Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Criminology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

9,839 Full-Text Articles 6,776 Authors 15,461,616 Downloads 212 Institutions

All Articles in Criminology

Faceted Search

9,839 full-text articles. Page 1 of 137.

Alternative Approaches To Police Interventions When Responding To Mental Health Crises Incidents, Karen Rivera Apolinar 2023 California State University San Bernardino

Alternative Approaches To Police Interventions When Responding To Mental Health Crises Incidents, Karen Rivera Apolinar

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Purpose: This study explored mental health workers perspectives on alternative approaches in responding to mental health crises.

The study was carried out in Southern California, in collaboration with mental health workers who currently work or previously have worked in mental health crisis. It adopted a post-positivists paradigm and data was gathered through individual interviews with mental health workers who have direct experience with mental health crisis response in the community and with the police. The twenty participants in the study were men and women working in the mental health field, and of various backgrounds, licensures, and ages.

The study found ...


Investigating Key Risk Factors Across Violent And Non-Violent Extremists In The United States, Leevia Dillon 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Investigating Key Risk Factors Across Violent And Non-Violent Extremists In The United States, Leevia Dillon

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Problem Statement: This study investigated risk factors commonly highlighted by prior studies and risk assessment tools (e.g., Violent Extremism Risk Assessment Version 2 (VERA-2) and Extremism Risk Guidance 22+ (ERG22+)). It compared the risk factors across and within two groups – violent extremists (i.e., jihadists and far-right extremists) and non-violent extremists (i.e., jihadists and far-right financial/material support crime extremists) in the U.S. Jihadists and far-rightists are the two greatest security threats facing the U.S., and the findings can aid counterterrorism efforts on assessment development, identifying effective risk factors across varying groups, and assessing violence risk ...


“Elder Scam” Risk Profiles: Individual And Situational Factors Of Younger And Older Age Groups’ Fraud Victimization, Katalin Parti 2022 Virginia Tech

“Elder Scam” Risk Profiles: Individual And Situational Factors Of Younger And Older Age Groups’ Fraud Victimization, Katalin Parti

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

In an attempt to understand how differently fraud works depending on a victim’s age, we have examined the effects of situational (lifestyle-routine activities), self-control, and sociodemographic variables on scam victimization across age groups. The analysis was carried out on a national sample of 2,558 Americans, representative by age, sex, and race, and includes additional factors such as their education, living arrangement, employment, and propensity for reporting a crime or asking for help. The results substantiate research findings of the contribution of self-control and LRAT in predicting victimization in general but could not identify major situational and individual differences ...


Emerging Trends In Cybercrime Awareness In Nigeria, Ogochukwu Favour Nzeakor, Bonaventure N. Nwokeoma, Ibrahim Hassan, Benjamin Okorie Ajah, John T. Okpa 2022 Michael Okpara University of Agriculture

Emerging Trends In Cybercrime Awareness In Nigeria, Ogochukwu Favour Nzeakor, Bonaventure N. Nwokeoma, Ibrahim Hassan, Benjamin Okorie Ajah, John T. Okpa

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

The study examined the current trend in cybercrime awareness and the relationship such trend has with cybercrime vulnerability or victimization. Selecting a sample of 1104 Internet users from Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria, We found that: 1) awareness of information security was high in that about 2 in every 3 (68%) participants demonstrated a favorable awareness of information security and cybercrime. It was, however, revealed that such a high level of awareness could be partial and weak. 2) most Internet users demonstrated the awareness of fraud-related cybercrime categories (39%), e-theft (15%), hacking (12%), and ATM theft (10%). However, they were rarely ...


Understanding Deviance And Victimization In Cyber Space Among Diverse Populations, Insun Park 2022 Bridgewater State University

Understanding Deviance And Victimization In Cyber Space Among Diverse Populations, Insun Park

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Recent years have witnessed a growing academic interest in deviance and victimization in the cyber space. The current issue of the International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence and Cybercrime features three empirical research articles on online behavior of traditionally under-researched populations and a review of much waited book on digital forensics and investigation. This paper was prepared to introduce these important scholarly works in the context of newly emerging scholarship that focuses on the experiences of diverse subgroups in cyberspace.


Aggressive Reality Docuseries And Cyberbullying: A Partial Test Of Glaser’S Differential Identification Theory, J. Ra’Chel Fowler, Darren R. Beneby, Kenethia L. Fuller 2022 North Carolina Central University

Aggressive Reality Docuseries And Cyberbullying: A Partial Test Of Glaser’S Differential Identification Theory, J. Ra’Chel Fowler, Darren R. Beneby, Kenethia L. Fuller

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Reality docuseries have dominated primetime airwaves for the greater part of three decades. However, little is known about how viewers who are enamored with the genre’s most aggressive characters are influenced. Using Glaser’s (1956) theory of differential identification, this study employs survey data from 210 college students at a historically Black college and university to explore whether identification with characters from aggressive reality docuseries (ARDs) and the frequency of viewing ARD are positively associated with cyberbullying. Results of multivariate analyses revealed that men were more likely than women to publicly shame others and air other’s dirty laundry ...


Book Review: Digital Forensics And Cyber Investigation, 2022 Bridgewater State University

Book Review: Digital Forensics And Cyber Investigation

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

No abstract provided.


A Multi-Site Study Of Firearms Displays By Police At Use Of Force Incidents, Timothy Cubitt, Justin Nix 2022 University of Tasmania

A Multi-Site Study Of Firearms Displays By Police At Use Of Force Incidents, Timothy Cubitt, Justin Nix

Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

The power to use force is a defining characteristic of policing, one that is accompanied by a responsibility to exercise these powers in the circumstances deemed necessary. This study analyzes data from four policing agencies to predict the likelihood of an officer drawing and pointing their firearm at a use of force incident. Findings suggest that situational factors were important in influencing whether an officer may draw and point their firearm. However, a priming effect, in which officers were more likely to draw their firearms when dispatched to an incident, may also be present. The rate that officers drew and ...


The Spatial Concentration, Stability, And Specialization Of Mental Health Calls For Service: Evidence In Support Of Proactive, Place-Based Interventions, Jacek Koziarski 2022 The University of Western Ontario

The Spatial Concentration, Stability, And Specialization Of Mental Health Calls For Service: Evidence In Support Of Proactive, Place-Based Interventions, Jacek Koziarski

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

For many decades the police have been the de facto responders to persons with perceived mental illness (PwPMI). However, having the police in this role has come with negative repercussions for PwPMI, such as disproportionately experiencing criminalization and use of force. In recognizing these issues, the police—and more recently, the community—have developed responses that either seek to improve interactions between the police and PwPMI or remove the police from this role altogether. However, in either case, these efforts are reactive in nature, responding to crises that arguably could have been prevented had a timelier intervention taken place. Further ...


Police Crime Committed In Tandem: An Exploration Of The Interconnectedness Of Offenses Committed By Law Enforcement Officers, 2005-2017, Jonathan R. Kutz, Chloe A. Wentzlof, Philip M. Stinson 2022 Bowling Green State University

Police Crime Committed In Tandem: An Exploration Of The Interconnectedness Of Offenses Committed By Law Enforcement Officers, 2005-2017, Jonathan R. Kutz, Chloe A. Wentzlof, Philip M. Stinson

Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

Presentation at the Annual Meeting of the Midwestern Criminal Justice Association in Chicago, IL, on September 22, 2022.


Police Officers Arrested For Driving Under The Influence, 2005-2017, Leah M. Jolliffe, Chloe A. Wentzlof, Philip M. Stinson 2022 Bowling Green State University

Police Officers Arrested For Driving Under The Influence, 2005-2017, Leah M. Jolliffe, Chloe A. Wentzlof, Philip M. Stinson

Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

Presentation at the Annual Meeting of the Midwestern Criminal Justice Association in Chicago, IL, on September 22, 2022.


Driving While Female: An Exploratory Study Examining Law Enforcement’S Abuse Of Power Against Female Drivers, 2005-2017, Alexa J. Sir Louis, Chloe A. Wentzlof, Philip M. Stinson 2022 Bowling Green State University

Driving While Female: An Exploratory Study Examining Law Enforcement’S Abuse Of Power Against Female Drivers, 2005-2017, Alexa J. Sir Louis, Chloe A. Wentzlof, Philip M. Stinson

Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

Presentation at the Annual Meeting of the Midwestern Criminal Justice Association in Chicago, IL, on September 22, 2022.


Faith-Based Addiction Treatment Programs And The Drug Courts, Christopher J. Boosey 2022 Liberty University

Faith-Based Addiction Treatment Programs And The Drug Courts, Christopher J. Boosey

Liberty University Journal of Statesmanship & Public Policy

Addiction treatment programs are a major part of the Drug Courts system as under this system, addiction treatment and rehabilitation are used in an attempt to address the root causes of crime with the intent to reducing recidivism rates. Trends in research are beginning to show that faith-based addiction treatment programs are more effective than comparable secular programs. However, there are constitutional issues that prevent these programs being awarded by the drug courts without a comparable, secular alternative. This essay reviews relevant research on the comparable efficacy of faith-based and secular addiction programs and the constitutional issues related to the ...


Aging On Parole: An Empirical Analysis Of Reentry, Reintegration, And Life Satisfaction, Angela Silletti Murolo 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Aging On Parole: An Empirical Analysis Of Reentry, Reintegration, And Life Satisfaction, Angela Silletti Murolo

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

As the prison population grays, so too does the people leaving prison. In New Jersey and New York, 35% and 26% of people on parole are over the age of 50 respectively. While older persons have lower recidivism rates compared to younger persons, there are physical, mental, and societal challenges that come with advancing age that can make reentry and reintegration a particularly difficult experience compared to younger persons. The aim of this dissertation is to explore the experiences of older adults on parole and the parole officers that assist them in their reentry and reintegration.

This study is unique ...


