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Full-Text Articles in Criminology

The Patterns Of Women Serial Killers In A Climate Of Changing Gender Norms, Lizzie Benkart May 2019

The Patterns Of Women Serial Killers In A Climate Of Changing Gender Norms, Lizzie Benkart

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

Existing research suggests that patterns of both men and women serial killers are hyper-gendered. In American society, however, gender norms for women have dramatically changed over time. This study proposes that the patterns of women serial killers reflect the femininity ideals of the time period in which they operated in. The shifts in gender norms are operationalized by three time periods representative of the waves of feminism. The Radford/Florida Gulf Coast University’s serial killer database is used to establish a sample of 1,321 serial killers. Using multivariate regression analyses and controlling for age of last kill, which ...


Review Of The "New" Terrorism: Myths And Reality, Gabriel Rubin Mar 2019

Review Of The "New" Terrorism: Myths And Reality, Gabriel Rubin

Gabriel Rubin

No abstract provided.


Breaking The Prison-Jihadism Pipeline: Prison And Religious Extremism In The War On Terror, Gabriel Rubin Mar 2019

Breaking The Prison-Jihadism Pipeline: Prison And Religious Extremism In The War On Terror, Gabriel Rubin

Gabriel Rubin

No abstract provided.


Fear Or Rage?: Assessing Public Opinion And Policy Responses To Terrorist Attacks, Gabriel Rubin Mar 2019

Fear Or Rage?: Assessing Public Opinion And Policy Responses To Terrorist Attacks, Gabriel Rubin

Gabriel Rubin

Mass fear has been posited as the main emotional outcome of terror attacks. Indeed, the term “terrorism” itself emphasizes that such attacks are meant to stoke fear. Yet, a critical piece of the post-terror attack dynamic has been largely ignored: the public rage that comes in response to terror attacks. Witness the call for politicians to step down after the November 2008 attacks in Mumbai or the placard reading “Nuke ‘Em Till They Glow” at the 2001 World Series. It is the contention of this paper that, after a major terror attack has occurred, the public is more angry than ...


Supplemental Report On The Legal Needs Of Oregonian Seasonal Farmworkers, Aaron Roussell, Barbara Imle, Gisela Rodriguez Fernandez, Wynn Strange Mar 2019

Supplemental Report On The Legal Needs Of Oregonian Seasonal Farmworkers, Aaron Roussell, Barbara Imle, Gisela Rodriguez Fernandez, Wynn Strange

Aaron Roussell

No abstract provided.


Telling A Good Story: The Effects Of Memory Retrieval And Context Processing On Eyewitness Suggestibility, Jessica A. Lapaglia, Jason C.K. Chan Mar 2019

Telling A Good Story: The Effects Of Memory Retrieval And Context Processing On Eyewitness Suggestibility, Jessica A. Lapaglia, Jason C.K. Chan

Jason C.K. Chan

Witnesses are likely to describe a crime many times before testifying or encountering misinformation about that crime. Research examining the effect of retrieval on later suggestibility has yielded mixed results. LaPaglia and Chan manipulated whether misinformation was presented in a narrative or misleading questions, and they found that retrieval increased suggestibility when misinformation was presented in a narrative, but reduced suggestibility when the same misinformation was presented in questions. In the current study, we aimed to address why these differences occurred. Specifically, we examined whether contextual detail and narrative coherence during misinformation exposure influenced the relation between retrieval and suggestibility ...


Screen Culture: A Closer Look At The Impact Of Screen Use On Developmental Outcomes, Dylan Leslie, Joseph Schwartz Phd Mar 2019

Screen Culture: A Closer Look At The Impact Of Screen Use On Developmental Outcomes, Dylan Leslie, Joseph Schwartz Phd

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Excessive screen time among adolescents has long been considered a potential risk factor for a host of negative physical, mental and behavioral outcomes. There are important questions surrounding this association that remain unanswered. The temporal order of the association remains unestablished, as it is fully possible that preexisting physical, mental, and behavioral issues are causing excessive screen use. Similarly, selection bias remains possible, as influences that promote excessive screen use may also, simultaneously, impact negative physical health, mental health, and behavior. Finally, the developmental impact of increased screen time remains relatively unknown, as the majority of existing studies are exclusively ...


Examining Sexual Victimization Among Male And Female Inmates, Sara Toto Mar 2019

Examining Sexual Victimization Among Male And Female Inmates, Sara Toto

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Sexual victimization can be damaging to victims, regardless of where it occurs. Yet, it is especially detrimental when such abuse occurs in the context of incarceration. The consequences of sexual violence occurring in prison are both immediate (i.e., physical pain and increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases) and long-term (i.e., mental health problems and reduced likelihood of successful reentry into society). Studies regarding the prevalence and predictors of such events in prisons are few. This research uses data collected on a sample of male and female prisoners to understand how often sexual perpetration and victimization occurs within ...


