Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Criminology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

9,607 Full-Text Articles 6,480 Authors 12,451,117 Downloads 205 Institutions

All Articles in Criminology

Faceted Search

9,607 full-text articles. Page 1 of 122.

A Look Into Wrongful Conviction Within The U.S. Justice System, Isabella T. Likos 2021 Cleveland State University

A Look Into Wrongful Conviction Within The U.S. Justice System, Isabella T. Likos

The Downtown Review

The United States justice system has principles in place in order to prevent wrongful convictions such as the presumption of innocence and having to prove beyond a reasonable doubt. However, even with these principles in places there are times that people are wrongfully convicted. There are multiple reasons why wrongful conviction occur, including false confessions and erroneous eyewitness testimony. Wrongful conviction impacts not only the wrongfully convicted, but their family, friends, and the victims. While wrongful convictions do happen, there are steps that can be taken going forward that can help prevent them and exonerate the wrongfully convicted.


It’S Not All Aces: The Role Of Negative Parental Influences And Criminal Thinking In Juvenile Offending Behaviors, Branna Humphrey 2021 East Tennessee State University

It’S Not All Aces: The Role Of Negative Parental Influences And Criminal Thinking In Juvenile Offending Behaviors, Branna Humphrey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The role of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and criminal thinking in causing criminal behavior has been explored extensively in criminal justice research. Based on the concepts of ACEs and the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Scale, the negative parental influences and criminal thinking styles of 1,354 juvenile offenders were examined to establish that negative parental influences and criminal thinking are separately associated with juvenile problem and offending behavior, and that criminal thinking mediates the relationship between negative parental influences and juvenile problem and offending behavior. Analyses showed support for criminal thinking as a pathway from negative parental influences to ...


Understanding Aspiration And Education Towards Desistance From Offending: The Role Of Higher Education In Wales, Mark Jones, Debbie Jones 2021 Higher Plain Research & Education

Understanding Aspiration And Education Towards Desistance From Offending: The Role Of Higher Education In Wales, Mark Jones, Debbie Jones

Journal of Prison Education and Reentry

There has been a growing recognition of the value of education in facilitating desistance from offending. Yet, despite a determined push to “widen access” universities continue to be an unwelcoming place for those with a criminal record. To better understand the role of higher education in raising aspiration towards desistance, this paper draws on findings from a study in Swansea, Wales. Adopting a Pictorial Narrative approach the findings suggest that, whilst the participants identified potential benefits of attaining a higher education, those aspirations were outweighed by a distrust of the “institution” and a fear that the stigmatisation experienced through the ...


Police Shootings In The Mountain West, 2015 - 2021, Elia Del Carmen Solano-Patricio, Madison Frazee-Bench, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr. 2021 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Police Shootings In The Mountain West, 2015 - 2021, Elia Del Carmen Solano-Patricio, Madison Frazee-Bench, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr.

Criminal Justice

The Washington Post publishes and regularly updates a dataset regarding the use of deadly force by police since 2015. This fact sheet extracts data for each state in the Mountain West (Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah), and presents a regional perspective on the total number of individuals shot and killed by police, including demographic variables such as race, gender, and age. Two additional variables are included in this examination: the presence or absence of mental illness in the individual killed by police, and the presence or absence of a body-worn camera in incidents of deadly force by police.


Neighborhood Disorganization, Atmosphere For Citizen Involvement And Satisfaction With Police Services, Krystal Karas, Chastity L. Blankenship 2021 Florida Southern College

Neighborhood Disorganization, Atmosphere For Citizen Involvement And Satisfaction With Police Services, Krystal Karas, Chastity L. Blankenship

Papers & Publications: Interdisciplinary Journal of Undergraduate Research

Previous research on satisfaction with police services has shown a variety of factors can be significant such as race, neighborhood disorganization, and fear of crime. Furthermore, policing that is visible can help community residents feel higher levels of security and order. Some cities have more fractured community-police relations in comparison to others nationwide. Recently, The City of Dallas Police Department has had several race-based incidents in the national media, and they have been working to increase citizen satisfaction with public safety and obtain community cooperation. Residents of Dallas were given surveys regarding satisfaction with police services, contact with police, fear ...


Assessing The Credibility Of Cyber Adversaries, Jenny A. Wells, Dana S. LaFon, Margaret Gratian 2021 Bridgewater State University

Assessing The Credibility Of Cyber Adversaries, Jenny A. Wells, Dana S. Lafon, Margaret Gratian

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Online communications are ever increasing, and we are constantly faced with the challenge of whether online information is credible or not. Being able to assess the credibility of others was once the work solely of intelligence agencies. In the current times of disinformation and misinformation, understanding what we are reading and to who we are paying attention to is essential for us to make considered, informed, and accurate decisions, and it has become everyone’s business. This paper employs a literature review to examine the empirical evidence across online credibility, trust, deception, and fraud detection in an effort to consolidate ...


