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Full-Text Articles in Criminology

Models As Weapons: Review Of Weapons Of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality And Threatens Democracy By Cathy O’Neil (2016), Samuel L. Tunstall Jan 2018

Models As Weapons: Review Of Weapons Of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality And Threatens Democracy By Cathy O’Neil (2016), Samuel L. Tunstall

Numeracy

Cathy O’Neil. Weapons of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality and Threatens Democracy (New York, NY: Crown) 272 pp. ISBN 978-0553418811.

Accessible to a wide readership, Cathy O’Neil’s Weapons of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality and Threatens Democracy provides a lucid yet alarming account of the extensive reach of mathematical models in influencing all of our lives. With a particular eye towards social justice, O’Neil not only warns modelers to be cognizant of the effects of their work on real people—especially vulnerable groups who have less power to fight back—but also ...


High-Risk Behavior: Who's Engaging In It?, Rachel Licata Jan 2018

High-Risk Behavior: Who's Engaging In It?, Rachel Licata

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

Why are people engaging in dangerous behaviors, putting themselves and society at risk, despite the detrimental consequences? I propose that with more years of education completed, an individual is less likely to participate in high-risk behaviors; and also, that those who lived in a two-parent household at age 16 are less likely to engage in these behaviors as well. In this research we analyze 345, unmarried respondents, from the 2004 General Social Survey, all whom have answered questions about their educational attainment, strength in religion, familial formation at age 16, employment status and age through an interview process. The data ...


Book Review: The Pimping Of Prostitution: Abolishing The Sex Work Myth By Julie Bindel, Roger Matthews Jan 2018

Book Review: The Pimping Of Prostitution: Abolishing The Sex Work Myth By Julie Bindel, Roger Matthews

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


Museum Of Modern-Day Slavery: A Photo Essay, Micah Gamboa Jan 2018

Museum Of Modern-Day Slavery: A Photo Essay, Micah Gamboa

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

A photo essay from the Museum of Modern-Day Slavery in Houston, Texas, with photographs of rooms, entrances, and storage spaces in brothels following raids, including artifacts of the trade found at the scenes are documented. Photographs include brothels, bars, and strip clubs where Korean women and Mexican women were exploited. Photographs from the Mexican-American border document the violence the victims are subjected to during their journey.


Script Analysis Of Open-Air Drug Selling: A Systematic Social Observation Of Cctv Footage, Victoria A. Sytsma, Eric L. Piza Jan 2018

Script Analysis Of Open-Air Drug Selling: A Systematic Social Observation Of Cctv Footage, Victoria A. Sytsma, Eric L. Piza

Publications and Research

Objectives: Through the use of closed-circuit television (CCTV) video foo- tage, the current study builds upon the drug transaction work of Piza and Sytsma by developing a crime script for open-air drug selling.

Methods: Researchers conducted a systematic social observation of CCTV footage of open-air drug markets in Newark, NJ. The data were used to identify sequential stages of drug transactions. Fisher’s exact tests measured whether buyer and seller activities during specific acts of the drug transaction event were related to activities seen in subsequent stages.

Results: This study finds three distinct acts to open-air drug events. During the ...


Measuring The Effect Heterogeneity Of Police Enforcement Actions Across Spatial Contexts, Eric L. Piza Jan 2018

Measuring The Effect Heterogeneity Of Police Enforcement Actions Across Spatial Contexts, Eric L. Piza

Publications and Research

Purpose: This study tests whether the effect of police actions is influenced by similar crime generators and attractors (CGAs) that influence crime. Said differently, in recognition that the presence of CGAs presents higher risk of crime at certain places, we test whether CGAs similarly create a situation where specific police enforcement actions are more effective at certain types of places than others.

Methods: Using longitudinal logistic regression models incorporating panel data, we measure the effect of various police enforcement actions on gun violence in Newark, NJ. Risk Terrain Modeling (RTM) was further used to test whether the effect of the ...


The Crime Prevention Effect Of Cctv In Public Places: A Propensity Score Analysis, Eric L. Piza Jan 2018

The Crime Prevention Effect Of Cctv In Public Places: A Propensity Score Analysis, Eric L. Piza

Publications and Research

This study measures the effect of CCTV in Newark, NJ across three separate crime categories: auto theft, theft from auto, and violent crime. CCTV viewsheds, denoting camera line-of-sight, were units of analysis. Viewsheds for treatment units were created by digitizing live CCTV footage within a geographic information system (GIS). Control viewsheds were created with GIS tools and aerial imagery from Google maps. Treatment cases were matched with control cases via propensity score matching (PSM) to ensure statistical equivalency between groups. Effect was measured via odds ratios and average treatment on the treated statistics. Findings offer modest support for CCTV as ...


