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Full-Text Articles in Criminology

Islamic Terrorism In The United States – The Association Of Religious Fundamentalism With Social Isolation & Paths Leading To Extreme Violence Through Processes Of Radicalization., Shay Shiran Jun 2018

Islamic Terrorism In The United States – The Association Of Religious Fundamentalism With Social Isolation & Paths Leading To Extreme Violence Through Processes Of Radicalization., Shay Shiran

Student Theses

This exploratory study focuses on identifying motivations for religious terrorism and Islamic terrorism in the United States in particular. Terrorism is a crime of extreme violence with the end purpose of political influence. This crime is challenging to encounter for its multi-faced characteristics, the unusual motivations of its actors, and their semi-militant conduct. The hypothesis of this study asserts that religious terrorists are radicalized by passing from fundamental to extreme devout agendas, caused by isolation from the dominant society, and resulted in high potential to impose those agendas by extreme violence. Under the theoretical framework of subculture in criminology, this ...


Formerly Incarcerated Adults In Higher Education: A Life-History Study Of A Restorative Approach To Prisoner Reentry, Robert Michael Ehnow May 2018

Formerly Incarcerated Adults In Higher Education: A Life-History Study Of A Restorative Approach To Prisoner Reentry, Robert Michael Ehnow

Dissertations

The U.S. is the world’s “leading jailer” with both the highest incarceration rate and the largest number of prisoners. Each year more than 700,000 inmates are released from prison and re-enter their communities. The majority of released prisoners lack the necessary education, work experience, and life skills to successfully reintegrate back into society.

One alternative to the retributive model of justice used in the United States is a restorative justice strategy. A restorative approach to prisoner reintegration seeks to re-establish community support and acceptance for criminal offenders in order to allow them to become beneficial members of ...


Lethal Water Switch: A Matter For Criminology, Jordan A. Kaset May 2018

Lethal Water Switch: A Matter For Criminology, Jordan A. Kaset

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Electric Light: Automating The Carceral State During The Quantification Of Everything, R. Joshua Scannell May 2018

Electric Light: Automating The Carceral State During The Quantification Of Everything, R. Joshua Scannell

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation traces the rise of digitally-driven policing technologies in order to make sense of how prevailing logics of governance are transformed by ubiquitous computing technology. Beginning in the early 1990s, police departments and theorists began to rely on increasingly detailed sets of metrics to evaluate performance. The adoption of digital technology to streamline quantitative evaluation coincided with a steep decline in measured crime that served as a proof-of-concept for the effectivity of digital police surveillance and analytics systems. During the turbulent first two decades of the 21st century, such digital technologies were increasingly associated with reform projects designed ...


Policing For The Community, Jeffrey Munoz May 2018

Policing For The Community, Jeffrey Munoz

Senior Honors Projects

As a society, we are currently in a period of time where the community reflects their dissatisfaction with law enforcement by staging protests, organizing groups who demand change and unfortunately at times displaying a degree of violence towards authority. These issues are products of controversial police shootings like those of the killings of Tamir rice, Freddie Gray and Eric Garner in which all demonstrated a reasonable degree of uncertainty. The fact of the matter lies within the officers’ actions as they manifest an inherent racial bias seen one to many times by populations that have been oppressed throughout history. The ...


Crimmigration, Deportability And The Social Exclusion Of Noncitizen Immigrants, Shirley P. Leyro, Daniel L. Stageman Apr 2018

Crimmigration, Deportability And The Social Exclusion Of Noncitizen Immigrants, Shirley P. Leyro, Daniel L. Stageman

Publications and Research

The spread of crimmigration policies, practices, and rhetoric represents an economically rational strategy and has significant implications for the lived experience of noncitizen immigrants. This study draws up in-depth interviews of immigrants with a range of legal statuses to describe the mechanics through which immigrants internalize and respond to the fear of deportation, upon which crimmigration strategies rely. The fear of deportation and its behavioral effects extend beyond undocumented or criminally convicted immigrants, encompassing lawful permanent residents and naturalized citizens alike. This fear causes immigrants to refuse to use public services, endure labor exploitation, and avoid public spaces, resulting in ...