Cyberbullying: Its Social And Psychological Harms Among Schoolers, Hyeyoung Lim, Hannarae Lee 2021 Bridgewater State University

Cyberbullying: Its Social And Psychological Harms Among Schoolers, Hyeyoung Lim, Hannarae Lee

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Criminal justice around the world has prioritized the prevention and protection of bullying and its victims due to the rapid increases in peer violence. Nevertheless, relatively few studies have examined what treatments or assistance are effective for peer victims to reduce and recover from their social and psychological suffering, especially in cyberbullying cases. Using data derived from the National Crime Victimization Survey-School Crime Supplement data in 2011 and 2013 (N=823), the current study examined the impact of two emotional support groups (i.e., adult and peer groups) on cyberbullying victims' social and psychological harm. The findings indicated that both ...


Cyber-Victimization Trends In Trinidad & Tobago: The Results Of An Empirical Research, Troy Smith, Nikolaos Stamatakis 2021 Bridgewater State University

Cyber-Victimization Trends In Trinidad & Tobago: The Results Of An Empirical Research, Troy Smith, Nikolaos Stamatakis

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Cybertechnology has brought benefits to the Caribbean in the form of new regional economic and social growth. In the last years, Caribbean countries have also become attractive targets for cybercrime due to increased economic success and online presence with a low level of cyber resilience. This study examines the online-related activities that affect cybercrime victimization by using the Routine Activity Theory (RAT). The present study seeks to identify activities that contribute to different forms of cybercrime victimization and develop risk models for these crimes, particularly the understudied cyber-dependent crimes of Hacking and Malware. It also aims to explore if there ...


Prisoners’ Perspectives On Limited Rehabilitative Program Opportunities, Kerry Edwards PhD 2021 Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania

Prisoners’ Perspectives On Limited Rehabilitative Program Opportunities, Kerry Edwards Phd

The Qualitative Report

Approximately 1.5 million persons are incarcerated in American prisons (Carson, 2020), and the rate at which persons who have been incarcerated reoffend (recidivism) is high (Alper et al., 2018, p. 1). This has propelled the effort to help offenders change their trajectory. Rehabilitative programs are used to help prisoners gain skills and strengths necessary to succeed in the community after their release. Yet, these high recidivism rates persist. Why do some prisoners not benefit from these programs? Although many researchers have studied the efficacy of programs over the past six decades, less attention has been directed towards access to ...


The Challenges Of Identifying Dangers Online And Predictors Of Victimization, Catherine D. Marcum 2021 Appalachian State University, U.S.A.

The Challenges Of Identifying Dangers Online And Predictors Of Victimization, Catherine D. Marcum

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

This short paper will provide an overview of the impressive pieces included in this issue of the International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence and Cybercrime. This issue includes articles on the following pertinent topic, utilizing a range of approaches and methodologies: 1) online credibility; 2) cyberbullying; and 3) unauthorized access of information. An emphasis on the importance of policy development and better protection of potential victims is a common thread throughout the issue.


Knowledge Is Power: A Study Of Juvenile Justice Facilities And Educational Programs, Molly Anne Latham 2021 Western Kentucky University

Knowledge Is Power: A Study Of Juvenile Justice Facilities And Educational Programs, Molly Anne Latham

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The Juvenile Justice System is established to maintain public safety, as well as rehabilitate youth that have involved themselves in criminal activity. The overall goal is to create a better future for these individuals and transform them into law-abiding citizens for the good of society. In order to understand where the system has failed in doing this, we must first examine what opportunities and programs these individuals have to help them succeed. The current study will employ a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional survey through which the United States Bureau of the Census (1995) collected data on the characteristic of ...


Migrant Or Menace: Media Representations Of The Migrant Caravan, Elizabeth Twitty, Erica Bower 2021 Old Dominion University

Migrant Or Menace: Media Representations Of The Migrant Caravan, Elizabeth Twitty, Erica Bower

College of Arts and Letters Posters

In March 2018, the Pueblo Sin Fronteras migrant caravan began making their way to the U.S. border, drawing political and media attention from the United States. News coverage of immigrants and migration events have historically been linked to negative topics and framed as threats to the American way of life. These negative themes emerged against the backdrop of the Trump administration’s response to the caravan, describing migrants as threats to U.S. border security. To examine how the news media portrayed this event, we conducted a summative content analysis of online news articles from CNN and Fox News ...


Understanding The Complexities And Origins Of Gun Violence In Chicago, Christopher Bilicic 2021 Trinity College

Understanding The Complexities And Origins Of Gun Violence In Chicago, Christopher Bilicic

Senior Theses and Projects

This thesis attempts to re-think the way lawmakers, policy makers, and everyday Chicagoans look at and talk about gun violence in Chicago. I attempt to do this by taking a historical approach where Chicago's history of housing and police discrimination against its black communities is outlined. In doing this, I seek to show that many of the factors that are driving violence in the city's black neighborhoods - such as legal cynicism and concentrated inequalities - were created by this discriminatory past. Urban gun violence in Chicago is heavily concentrated in and driven by its black neighborhoods. After taking a ...


