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Full-Text Articles in Criminology

Alternative Approaches To Police Interventions When Responding To Mental Health Crises Incidents, Karen Rivera Apolinar May 2023

Alternative Approaches To Police Interventions When Responding To Mental Health Crises Incidents, Karen Rivera Apolinar

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Purpose: This study explored mental health workers perspectives on alternative approaches in responding to mental health crises.

The study was carried out in Southern California, in collaboration with mental health workers who currently work or previously have worked in mental health crisis. It adopted a post-positivists paradigm and data was gathered through individual interviews with mental health workers who have direct experience with mental health crisis response in the community and with the police. The twenty participants in the study were men and women working in the mental health field, and of various backgrounds, licensures, and ages.

The study found …


Investigating Key Risk Factors Across Violent And Non-Violent Extremists In The United States, Leevia Dillon Feb 2023

Investigating Key Risk Factors Across Violent And Non-Violent Extremists In The United States, Leevia Dillon

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Problem Statement: This study investigated risk factors commonly highlighted by prior studies and risk assessment tools (e.g., Violent Extremism Risk Assessment Version 2 (VERA-2) and Extremism Risk Guidance 22+ (ERG22+)). It compared the risk factors across and within two groups – violent extremists (i.e., jihadists and far-right extremists) and non-violent extremists (i.e., jihadists and far-right financial/material support crime extremists) in the U.S. Jihadists and far-rightists are the two greatest security threats facing the U.S., and the findings can aid counterterrorism efforts on assessment development, identifying effective risk factors across varying groups, and assessing violence risk. Research Questions/Objectives: This study aimed …


Statement From The Indiana Academy Of The Social Sciences And Board Of Directors Dec 2022

Statement From The Indiana Academy Of The Social Sciences And Board Of Directors

Midwest Social Sciences Journal

No abstract provided.


Editors' Note, Nirupama Devaraj, Bharath Ganesh Babu Dec 2022

Editors' Note, Nirupama Devaraj, Bharath Ganesh Babu

Midwest Social Sciences Journal

No abstract provided.


Mission And Editorial Policy Dec 2022

Mission And Editorial Policy

Midwest Social Sciences Journal

No abstract provided.


Author Biographical Notes Dec 2022

Author Biographical Notes

Midwest Social Sciences Journal

No abstract provided.


Reviewers And Referees Dec 2022

Reviewers And Referees

Midwest Social Sciences Journal

No abstract provided.


Submission Guidelines Dec 2022

Submission Guidelines

Midwest Social Sciences Journal

No abstract provided.


Volume 25, Full Contents Dec 2022

Volume 25, Full Contents

Midwest Social Sciences Journal

No abstract provided.


Of Movements And Markets: Religious Competition And The Problem Of Black Church Relevance, Omar M. Mcroberts Dec 2022

Of Movements And Markets: Religious Competition And The Problem Of Black Church Relevance, Omar M. Mcroberts

Midwest Social Sciences Journal

Why do cross-denominational public religious movements such as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference appear, despite the market-like competitive behavior of churches? Religious economy theory offers one set of explanations, based on a supply-side approach to the dynamics of numeric religious growth and decline. Namely, ecumenical movements are engaged by denominations, or religious firms, in membership decline. The history of national Black ecumenical movements, however, points to ways that religious economic theorizing fails to account for the multiple modes of social consciousness regarding church survival that motivate institutional religious activity. Black churches have existed not merely as a market but as …


Examining The Impact Of The Covid-19 Pandemic On Violent Crime In The City Of Pittsburgh, Brittany Urban Dec 2022

Examining The Impact Of The Covid-19 Pandemic On Violent Crime In The City Of Pittsburgh, Brittany Urban

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this research is to examine patterns of Part I crimes [including Part I Person/Violent: Homicide, Rape, Aggravated Assault, and Robbery, and Part I Property: Burglary, Larceny-Theft, Motor Vehicle Theft, and Arson, as defined by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Standards] in The City of Pittsburgh, framing the COVID-19 pandemic as a major stressor that Robert Agnew’s General Strain Theory suggests may lead to increased opportunity for crime, due to the perceived unjustness of the associated lockdown orders and potential incentive for criminal coping (Agnew 1992). This descriptive analysis is based primarily upon …


White Savior Projects: An Examination Of The Antitrafficking Social Movement, Jennifer A. Cheek Dec 2022

White Savior Projects: An Examination Of The Antitrafficking Social Movement, Jennifer A. Cheek

Theses and Dissertations

For this dissertation, I conduct an ethnography of three antitrafficking programs; interview 38 activists and survivors of trafficking; and analyze organizational texts, websites, and social media. I examine the history of the antitrafficking movement. Among the three organizations, activists provide housing; food, clothing, and hygiene items; medical services; mental health services and counseling; mentorship; education for survivors; a 24-hour hotline; outreach; case management and referrals; training for law enforcement; a drop-in center; and education and awareness events. I examine activists’ diagnostic, prognostic, and motivational framing of sex trafficking, and other framing tactics, such as frame alignment, frame diffusion, frame resonance, …


Thematic Consistency Between Criminal History And Crime Scene Behaviors: Comparing Sexual Homicide Offenders With And Without Criminal Histories Of Sexual Offenses, Shannon E. Ettinger Dec 2022

Thematic Consistency Between Criminal History And Crime Scene Behaviors: Comparing Sexual Homicide Offenders With And Without Criminal Histories Of Sexual Offenses, Shannon E. Ettinger

Student Theses

Offender profiling research suggests that offenders may display behavioral consistency, meaning they may behave in some consistent manner between their crime scene actions and other aspects of their lives. Through behavioral themes, researchers can identify consistency in groups of individual behaviors that are thematically similar. Previous literature successfully applied the Expressive/Instrumental themes to homicide crime scene behaviors and criminal history. The current study aims to apply the Expressive/Instrumental thematic approach to analyzing the relationship between sexual homicide offender’s criminal history and their crime scene behaviors. The present study focuses on the distinction between sexual homicide offenders with a history of …


“Elder Scam” Risk Profiles: Individual And Situational Factors Of Younger And Older Age Groups’ Fraud Victimization, Katalin Parti Nov 2022

“Elder Scam” Risk Profiles: Individual And Situational Factors Of Younger And Older Age Groups’ Fraud Victimization, Katalin Parti

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

In an attempt to understand how differently fraud works depending on a victim’s age, we have examined the effects of situational (lifestyle-routine activities), self-control, and sociodemographic variables on scam victimization across age groups. The analysis was carried out on a national sample of 2,558 Americans, representative by age, sex, and race, and includes additional factors such as their education, living arrangement, employment, and propensity for reporting a crime or asking for help. The results substantiate research findings of the contribution of self-control and LRAT in predicting victimization in general but could not identify major situational and individual differences between older …


Emerging Trends In Cybercrime Awareness In Nigeria, Ogochukwu Favour Nzeakor, Bonaventure N. Nwokeoma, Ibrahim Hassan, Benjamin Okorie Ajah, John T. Okpa Nov 2022

Emerging Trends In Cybercrime Awareness In Nigeria, Ogochukwu Favour Nzeakor, Bonaventure N. Nwokeoma, Ibrahim Hassan, Benjamin Okorie Ajah, John T. Okpa

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

The study examined the current trend in cybercrime awareness and the relationship such trend has with cybercrime vulnerability or victimization. Selecting a sample of 1104 Internet users from Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria, We found that: 1) awareness of information security was high in that about 2 in every 3 (68%) participants demonstrated a favorable awareness of information security and cybercrime. It was, however, revealed that such a high level of awareness could be partial and weak. 2) most Internet users demonstrated the awareness of fraud-related cybercrime categories (39%), e-theft (15%), hacking (12%), and ATM theft (10%). However, they were rarely …


Understanding Deviance And Victimization In Cyber Space Among Diverse Populations, Insun Park Nov 2022

Understanding Deviance And Victimization In Cyber Space Among Diverse Populations, Insun Park

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Recent years have witnessed a growing academic interest in deviance and victimization in the cyber space. The current issue of the International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence and Cybercrime features three empirical research articles on online behavior of traditionally under-researched populations and a review of much waited book on digital forensics and investigation. This paper was prepared to introduce these important scholarly works in the context of newly emerging scholarship that focuses on the experiences of diverse subgroups in cyberspace.


Aggressive Reality Docuseries And Cyberbullying: A Partial Test Of Glaser’S Differential Identification Theory, J. Ra’Chel Fowler, Darren R. Beneby, Kenethia L. Fuller Nov 2022

Aggressive Reality Docuseries And Cyberbullying: A Partial Test Of Glaser’S Differential Identification Theory, J. Ra’Chel Fowler, Darren R. Beneby, Kenethia L. Fuller

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Reality docuseries have dominated primetime airwaves for the greater part of three decades. However, little is known about how viewers who are enamored with the genre’s most aggressive characters are influenced. Using Glaser’s (1956) theory of differential identification, this study employs survey data from 210 college students at a historically Black college and university to explore whether identification with characters from aggressive reality docuseries (ARDs) and the frequency of viewing ARD are positively associated with cyberbullying. Results of multivariate analyses revealed that men were more likely than women to publicly shame others and air other’s dirty laundry online. Additionally, the …


Book Review: Digital Forensics And Cyber Investigation Nov 2022

Book Review: Digital Forensics And Cyber Investigation

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

No abstract provided.


Event-Related Potentials Of Individuals With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Performing The Attention Network Task, P. Dennis Rodriguez, Justin E. Stauffacher Oct 2022

Event-Related Potentials Of Individuals With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Performing The Attention Network Task, P. Dennis Rodriguez, Justin E. Stauffacher

Midwest Social Sciences Journal

The current study sought to investigate the neural basis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by examining the performance of individuals with ADHD on the Attentional Networks Test (ANT) by Fan, McCandliss, Sommer, Raz, and Posner (2002), while recording electroencephalography (EEG) utilizing event-related potentials (ERP) methodology. Fifty-seven university students were divided into three groups: control, ADHD-inattentive subtype (ADHD-IA), and ADHD-combined/hyperactive impulsive subtype (ADHD-C/HI). The average peak amplitudes of the P300 waveform for each group were compared and analyzed for performance on each attention network measured by the ANT: the alerting network, the orienting network, and the executive control network. The average P3 …


A Multi-Site Study Of Firearms Displays By Police At Use Of Force Incidents, Timothy Cubitt, Justin Nix Oct 2022

A Multi-Site Study Of Firearms Displays By Police At Use Of Force Incidents, Timothy Cubitt, Justin Nix

Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

The power to use force is a defining characteristic of policing, one that is accompanied by a responsibility to exercise these powers in the circumstances deemed necessary. This study analyzes data from four policing agencies to predict the likelihood of an officer drawing and pointing their firearm at a use of force incident. Findings suggest that situational factors were important in influencing whether an officer may draw and point their firearm. However, a priming effect, in which officers were more likely to draw their firearms when dispatched to an incident, may also be present. The rate that officers drew and …


The Spatial Concentration, Stability, And Specialization Of Mental Health Calls For Service: Evidence In Support Of Proactive, Place-Based Interventions, Jacek Koziarski Oct 2022

The Spatial Concentration, Stability, And Specialization Of Mental Health Calls For Service: Evidence In Support Of Proactive, Place-Based Interventions, Jacek Koziarski

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

For many decades the police have been the de facto responders to persons with perceived mental illness (PwPMI). However, having the police in this role has come with negative repercussions for PwPMI, such as disproportionately experiencing criminalization and use of force. In recognizing these issues, the police—and more recently, the community—have developed responses that either seek to improve interactions between the police and PwPMI or remove the police from this role altogether. However, in either case, these efforts are reactive in nature, responding to crises that arguably could have been prevented had a timelier intervention taken place. Further, evidence on …


Different Maternal Responses And Cognitions In Hypothetical Power Bouts: Relations To Parenting Styles, Kathy L. Ritchie Oct 2022

Different Maternal Responses And Cognitions In Hypothetical Power Bouts: Relations To Parenting Styles, Kathy L. Ritchie

Midwest Social Sciences Journal

In order to explore how parental styles and maternal cognitions interacted with difficult extended discipline episodes called power bouts, 88 mothers were categorized as either Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive, or Uninvolved. Mothers then read six hypothetical vignettes about a 4-year-old child misbehaving and were asked how they would respond to the child and how they would respond a second time if the child did not behave. These open-ended responses were coded on a scale of increasing power assertiveness with 0 being giving in and 5 indicating using punishment through spanking, removal of privilege, or time out. Using Bell and Chapman’s (1986) …


Police Officers Arrested For Driving Under The Influence, 2005-2017, Leah M. Jolliffe, Chloe A. Wentzlof, Philip M. Stinson Sep 2022

Police Officers Arrested For Driving Under The Influence, 2005-2017, Leah M. Jolliffe, Chloe A. Wentzlof, Philip M. Stinson

Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

Presentation at the Annual Meeting of the Midwestern Criminal Justice Association in Chicago, IL, on September 22, 2022.


Driving While Female: An Exploratory Study Examining Law Enforcement’S Abuse Of Power Against Female Drivers, 2005-2017, Alexa J. Sir Louis, Chloe A. Wentzlof, Philip M. Stinson Sep 2022

Driving While Female: An Exploratory Study Examining Law Enforcement’S Abuse Of Power Against Female Drivers, 2005-2017, Alexa J. Sir Louis, Chloe A. Wentzlof, Philip M. Stinson

Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

Presentation at the Annual Meeting of the Midwestern Criminal Justice Association in Chicago, IL, on September 22, 2022.


Police Crime Committed In Tandem: An Exploration Of The Interconnectedness Of Offenses Committed By Law Enforcement Officers, 2005-2017, Jonathan R. Kutz, Chloe A. Wentzlof, Philip M. Stinson Sep 2022

Police Crime Committed In Tandem: An Exploration Of The Interconnectedness Of Offenses Committed By Law Enforcement Officers, 2005-2017, Jonathan R. Kutz, Chloe A. Wentzlof, Philip M. Stinson

Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

Presentation at the Annual Meeting of the Midwestern Criminal Justice Association in Chicago, IL, on September 22, 2022.


Faith-Based Addiction Treatment Programs And The Drug Courts, Christopher J. Boosey Sep 2022

Faith-Based Addiction Treatment Programs And The Drug Courts, Christopher J. Boosey

Liberty University Journal of Statesmanship & Public Policy

Addiction treatment programs are a major part of the Drug Courts system as under this system, addiction treatment and rehabilitation are used in an attempt to address the root causes of crime with the intent to reducing recidivism rates. Trends in research are beginning to show that faith-based addiction treatment programs are more effective than comparable secular programs. However, there are constitutional issues that prevent these programs being awarded by the drug courts without a comparable, secular alternative. This essay reviews relevant research on the comparable efficacy of faith-based and secular addiction programs and the constitutional issues related to the …


Does Procedural Justice Reduce The Harmful Effects Of Perceived Ineffectiveness On Police Legitimacy?, Yongjae Nam, Scott E. Wolfe, Justin Nix Sep 2022

Does Procedural Justice Reduce The Harmful Effects Of Perceived Ineffectiveness On Police Legitimacy?, Yongjae Nam, Scott E. Wolfe, Justin Nix

Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

Objectives: Judgments about police procedural fairness consistently have a stronger influence on how the public ascribes legitimacy to the police than evaluations of police effectiveness. What remains largely underexplored, however, is the potential moderating effect of procedural justice on the relationship between effectiveness and legitimacy and whether this moderation varies by citizen race. Method: We administered two separate surveys to determine whether procedural justice's moderating effect on the relationship between police ineffectiveness and legitimacy varies by citizen race. The first was a mail survey of a random sample of citizens in a southern US city (N=1,681) conducted in 2013; the …


Mitigating The Harm Of Public Mass Shooting Incidents Through Situational Crime Prevention, Emily Greene-Colozzi Sep 2022

Mitigating The Harm Of Public Mass Shooting Incidents Through Situational Crime Prevention, Emily Greene-Colozzi

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation used environmental theoretical frameworks to understand how public mass shooting incidents are impacted by aspects of the crime situation and opportunity. Predatory, public shootings perpetrated by individuals with evidence of mass intent were examined in the United States between 1966 and 2019. This project progressed in several distinct steps with discrete aims: (1) establish an open source database of public mass shooting incidents meeting definitional criteria; (2) perform statistical analysis, including latent class analysis, regression modeling, and structural equational modeling to assess research questions; and (3) perform comparative case studies and crime script analysis to assess situational crime …


Aging On Parole: An Empirical Analysis Of Reentry, Reintegration, And Life Satisfaction, Angela Silletti Murolo Sep 2022

Aging On Parole: An Empirical Analysis Of Reentry, Reintegration, And Life Satisfaction, Angela Silletti Murolo

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

As the prison population grays, so too does the people leaving prison. In New Jersey and New York, 35% and 26% of people on parole are over the age of 50 respectively. While older persons have lower recidivism rates compared to younger persons, there are physical, mental, and societal challenges that come with advancing age that can make reentry and reintegration a particularly difficult experience compared to younger persons. The aim of this dissertation is to explore the experiences of older adults on parole and the parole officers that assist them in their reentry and reintegration.

This study is unique …


Dynamics Of Dark Web Financial Marketplaces: An Exploratory Study Of Underground Fraud And Scam Business, Bo Ra Jung, Kyung-Shick Choi, Claire Seungeun Lee Aug 2022

Dynamics Of Dark Web Financial Marketplaces: An Exploratory Study Of Underground Fraud And Scam Business, Bo Ra Jung, Kyung-Shick Choi, Claire Seungeun Lee

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

The number of Dark Web financial marketplaces where Dark Web users and sellers actively trade illegal goods and services anonymously has been growing exponentially in recent years. The Dark Web has expanded illegal activities via selling various illicit products, from hacked credit cards to stolen crypto accounts. This study aims to delineate the characteristics of the Dark Web financial market and its scams. Data were derived from leading Dark Web financial websites, including Hidden Wiki, Onion List, and Dark Web Wiki, using Dark Web search engines. The study combines statistical analysis with thematic analysis of Dark Web content. Offering promotions …