The Relationships Among Moral Judgement, Social Identification, And Stigmitization, Rebecca Isaacs Apr 2018

The Relationships Among Moral Judgement, Social Identification, And Stigmitization, Rebecca Isaacs

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Stigma has had a perceived link with the concept of morality since the Grecian era (Goffman, 1963). The purpose of this study was to see if there was a correlation between moral judgement (using the Defining Issues Test 2; DIT2), social identification (using the Identification with all Humanity Scale; IWAHS) and stigma attributions toward those with mental illness. Specifically, whether those with a heightened sense of identification with all humanity and more developed moral judgement schemas are less likely to make negative stigma attributions toward persons with mental illness. The results this study supported correlations between those variables and the ...


The Predictors Of Juvenile Recidivism: Testimonies Of Adult Students 18 Years And Older Exiting From Alternative Education, La Toshia Palmer Apr 2018

The Predictors Of Juvenile Recidivism: Testimonies Of Adult Students 18 Years And Older Exiting From Alternative Education, La Toshia Palmer

Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose of this descriptive, qualitative study was to identify and describe the importance of the predictors of juvenile recidivism and the effectiveness of efforts to prevent/avoid juvenile recidivism as perceived by previously detained, arrested, convicted, and/or incarcerated adult students 18 years of age and older exiting from alternative education in Northern California. A second purpose was to explore the types of support provided by alternative schools and the perceived importance of the support to avoid recidivism according to adult students 18 years of age and older exiting from alternative education.

Methodology: This qualitative, descriptive research design ...


Attitudes Toward Prisoners: An Introductory Study, Kathleen Geyer Apr 2018

Attitudes Toward Prisoners: An Introductory Study, Kathleen Geyer

Honors Thesis Projects

The United States has the largest prison population in the world and it just seems to keep growing (Tsai & Scommegna 2012). The current research focuses on attitudes toward prisoners and how that may influence someone’s likelihood of returning to prison. Attitudes toward prisoners was measured using the Attitudes Toward Prisoners scale (ATP). The research hypotheses are as follows: 1) females and people of color will have higher original ATP scores than males and whites; 2) people who have experienced discrimination and/or have some connection to the prison system will have higher original ATP scores than those who have not; 3) that people who viewed the Bryan Stevenson Common Book Convocation will have higher original ATP scores than those who did not view the convocation; 4) the scores for the Tendency to Forgive scale (TTF) and for the ATP will be positively related (when one score is higher, the other score will also be higher ...


Topical Analysis Of The Enron Emails Using Graph Theory, Casey Kalinowski Apr 2018

Topical Analysis Of The Enron Emails Using Graph Theory, Casey Kalinowski

Student Scholar Showcase

The Enron Scandal of the early 2000s shook the financial world. The subsequent investigation of the Enron Corporation resulted in the arrests of many top-level executives, but are these employees the only ones responsible for the wide scale fraud in the company? A topical analysis of a social network of over 150 employees of the Enron Corporation using Graph Theory could result in new findings or prove that the investigators were correct in their original findings. The research is a retrospective analysis of a corpus of over 500,000 emails from more than 150 employees and top-level executives of the ...


The Effects Of Prior Education On The Success Of Inmates In Prison Education Programs, Jayden Barth, Lisa Kort-Butler Apr 2018

The Effects Of Prior Education On The Success Of Inmates In Prison Education Programs, Jayden Barth, Lisa Kort-Butler

UCARE Research Products

This study examined the relationship among an inmate’s prior education level, work history, and his/her success in a prison education and training program. Success in prison education and training programs in this study was defined as a positive change in job readiness skills, selfcontrol, and self-esteem.

The study took a mixed-methods approach, based on secondary data analysis. Data came from a faithbased organization which currently facilitates a life skills/job readiness program in some Nebraska prisons and jails. (244 men, 193 women)

Quantitative Data: • No significant relationship between prior education or prior incarceration and the success in the ...


Criminal Justice Reform In The 21st Century: An Exploration Of The Legislation Behind Connecticut's Second Chance Society, Molly Nichols Apr 2018

Criminal Justice Reform In The 21st Century: An Exploration Of The Legislation Behind Connecticut's Second Chance Society, Molly Nichols

Senior Theses and Projects

No abstract provided.


Gatekeeping Decriminalization Of Prostitution: The Ubiquitous Influence Of The New Zealand Prostitutes' Collective, Janice G. Raymond Apr 2018

Gatekeeping Decriminalization Of Prostitution: The Ubiquitous Influence Of The New Zealand Prostitutes' Collective, Janice G. Raymond

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

This article explores the activities of The New Zealand Prostitutes' Collective (NZPC) in promoting decriminalization of prostitution and its role in gatekeeping this legislation. The NZPC has loomed large in the government’s evaluations of the decriminalization legislation known as the Prostitution Reform Act (PRA). It has collected information, partnered on the research team appointed by the Ministry of Justice to conduct the research, and ultimately secured seats as evaluators on the Prostitution Law Review Committee (PLRC) charged with assessing the research and making recommendations. Much of its outsized influence on the research and conclusions of this report is demonstrated ...


Family Impact Seminar 2018: The Kids Are Not All Right: Policy Options To Address Youth Trauma In Massachusetts, Denise A. Hines Ph.D, Laurie Ross Ph.D, Marianne Sarkis Ph.D Mar 2018

Family Impact Seminar 2018: The Kids Are Not All Right: Policy Options To Address Youth Trauma In Massachusetts, Denise A. Hines Ph.D, Laurie Ross Ph.D, Marianne Sarkis Ph.D

Mosakowski Institute for Public Enterprise

Family Impact Seminars are a series of annual seminars, briefing reports, and discussion sessions that provide up-to-date, solution-oriented research on current issues for state legislators and their aides. The seminars provide objective, nonpartisan research on current issues and do not lobby for particular policies. Seminar participants discuss policy options and identify common ground where it exists.

The Kids are NOT All Right: Policy Options to Address Youth Trauma in Massachusetts is the ninth Massachusetts Family Impact Seminar. Today’s seminar is designed to emphasize a family perspective in policymaking on issues related to early intervention in childhood trauma, sex trafficking ...


Reducing Recidivism In At-Risk Urban Youth Through Lyrical Expression Therapy: A Qualitative Program Evaluation, Margaret Goldman Mar 2018

Reducing Recidivism In At-Risk Urban Youth Through Lyrical Expression Therapy: A Qualitative Program Evaluation, Margaret Goldman

National Youth-At-Risk Conference Savannah

This presentation examines a hip-hop-based lyrical expression intervention program as a mechanism of recidivism reduction, particularly for minority youth offenders. Analyses of qualitative data indicate that the program empowers at-risk minority youth to make positive life changes while using the familiarity of hip-hop subculture to establish a comfortable learning environment. Attendees interested in juvenile justice will benefit from this presentation.


Up In Flames: Criminal Expertise And Far-Left Extremism, Michael K. Logan Mar 2018

Up In Flames: Criminal Expertise And Far-Left Extremism, Michael K. Logan

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

This paper examines the decision-making processes of far-left extremists involved in arson and incendiary violence. The paper pays specific attention to the manner in which offenders draw upon prior knowledge and ‘expertise’ in planning and/or execution the attack. Drawing upon a sample of 195 self-reported communiques, the results suggest offenders rely on two types of criminal expertise to inform their decision to become involved in a violent act. First, perceptual expertise describes differential thinking patterns related to the crime setting. Second, procedural expertise involves the knowledge and skills aimed at enacting the offense itself. Overall, findings from this study ...


The Harmful Sexual And Non-Sexual Behaviors Of Trafficked Women And Children In Mexico: A Study Of Victims Of Sexual Exploitation, Arun Kumar Acharya, Lilia Susana Padilla Y Sotelo, Jose Juan Cervantes Niño Mar 2018

The Harmful Sexual And Non-Sexual Behaviors Of Trafficked Women And Children In Mexico: A Study Of Victims Of Sexual Exploitation, Arun Kumar Acharya, Lilia Susana Padilla Y Sotelo, Jose Juan Cervantes Niño

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

During the last 17 years, since the adoption of the Palermo Protocol, authorities at international and national levels have investigated and prosecuted trafficking cases, and aided victims. Nevertheless, every day thousands of people around the world are sold, lured with false promises and exploited. In Mexico, 10,000 young girls and women are said to be trafficked into cities for sexual exploitation every year. Trafficked victims suffer a wide range of sexual exploitation, physical and psychological violence, human rights violations including their right to dignity, and cruel and inhumane treatment, creating vulnerability and isolation. To cope, many victims adopt harmful ...


Female Law Enforcement Officer's Experiences Of Workplace Harassment, Vanessa Brodeur Mar 2018

Female Law Enforcement Officer's Experiences Of Workplace Harassment, Vanessa Brodeur

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Prior research shows that female police officers experience more incidents of harassment than male police officers, and these experiences of harassment have been shown to have negative effects on their mental and physical health, retention, and job satisfaction. The current study examined the experiences of harassment of 20 female police officers from agencies around Southern California. A survey interview was used, and it was found that none of the women had experienced quid pro quo harassment, but every woman recalled experiencing environmental harassment at some point throughout their career. Hostility towards women was more commonly experienced than harassment which was ...