The Effects Of Juvenile Life Sentences On Family Relationships, Antoinette Pigatt Jan 2018

The Effects Of Juvenile Life Sentences On Family Relationships, Antoinette Pigatt

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Juveniles serving adult sentences are separated from their families for extensive amounts of time. During incarceration, youths attempt to maintain close relationships with family members, but are faced with challenges. The purpose of this multiple case study was to explore adult incarceration of youthful offenders and its effect on family relationships using Bowen's family systems theory as the theoretical foundation. Three Maryland families who have first-hand experience with the phenomenon were selected to share their stories. Through this study, to the family unit was given voice to assist understanding the experience from multiple perspectives. Interviews were conducted with each ...


Incarceration Of Nonviolent Offenders At The High Court In Oyo State, Nigeria, Olugbenga Rotimi Akanji Jan 2018

Incarceration Of Nonviolent Offenders At The High Court In Oyo State, Nigeria, Olugbenga Rotimi Akanji

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The nonuse of community correction in the Nigeria criminal justice system has led to increased recidivism, contributed to prison congestion, introduced the risk of prison victimization, and lacked the provision of a rehabilitative structure for nonviolent offenders. The purpose of this phenomenological research study was to explore Nigerian judges' use of alternatives to incarcerations for nonviolent offenders. Dolinko retributive punishment theory provided the theoretical framework for this study. Ten participant judges comprised the study sample from a purposeful and criterion random sampling method. Data were collected from participants through structured interviews and were coded manually, sorted, and analyzed using the ...


2017 American Society Of Criminology Conference, Gary Kowaluk Dec 2017

2017 American Society Of Criminology Conference, Gary Kowaluk

Train-the-Trainer Professional Development

The following blog is a synopsis of my recent trip to the 2017 American Society of Criminology Conference which took place in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania from November 15th through 19th.


Postmodern Social Control: Dividuals And Surveillance, Ernest M. Oleksy Dec 2017

Postmodern Social Control: Dividuals And Surveillance, Ernest M. Oleksy

The Downtown Review

As a society's foundational philosophy changes, so, too, will its forms of social control. By using the works of thinkers like Deleuze and Foucault as pivot points, the dynamic nature of social interactions and the agents to mediate those actions shall be investigated. This article includes findings from archival analysis written in a journalistic prose for simplicity of consumption.


Probation In The United States: A Historical And Modern Perspective, Ryan M. Labrecque Dec 2017

Probation In The United States: A Historical And Modern Perspective, Ryan M. Labrecque

Ryan M. Labrecque

Probation is a court order through which a criminal defendant is placed under the control, supervision, and care of a probation officer in lieu of imprisonment; so long as the probationer maintains certain standards of conduct. This chapter reviews the historical development of probation in the United States, and highlights how the practice is used in the 21st century. Probation has many advantages over imprisonment, including lower operational costs, increased opportunities for rehabilitation, and reduced risk of criminal socialization. However, there is increasing evidence to suggest probation strategies that focus on compliance monitoring and other law enforcement aspects of supervision ...


Fear Of Terrorism In Armenia: Anxiety, Moral Panic And The Role Of The Media, Gurgen Balasanyan Dec 2017

Fear Of Terrorism In Armenia: Anxiety, Moral Panic And The Role Of The Media, Gurgen Balasanyan

Student Theses

In the aftermath of 9/11, terrorism has become a prominent area of research across multiple disciplines. Recent polls and surveys in the USA, Europe, and other countries directly affected by terror attacks show a substantial increase in the level of fear of terrorism. However, there is lack of research on the phenomenon in countries that do not have a recent history of terror attacks, nor are militarily involved in the global war on terror. The findings of this cross-sectional exploratory study are based on an online survey with 419 (N=419) respondents in one such terrorism-neutral country, Armenia. By ...


Roadblocks To The Implementation Of Problem-Oriented Policing In Montevideo, Federico Del Castillo Dec 2017

Roadblocks To The Implementation Of Problem-Oriented Policing In Montevideo, Federico Del Castillo

Student Theses

In the broad context of Uruguay’s police reform, the Ministry of Interior is implementing a pilot Problem-Oriented Policing (POP) program in Montevideo since late 2012. This research examined the obstacles confronted by the program throughout its implementation. Using a grounded theory approach, qualitative data was collected through 20 semi-structured interviews with members of the Uruguay National Police (UNP) of different ranks. Findings were analyzed based on the following categories: a) contextual factors; b) theoretical and practical inaccuracies; c) characteristics, skills and actions of project managers; d) resistance and motivational issues; e) resources; f) external support and cooperation. Consistent with ...


Grann's "Killers Of The Flower Moon: The Osage Murders And The Birth Of The Fbi" (Book Review), Roderick Leupp Dec 2017

Grann's "Killers Of The Flower Moon: The Osage Murders And The Birth Of The Fbi" (Book Review), Roderick Leupp

The Christian Librarian

No abstract provided.


Criminal Justice Majors: Are They Tougher On Crime?, Anthony Javornik Dec 2017

Criminal Justice Majors: Are They Tougher On Crime?, Anthony Javornik

Honors College Theses

The United States of America incarcerates more individuals than any other nation in the world. Therefore, the United States has one of the most active correctional systems and it is imperative to examine the system thoroughly. Generally speaking, there have been 3 accepted models of the correctional system since the 1940’s: custodial, rehabilitation, and reintegration. Although it is possible to find institutions that subscribe to each of these models respectively, the custodial model is the most common in the United States. Therefore, this study seeks to examine college students’ perception of crime, in order to help explain why the ...


'The Environment Says It's Okay': The Tension Between Peer Support And Police Culture, Cindy Hohner Nov 2017

'The Environment Says It's Okay': The Tension Between Peer Support And Police Culture, Cindy Hohner

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study evaluates the implementation and subsequent operation of a peer support program in a Canadian police service. Data was collected from an online survey, available to the police service for a period of one year, and 16 in-depth interviews with peer support team members. There is very little data on police peer support programs in the literature. Thus, the purpose of the survey was to gain an understanding of what issues members believe a peer support program should address, the circumstances under which they would seek help from the peer support program, and the reasons they may or may ...


In The Crosshairs Of The White Nationalist Movement: Is Bridgewater State Ready?, Carolyn Petrosino Nov 2017

In The Crosshairs Of The White Nationalist Movement: Is Bridgewater State Ready?, Carolyn Petrosino

Bridgewater Review

No abstract provided.


Self-Control And Crime: Theory, Research, And Remaining Puzzles, Michael Rocque, Chad Posick, Alex R. Piquero Oct 2017

Self-Control And Crime: Theory, Research, And Remaining Puzzles, Michael Rocque, Chad Posick, Alex R. Piquero

Chad Posick

No abstract provided.


Juvenile Violence, A. J. Fox, Michael Rocque, Chad Posick Oct 2017

Juvenile Violence, A. J. Fox, Michael Rocque, Chad Posick

Chad Posick

No abstract provided.


Once Bitten, Thrice Wise: The Varying Effects Of Victimization On Routine Activities And Risk Management, J. Michael Vecchio Oct 2017

Once Bitten, Thrice Wise: The Varying Effects Of Victimization On Routine Activities And Risk Management, J. Michael Vecchio

J. Michael Vecchio

While the relationship between offending and victimization is well established, less is understood about what contributes to the varied effects of victimization on future behavior. Drawing on qualitative interviews from a sample of at-risk men, the study explores recognized and unrecognized effects of victimization on subsequent behavior and management of lifestyle risks both within and across narratives. Findings demonstrate a range of perceived effects on behavior and risk management, with the presence or absence of substantive effects related to whether the event was both severe and directly attributable to involvement in at-risk behavior. Consequences for the victimization–termination hypothesis are ...


Youth Gangs: An Overview Of Key Findings And Directions For The Future, Terrance J. Taylor, J. Michael Vecchio Oct 2017

Youth Gangs: An Overview Of Key Findings And Directions For The Future, Terrance J. Taylor, J. Michael Vecchio

J. Michael Vecchio

Youth gangs have received considerable attention for many decades. Undoubtedly, their disproportionate involvement in violence is one main reason for this attention. While gang members spend most of their lives engaging in the same types of behaviors as other youth (sleeping, eating, playing video games, going to school), they are also much more likely than non-gang members to be involved in violence and other criminal activity. Indeed, scholars have often highlighted the functional nature of violence as it pertains to gangs. Gangs come in a variety of forms: prison gangs, outlaw motorcycle gangs, extremist groups, and drug trafficking organizations, among ...