Mitigating The Harm Of Public Mass Shooting Incidents Through Situational Crime Prevention, Emily Greene-Colozzi 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Mitigating The Harm Of Public Mass Shooting Incidents Through Situational Crime Prevention, Emily Greene-Colozzi

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation used environmental theoretical frameworks to understand how public mass shooting incidents are impacted by aspects of the crime situation and opportunity. Predatory, public shootings perpetrated by individuals with evidence of mass intent were examined in the United States between 1966 and 2019. This project progressed in several distinct steps with discrete aims: (1) establish an open source database of public mass shooting incidents meeting definitional criteria; (2) perform statistical analysis, including latent class analysis, regression modeling, and structural equational modeling to assess research questions; and (3) perform comparative case studies and crime script analysis to assess situational crime ...


Does Procedural Justice Reduce The Harmful Effects Of Perceived Ineffectiveness On Police Legitimacy?, Yongjae Nam, Scott E. Wolfe, Justin Nix 2022 Michigan State University

Does Procedural Justice Reduce The Harmful Effects Of Perceived Ineffectiveness On Police Legitimacy?, Yongjae Nam, Scott E. Wolfe, Justin Nix

Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

Objectives: Judgments about police procedural fairness consistently have a stronger influence on how the public ascribes legitimacy to the police than evaluations of police effectiveness. What remains largely underexplored, however, is the potential moderating effect of procedural justice on the relationship between effectiveness and legitimacy and whether this moderation varies by citizen race. Method: We administered two separate surveys to determine whether procedural justice's moderating effect on the relationship between police ineffectiveness and legitimacy varies by citizen race. The first was a mail survey of a random sample of citizens in a southern US city (N=1,681) conducted ...


Dynamics Of Dark Web Financial Marketplaces: An Exploratory Study Of Underground Fraud And Scam Business, Bo Ra Jung, Kyung-Shick Choi, Claire Seungeun Lee 2022 Boston University

Dynamics Of Dark Web Financial Marketplaces: An Exploratory Study Of Underground Fraud And Scam Business, Bo Ra Jung, Kyung-Shick Choi, Claire Seungeun Lee

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

The number of Dark Web financial marketplaces where Dark Web users and sellers actively trade illegal goods and services anonymously has been growing exponentially in recent years. The Dark Web has expanded illegal activities via selling various illicit products, from hacked credit cards to stolen crypto accounts. This study aims to delineate the characteristics of the Dark Web financial market and its scams. Data were derived from leading Dark Web financial websites, including Hidden Wiki, Onion List, and Dark Web Wiki, using Dark Web search engines. The study combines statistical analysis with thematic analysis of Dark Web content. Offering promotions ...


Kerberoasting: Case Studies Of An Attack On A Cryptographic Authentication Technology, D Demers, Hannarae Lee 2022 Bridgewater State University

Kerberoasting: Case Studies Of An Attack On A Cryptographic Authentication Technology, D Demers, Hannarae Lee

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Kerberoasting, an attack vector aimed at the Kerberos authentication protocol, can be used as part of an adversary’s attack arsenal. Kerberos is a type of network authentication protocol that allows a client and server to conduct a mutual verification before providing the requested resource to the client. A successful Kerberoasting attack allows an adversary to leverage the architectural limitations of Kerberos, providing access to user password hashes that can be subject to offline cracking. A cracked user password could give a bad actor the ability to maintain persistence, move laterally, or escalate privileges in a system. Persistence or movement ...


Understanding The Challenges Of Cryptography-Related Cybercrime And Its Investigation, Sinyong Choi, Katalin Parti 2022 Kennesaw State University

Understanding The Challenges Of Cryptography-Related Cybercrime And Its Investigation, Sinyong Choi, Katalin Parti

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Cryptography has been applied to a range of modern technologies which criminals also exploit to gain criminal rewards while hiding their identity. Although understanding of cybercrime involving this technique is necessary in devising effective preventive measures, little has been done to examine this area. Therefore, this paper provides an overview of the two articles, featured in the special issue of the International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence and Cybercrime, that will enhance our understanding of cryptography-related crime, ranging from cryptocurrency and darknet market to password-cracking. The articles were presented by the winners of the student paper competition at the 2022 International ...


The Social Murder Of Victoria Salazar: Neoliberal Capitalism And Working Class Precariousness In El Salvador, Steven Osuna 2022 California State University, Long Beach

The Social Murder Of Victoria Salazar: Neoliberal Capitalism And Working Class Precariousness In El Salvador, Steven Osuna

Emancipations: A Journal of Critical Social Analysis

On March 27, 2021, a Salvadoran refugee named Victoria Salazar was brutally killed by police in the Mexican resort town of Tulum, Quintana Roo. In this article, I introduce a “proletarian feminist analysis” to the study of Central American displacement and forced migration to argue that Victoria Salazar’s death is a “social murder.” Although Mexican police murdered Victoria Salazar, I contend that the social degradation and working-class precariousness in El Salvador and Mexico, all shaped by neoliberal capitalist relations of exploitation and afflicting cisgender and trans women in distinctive ways, set the conditions for Ms Salazar’s social murder.


Digital Commons powered by bepress