Sadomasochism: Descent Into Darkness, Annotated Accounts Of Cases, 1996-2014, Robert Peters Mar 2018

Sadomasochism: Descent Into Darkness, Annotated Accounts Of Cases, 1996-2014, Robert Peters

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

A collection of accounts of sadomasochistic sexual abuse from news reports and scholarly and professional sources about the dark underbelly of sadomasochism and the pornography that contributes to it. It focuses on crimes and other harmful sexual behavior related to the pursuit of sadistic sexual pleasure in North America and the U.K. It is intended to be a resource to educate people about how sadomasochism can lead to harmful and even deadly sadistic sexual behavior.


Introducing The Police Crime Database, Philip M. Stinson, Kathleen Y. Murray Feb 2018

Introducing The Police Crime Database, Philip M. Stinson, Kathleen Y. Murray

Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

There are no official statistics on crime committed by sworn law enforcement officers, and the public is generally without the ability to research the incidence and prevalence of police crime in their own communities. The Police Crime database is designed to fill that gap, and provides internet-based public access to summary information on 8,006 criminal arrest cases during years 2005-2012 involving 6,596 sworn officers who were charged with one or more crimes. The arrested officers were employed by 2,830 nonfederal law enforcement agencies located in 1,302 counties and independent cities in all 50 states and the ...


Attitudes Toward Mental Illness: A Study Among Law Enforcement Officers In The South And Southwest United States, Ashley N. Montano, Brooke Barfield Feb 2018

Attitudes Toward Mental Illness: A Study Among Law Enforcement Officers In The South And Southwest United States, Ashley N. Montano, Brooke Barfield

Papers & Publications: Interdisciplinary Journal of Undergraduate Research

Ashley Montano

Brooke Barfield

The objective of the current study was to evaluate factors that may affect law enforcement officer’s attitudes toward the mentally ill. Through the use of a self-administered questionnaire officers in California, Colorado and Florida reported their perceptions of mental illness, specialized training they received, and any personal or family experiences with mental illness. Our findings suggest officers that reported having a parent who is mentally ill were more likely to have positive attitudes in comparison to officers who did not have these relationships. We also found limited support for a gender difference in attitudes towards ...


Contemporary Archaeological Looting: A Criminological Analysis Of Italian Tomb Robbers, Marc Balcells Magrans Feb 2018

Contemporary Archaeological Looting: A Criminological Analysis Of Italian Tomb Robbers, Marc Balcells Magrans

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Looters (in Italian, tombaroli), whether underground or underwater, have preyed on the Italian archaeology for centuries. The literature on both archaeological looting and, more specifically, the Italian case, has been widely developed by other disciplines, mostly archaeology. In spite of this body of literature, the number of studies discussing issues related to tombaroli is minimal, and the criminological contribution is nonexistent. After examining important gaps in the literature, this study explains the nature of the relationship between tombaroli and organized crime and how organized criminals learn and adapt during their careers. These topics have been both misrepresented and sporadically dealt ...


Theoretical Explanations Of Jyoshi Kousei ("Jk Business") In Japan, Mutsumi Ogaki Feb 2018

Theoretical Explanations Of Jyoshi Kousei ("Jk Business") In Japan, Mutsumi Ogaki

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

Jyoshi kousei (JK) means high school girls in Japanese and “JK business” is an umbrella term for commercial activities done by high school girls to provide male customers with sexual arousal. The “JK business” is considered to promote sexual exploitation or sexual assault of minors. Currently, only two prefectures out of 47 in Japan enforce ordinances that specifically regulate the “JK business.” This paper intends to explore possible theoretical explanations of the “JK business” to raise awareness on the issue. Gendered pathways theory and sexual script theory are selected as the primary source of the discussions. Policy implications and future ...


Correctional Officers, Step Off The Treadmill Of Power: The Lack Of Moral Authority In U.S. Correctional Officers, Kavida Naidu Jan 2018

Correctional Officers, Step Off The Treadmill Of Power: The Lack Of Moral Authority In U.S. Correctional Officers, Kavida Naidu

Power, Voice, Mandate: Moral Authority in the Contemporary Age

The abuse of authority and power is commonly encountered in different institutions. Similarly, prisons are not immune to the overuse of authority and power. Correctional officers exercise their authority on inmates in ways that result in a prison culture, which is filled with violence and dehumanization. Correctional officers often consider inmates as morally inferior beings, who deserve to be punished beyond sentence, for the crimes that they have committed are inexcusable. However, the abrasive environment of prisons places correctional officers in a situation where they eventually adopt the prison identity and find themselves trapped in this brutish incarcerated culture. This ...


Initiation, Desistence, And Recovery: A Qualitative Examination Of Self-Injury From A Life-Course Perspective, Thomas W. Wojciechowski Jan 2018

Initiation, Desistence, And Recovery: A Qualitative Examination Of Self-Injury From A Life-Course Perspective, Thomas W. Wojciechowski

The Qualitative Report

Self-injury is typically defined as the intentional harm caused to one’s own body. This phenomenon has historically been studied mainly from a psychological perspective and has focused less on social forces related to engagement in this behavior. While research on self-injury has examined etiology extensively, there has yet to be an examination of how changes in exposure to risk and protective factors may lead to changes in self-injury habits. This research uses qualitative interview data from 16 former and current self-injurers to examine self-injury from a life-course criminological perspective (Cullen, Agnew, & Wilcox, 2014). These data allowed for identification of ...


Living With 'Risky' Bodies, Simanti Dasgupta Jan 2018

Living With 'Risky' Bodies, Simanti Dasgupta

Sociology, Anthropology, and Social Work Faculty Publications

In Kolkata, female sex workers’ well-being is overshadowed by practices and conceptions around HIV/AIDS. This article describes an outreach program designed to prevent the spread of HIV infections through condom programming based on a public health initiative, Sonagachi HIV/AIDS Intervention Program (SHIP). However, the identification of female sex workers as a high-risk group for HIV has compounded their existing struggle in which the state medical regime now construes and constructs the women as "risky" bodies in need of targeted intervention. High-risk group status has conferred a kind of hyper-visibility on female sex workers -- unthinkable were it not for ...


Models As Weapons: Review Of Weapons Of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality And Threatens Democracy By Cathy O’Neil (2016), Samuel L. Tunstall Jan 2018

Models As Weapons: Review Of Weapons Of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality And Threatens Democracy By Cathy O’Neil (2016), Samuel L. Tunstall

Numeracy

Cathy O’Neil. Weapons of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality and Threatens Democracy (New York, NY: Crown) 272 pp. ISBN 978-0553418811.

Accessible to a wide readership, Cathy O’Neil’s Weapons of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality and Threatens Democracy provides a lucid yet alarming account of the extensive reach of mathematical models in influencing all of our lives. With a particular eye towards social justice, O’Neil not only warns modelers to be cognizant of the effects of their work on real people—especially vulnerable groups who have less power to fight back—but also ...


High-Risk Behavior: Who's Engaging In It?, Rachel Licata Jan 2018

High-Risk Behavior: Who's Engaging In It?, Rachel Licata

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

Why are people engaging in dangerous behaviors, putting themselves and society at risk, despite the detrimental consequences? I propose that with more years of education completed, an individual is less likely to participate in high-risk behaviors; and also, that those who lived in a two-parent household at age 16 are less likely to engage in these behaviors as well. In this research we analyze 345, unmarried respondents, from the 2004 General Social Survey, all whom have answered questions about their educational attainment, strength in religion, familial formation at age 16, employment status and age through an interview process. The data ...


Police Interrogation, Philip M. Stinson Jan 2018

Police Interrogation, Philip M. Stinson

Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Contact Is A Stronger Predictor Of Attitudes Toward Police Than Race: A State-Of-The-Art Review, Amy Alberton, Kevin M. Gorey Jan 2018

Contact Is A Stronger Predictor Of Attitudes Toward Police Than Race: A State-Of-The-Art Review, Amy Alberton, Kevin M. Gorey

Social Work Publications

Purpose – This scoping review thoroughly scanned research on race, contacts with police and attitudes toward police. An exploratory meta-analysis then assessed the strength of their associations and interaction in Canada and the USA. Key knowledge gaps and specific future research needs, synthetic and primary, were identified. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach – A germinal methodological framework for conducting scoping reviews was used (Arksey and O’Malley, 2005). The authors searched for published or unpublished research over the past 15 years and retrieved 33 eligible surveys, 19 of which were included in a sample-weighted meta-analysis.

Findings – The ...