Leaving The Gang: A Review And Thoughts On Future Research, Dena C. Carson, J. Michael Vecchio Oct 2017

Leaving The Gang: A Review And Thoughts On Future Research, Dena C. Carson, J. Michael Vecchio

J. Michael Vecchio

Researchers have examined aspects of gangs and their members for almost a century. This work, however, focuses primarily on youth prior to joining as well as during gang involvement. While comparatively less is known about the leaving processes, work in this area has been increasing in recent years. This chapter will discuss the growing body of research on the processes associated with leaving the gang. Specifically, it will review difficulties associated with defining gang desistance, theoretical perspectives on desistance, variations in motives, methods, and consequences of leaving, barriers to desistance, as well as make recommendations for policy and future research.


The Punishment Marketplace: Competing For Capitalized Power In Locally Controlled Immigration Enforcement, Daniel L. Stageman Oct 2017

The Punishment Marketplace: Competing For Capitalized Power In Locally Controlled Immigration Enforcement, Daniel L. Stageman

Publications and Research

Neoliberal economics play a significant role in US social organization, imposing market logics on public services and driving the cultural valorization of free market ideology. The neoliberal ‘project of inequality’ is upheld by an authoritarian system of punishment built around the social control of the underclass—among them unauthorized immigrants. This work lays out the theory of the punishment marketplace: a conceptualization of how US systems of punishment both enable the neoliberal project of inequality, and are themselves subject to market colonization. The theory describes the rescaling of federal authority to local centers of political power. Criminal justice policy activism ...


The Scale Of Imprisonment In The United States: Twentieth Century Patterns And Twenty-First Century Prospects, Franklin E. Zimring Oct 2017

The Scale Of Imprisonment In The United States: Twentieth Century Patterns And Twenty-First Century Prospects, Franklin E. Zimring

Franklin E. Zimring

No abstract provided.


Kids, Groups And Crime: Some Implications Of A Well-Known Secret, Franklin E. Zimring Oct 2017

Kids, Groups And Crime: Some Implications Of A Well-Known Secret, Franklin E. Zimring

Franklin E. Zimring

No abstract provided.


Declining Homicide In New York City: A Tale Of Two Trends, Jeffrey Fagan, Franklin E. Zimring, June Kim Oct 2017

Declining Homicide In New York City: A Tale Of Two Trends, Jeffrey Fagan, Franklin E. Zimring, June Kim

Franklin E. Zimring

Part of a special issue on why crime is decreasing. The writers discuss the extent and causes of the decline in life threatening violence in New York City over a five-year period. In its relative and absolute magnitude, the falls in homicide in New York after 1992 were by far the biggest in the city's postwar history. The patterns for homicide during the decline differ in terms of location, weapon, and demography. The patterns show that there are two separate trends in nongun and gun homicides. The decline in gun homicides could probably be attributed to police intervention, but ...


Unpacking The Mind Of Evil: A Sociological Perspective On The Role Of Intent And Motivations In Genocide, Timothy Williams, Dominik Pfeiffer Oct 2017

Unpacking The Mind Of Evil: A Sociological Perspective On The Role Of Intent And Motivations In Genocide, Timothy Williams, Dominik Pfeiffer

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

For quite some time, theories on the role of intent in genocide were conceptually frozen in polarised liberal and post-liberal, or purpose- and knowledge-based approaches, respectively. In accordance with recent criminological thought that moves beyond the narrow debate, this article develops a new sociological perspective on the role of intent in genocide. Drawing on frame analysis it is argued that intent is mainly relevant for framing genocidal action at the macro level. However, individual low-level perpetrators act from a large number of different motivations, of which ideologies of intent are only one. Others range from obedience to authority, coercion and ...


Child And Adolescent Commercial Sexual Exploitation In Mexico: The Exploiters And The State, Sonia M. Frias, Mariajosé Gómez-Zaldívar Oct 2017

Child And Adolescent Commercial Sexual Exploitation In Mexico: The Exploiters And The State, Sonia M. Frias, Mariajosé Gómez-Zaldívar

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

Commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is a form of violence in which children, mainly girls and female adolescents, are reduced to sexual objects for rent. In this study, we argue that the concept of who is an exploiter must be broadened to include everyone who directly or indirectly benefits from CSEC. This paper is based on life stories of 10 female residents from a shelter, which we call Casa Libertad (a fictitious name) in Mexico City, for female victims of violence. Researchers also used semi-structured interviews with experts on CSEC to examine the exploiters' profiles. The research challenges the ...


Ted Kaczynski: Evil Or Insane?, Drew C. Warren Oct 2017

Ted Kaczynski: Evil Or Insane?, Drew C. Warren

Student Publications

Explores the life of the infamous Unabomber, and demonstrates why his manifesto on society and his extraordinary intelligence makes him the most unique and brilliant serial killer in United States history.