Prostitution Decriminalization Campaigns In The United States: Libertarianism Or A "Decent Society", Jody Raphael 2021 DePaul University College of Law

Prostitution Decriminalization Campaigns In The United States: Libertarianism Or A "Decent Society", Jody Raphael

Dignity: A Journal of Analysis of Exploitation and Violence

Recently, legislative campaigns to totally decriminalize the sex trade industry in a handful of U.S. states and the District of Columbia failed, but a look at campaign supporters and their arguments demonstrates that libertarian principles are mainly guiding their efforts. This article explores how libertarianism principles, when applied to the sex trade, could bring about severe and lasting harm to others, including sellers of sex, potential victims of sex trafficking to meet the new demand, and the general community. Philosophic principles of liberty have been incorporated by courts, which find that liberty is never absolute and requires a balancing ...


Criminal Law’S Core Principles, Paul H. Robinson 2021 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

Criminal Law’S Core Principles, Paul H. Robinson

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Modern criminal law scholars and policymakers assume they are free to construct criminal law rules by focusing exclusively on the criminal justice theory of the day. But this “blank slate” conception of criminal lawmaking is dangerously misguided. In fact, lawmakers are writing on a slate on which core principles are already indelibly written and realistically they are free only to add detail in the implementation of those principles and to add additional provisions not inconsistent with them. Attempts to do otherwise are destined to produce tragic results from both utilitarian and retributivist views.

Many writers dispute that such core principles ...


Class Act: Symbolic Revolution And The Meaning Of College In Prison, Ruth E. Delaney 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Class Act: Symbolic Revolution And The Meaning Of College In Prison, Ruth E. Delaney

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The United States has gone through two transformations in the meaning of higher education in prison and the value of access for people in prison in the last 50 years and is now moving towards a third. The establishment of Pell grants in 1972 allowed for widespread access to higher education in prison, while the removal of those grants in 1994 effectively ended access. Federal policy makers are now poised to restore access to Pell grants to a broad swath of people in prison (Green, 2019; Krieghbaum, April 22, 2019; Krieghbaum, October 11, 2019). In this paper, I interpret the ...


The Different Components Of Active Shooter Incidents: Examining The Co-Occurrence Of Offender And Incident Characteristics, Jeffery R. Osborne 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Different Components Of Active Shooter Incidents: Examining The Co-Occurrence Of Offender And Incident Characteristics, Jeffery R. Osborne

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The present dissertation examined 198 United States single-offender active shooter incidents and thematically differentiated cases based on 1) offender backgrounds, 2) precipitating stressors, 3) offender routine activity, 4) crime scene location, and 5) incident characteristics. Doing so contributed to the increasing number of studies that have stressed the importance of creating empirically-based models to better understand active shooter incidents and the offenders who are responsible. To structure this investigation into active shooter incidents, concepts within Environmental Criminology and Crime Analysis were paired with analytical methodologies seen in Offender Profiling and Investigative Psychology research.

The findings illustrated that offenders could be ...


The Basha's Tools? Imagining Alternative Justice Futures In Egypt, Farah Ghazal 2021 American University in Cairo

The Basha's Tools? Imagining Alternative Justice Futures In Egypt, Farah Ghazal

Theses and Dissertations

The dominant approach to addressing violence against women in Egypt today is carceral, or relying on the punitive instruments of the state to achieve justice (most visibly represented by the prison and police). While carceral responses are perhaps unsurprisingly advocated by state feminism, they are also promoted by what would typically be described as anti-state actors. This paradoxical entanglement takes place during what I identify as the 'carceral moment', a period marked by the intensification of political and social repression and during which incarceration appears more readily available as a solution to remedy perceived problems of governance. I argue that ...


In Defense Of Moral Credibility, Paul H. Robinson, Lindsay Holcomb 2021 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

In Defense Of Moral Credibility, Paul H. Robinson, Lindsay Holcomb

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The criminal justice system’s reputation with the community can have a significant effect on the extent to which people are willing to comply with its demands and internalize its norms. In the context of criminal law, the empirical studies suggest that ordinary people expect the criminal justice system to do justice and avoid injustice, as they perceive it – what has been called “empirical desert” to distinguish it from the “deontological desert” of moral philosophers. The empirical studies and many real-world natural experiments suggest that a criminal justice system that regularly deviates from empirical desert loses moral credibility and thereby ...


Undemocratic Crimes, Paul H. Robinson, Jonathan C. Wilt 2021 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

Undemocratic Crimes, Paul H. Robinson, Jonathan C. Wilt

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

One might assume that in a working democracy the criminal law rules would reflect the community’s shared judgments regarding justice and punishment. This is especially true because social science research shows that lay people generally think about criminal liability and punishment in consistent ways: in terms of desert, doing justice and avoiding injustice. Moreover, there are compelling arguments for demanding consistency between community views and criminal law rules based upon the importance of democratic values, effective crime-control, and the deontological value of justice itself.

It may then come as a surprise, and a disappointment, that a wide range of ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress