Pennsylvania, Jamie Longazel 2017 University of Dayton

Undocumented Fears: Immigration And The Politics Of Divide And Conquer In Hazleton, Pennsylvania, Jamie Longazel

Jamie Longazel

The Illegal Immigration Relief Act (IIRA), passed in the small rust-belt city of Hazleton, Pennsylvania, in 2006, was a local ordinance that laid out penalties for renting to or hiring undocumented immigrants and declared English the city’s official language. The notorious IIRA gained national prominence and kicked off a parade of local and state-level legislative initiatives designed to crack down on undocumented immigrants.

In Undocumented Fears, Jamie Longazel uses the debate around Hazleton’s controversial ordinance as a case study that reveals the mechanics of contemporary divide-and-conquer politics. He shows how neoliberal ideology, misconceptions about Latina/o immigrants, and ...


Bibliography Of Sources On Prostitution Decriminalization In Rhode Island, Donna M. Hughes Dr., Melanie Shapiro Esq 2017 University of Rhode Island

Bibliography Of Sources On Prostitution Decriminalization In Rhode Island, Donna M. Hughes Dr., Melanie Shapiro Esq

Donna M. Hughes

A bibliography of sources on the research we did on prostitution and sex trafficking and the advocacy work we did to end decriminalized prostitution. For 29 years prostitution was decriminalized in Rhode Island (if it occurred indoors). Sexual exploitation and violence against women and girls were integrated into economic development. The number of sex businesses grew rapidly and organized crime groups operated brothels and extorted money from adult entertainment businesses. Rhode Island became a destination for pimps, sex traffickers, and other violent criminals. The lack of laws impeded police from investigating serious crimes, including sex trafficking


An Exploration Of Gender Differences In Higher Risk Young Offenders: Implications For Assessment And Service Delivery, Jordyn G. Webb 2017 The University of Western Ontario

An Exploration Of Gender Differences In Higher Risk Young Offenders: Implications For Assessment And Service Delivery, Jordyn G. Webb

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Current research examining services for male and female youth in the criminal justice system has focused primarily on males and then generalizes findings to reflect the needs of females. However, more recent literature has identified critical differences between males and females involved in the youth criminal justice system, recognizing that females have unique concerns that need to be reflected in services and interventions. This study examined 277 high-risk, violent and chronic offending youth referred to an urban-based court clinic between the years 2010-2015. The youths' files contained information related to psychological functioning, family history, and information related to outside agencies ...


Doing Sustainable Trauma Research, Michael Salter 2017 Western Sydney University, School of Social Sciences and Psychology

Doing Sustainable Trauma Research, Michael Salter

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

This article reflects on the lessons that I’ve learnt on how to make trauma-intensive research a sustainable professional practice. I draw on my own experiences and emphasise, firstly, the development of a reliable ethical framework for trauma research, and, secondly, key aspects of self-care that can be woven into trauma research to ensure that the work enriches rather than defeats us.


Should We Talk?: Examining Individual And Aggregate Level Predictors Of Mediation Selection At The New York City Civilian Complaint Review Board, Cynthia-Lee Williams 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Should We Talk?: Examining Individual And Aggregate Level Predictors Of Mediation Selection At The New York City Civilian Complaint Review Board, Cynthia-Lee Williams

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Currently, there are few studies that examine mediation programs within civilian complaint review boards. Research that analyzes these programs mainly focus on the degree of citizen satisfaction. This study adds to existing research by examining possible individual and aggregate-level characteristics linked to mediation selection. Specifically, this study considers the long standing tensions shared between the police and certain groups (e.g. minorities, youths, and residents of disadvantaged communities), and attempts to uncover which groups are more or less likely to meet with officers to resolve police complaints. The data (obtained by the CCRB and US Census 2010) allows for the ...


Local Immigration Enforcement Entrepreneurship In The Punishment Marketplace, Daniel L. Stageman 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Local Immigration Enforcement Entrepreneurship In The Punishment Marketplace, Daniel L. Stageman

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The contemporary neoliberal economic order plays a significant role in American social organization and policy-making. Most importantly, neoliberal ideology drives the creation and imposition of markets in public goods and services and the valorization of free market ideology in cultural life. The neoliberal ‘project of inequality’ is in turn delimited and upheld by an authoritarian system of punishment built around mass incarceration, surveillance, and an unprecedented level of social control directed at the lowest strata of American society – a group that includes both the urban underclass, and unauthorized immigrants.

This study lays out the theory of the punishment marketplace: a ...


How Should Justice Policy Treat Young Offenders?, B J. Casey, Richard J. Bonnie, Andre Davis, David L. Faigman, Morris B. Hoffman, Owen D. Jones, Read Montague, Stephen J. Morse, Marcus E. Raichle, Jennifer A. Richeson, Elizabeth S. Scott, Laurence Steinberg, Kim A. Taylor-Thompson, Anthony D. Wagner 2017 Yale University - Department of Psychology

How Should Justice Policy Treat Young Offenders?, B J. Casey, Richard J. Bonnie, Andre Davis, David L. Faigman, Morris B. Hoffman, Owen D. Jones, Read Montague, Stephen J. Morse, Marcus E. Raichle, Jennifer A. Richeson, Elizabeth S. Scott, Laurence Steinberg, Kim A. Taylor-Thompson, Anthony D. Wagner

Faculty Scholarship

The justice system in the United States has long recognized that juvenile offenders are not the same as adults, and has tried to incorporate those differences into law and policy. But only in recent decades have behavioral scientists and neuroscientists, along with policymakers, looked rigorously at developmental differences, seeking answers to two overarching questions: Are young offenders, purely by virtue of their immaturity, different from older individuals who commit crimes? And, if they are, how should justice policy take this into account?

A growing body of research on adolescent development now confirms that teenagers are indeed inherently different from adults ...


Ideology, Race, And The Death Penalty: "Lies, Damn Lies, And Statistics" In Advocacy Research, Anthony Walsh, Virginia Hatch 2017 Boise State University

Ideology, Race, And The Death Penalty: "Lies, Damn Lies, And Statistics" In Advocacy Research, Anthony Walsh, Virginia Hatch

Journal of Ideology

We use the literature on race in death penalty to illustrate the hold that ideology has on researchers and journalists alike when a social issue is charged with emotional content. We note particularly how statistical evidence become misinterpreted in ways that support a particular ideology, either because of innumeracy or because—subconsciously or otherwise—one’s ideology precludes a critical analysis. We note that because white defendants are now proportionately more likely to receive the death penalty and to be executed than black defendants that the argument has shifted from a defendant-based to a victim-based one. We examine studies based ...


Cognitive Sociology, Michael W. Raphael 2017 CUNY Graduate Center

Cognitive Sociology, Michael W. Raphael

Publications and Research

Cognitive sociology is the study of the conditions under which meaning is constituted through processes of reification. Cognitive sociology traces its origins to writings in the sociology of knowledge, sociology of culture, cognitive and cultural anthropology, and more recently, work done in cultural sociology and cognitive science. Its central questions revolve around locating these processes of reification since the locus of cognition is highly contentious. Researchers consider how individuality is related to notions of society (structures, institutions, systems, etc.) and notions of culture (cultural forms, cultural structures, sub-cultures, etc.). These questions further explore how these answers depend on learning processes ...


The Uncatchable Crook: Pursuing Effective State Crime Control, Daniel J. Patten 2017 Western Michigan University

The Uncatchable Crook: Pursuing Effective State Crime Control, Daniel J. Patten

The Hilltop Review

This article investigates an interesting conundrum of addressing crime when the state commits a crime itself, and most often is the primary apparatus of crime control. Even more difficult in pursuing state crime control, the state typically plays a major role in defining crime. Criminologists commonly suggest state sanctions to address crime, and states to sanctions other states for their crimes. However, such an approach struggles when faced with the punishment of a powerful state’s criminal actions such as the United States. After laying out the controversy at the heart of controlling state crimes, several criminological theories traditionally employed ...


Health And Safety Overregulation, Michael Lewyn 2017 Touro Law Center

Health And Safety Overregulation, Michael Lewyn

Michael E Lewyn

Anti-jaywalking laws are designed to protect the safety of pedestrians. Similarly, police and child protection officials punish parents who allow their children to walk to school, in the name of child safety. This speech criticizes these policies and their justifications.


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