Electronically Monitored Youth: Perceptions Of Stigma, Marijana Kotlaja Mar 2019

Electronically Monitored Youth: Perceptions Of Stigma, Marijana Kotlaja

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

This study examines the stigmatizing effects of electronic monitors (EM) among youth currently enrolled in an EM program. EM is viewed as a sanction that is less punitive than incarceration, more cost-effective and provides advantages over other alternatives. A total of 140 participants were randomly assigned to conditions (stigma salient vs. stigma non-salient) for an experiment in which they will be told the purpose of the study is to learn more about their thoughts and behaviors related to wearing an EM. This study can be deemed one of the first assessments to assess stigma consciousness and self-fulfilling prophecy (SFP) as ...


Public Perceptions Of The Police: The Role Of Social Media, Ebonie Epinger Mar 2019

Public Perceptions Of The Police: The Role Of Social Media, Ebonie Epinger

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Policing in the US has come under fire over the past few years due to highly publicized shootings of unarmed black citizens. These events have monopolized the media, which can potentially undermine their legitimacy in the public eye. Extant research has explored the traditional media- such as television news, crime dramas, and crime reality shows- on citizens’ attitudes toward the police, with decidedly mixed results. Given the rise of social media and concern of the potentially biased portrayal of police by such media sources, research is needed which can assess what, if any, effect social media has on individuals’ attitudes ...


Sexual Assault Campus Climate Surveys: Insights From The First Wave, Kristen M. Budd, Alana Van Gundy, Rose Marie Ward, Glenn W. Muschert Mar 2019

Sexual Assault Campus Climate Surveys: Insights From The First Wave, Kristen M. Budd, Alana Van Gundy, Rose Marie Ward, Glenn W. Muschert

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

One tool to help institutions of higher education (IHEs) to address campus sexual assault is the campus climate survey (CCS); yet little is known about the CCS implementation process. This study used a mixed methods approach to examine the implementation process of CCSs deployed during the 2015/16 academic year at 244 IHEs throughout the United States. Quantitative results indicate CCSs were designed primarily by the Title IX officer and campus administration; assessed victimization rates and knowledge about campus resources; and were voluntary. Qualitative findings generate concerns surrounding generalizability, participation rates, validity of data, and suggestions for improvement for future ...


Filling The Sex Trade Swamp: Robert Kraft And His Predecessors, Janice G. Raymond Mar 2019

Filling The Sex Trade Swamp: Robert Kraft And His Predecessors, Janice G. Raymond

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


Mitigations: The Forgotten Side Of The Proportionality Principle, Paul H. Robinson Feb 2019

Mitigations: The Forgotten Side Of The Proportionality Principle, Paul H. Robinson

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In the first change to the Model Penal Code since its promulgation in 1962, the American Law Institute in 2017 set blameworthiness proportionality as the dominant distributive principle for criminal punishment. Empirical studies suggest that this is in fact the principle that ordinary people use in assessing proper punishment. Its adoption as the governing distributive principle makes good sense because it promotes not only the classic desert retributivism of moral philosophers but also crime-control utilitarianism, by enhancing the criminal law’s moral credibility with the community and thereby promoting deference, compliance, acquiescence, and internalization of its norms, rather than suffering ...


Telling A Good Story: The Effects Of Memory Retrieval And Context Processing On Eyewitness Suggestibility, Jessica A. Lapaglia, Jason C.K. Chan Feb 2019

Telling A Good Story: The Effects Of Memory Retrieval And Context Processing On Eyewitness Suggestibility, Jessica A. Lapaglia, Jason C.K. Chan

Psychology Publications

Witnesses are likely to describe a crime many times before testifying or encountering misinformation about that crime. Research examining the effect of retrieval on later suggestibility has yielded mixed results. LaPaglia and Chan manipulated whether misinformation was presented in a narrative or misleading questions, and they found that retrieval increased suggestibility when misinformation was presented in a narrative, but reduced suggestibility when the same misinformation was presented in questions. In the current study, we aimed to address why these differences occurred. Specifically, we examined whether contextual detail and narrative coherence during misinformation exposure influenced the relation between retrieval and suggestibility ...


No Evidence Of “Weaponized Title Ix” Here: An Empirical Assessment Of Sexual Misconduct Reporting, Case Processing, And Outcomes, Tara N. Richards Feb 2019

No Evidence Of “Weaponized Title Ix” Here: An Empirical Assessment Of Sexual Misconduct Reporting, Case Processing, And Outcomes, Tara N. Richards

Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

Little is known about actual incidents of gender-based violence reported by college students or the campus adjudication process or outcomes of reported cases. Data from Annual Security Reports (ASRs) and Title IX Coordinators was used to examine the context, processes, and outcomes of reported incidents of sexual misconduct (n=1,054) at Institutions of Higher Education (IHEs) in a Mid-Atlantic state. Results showed that ASRs undercounted incidents of sexual misconduct. Few incidents reported to Title IX Coordinators resulted in a formal Title IX complaint, and fewer still resulted in a finding of responsibility or suspension/expulsion of the responsible student ...


A Study Of Factors Influencing Hiring Decisions In The Context Of Ban The Box Policies, Ronald F. Day Feb 2019

A Study Of Factors Influencing Hiring Decisions In The Context Of Ban The Box Policies, Ronald F. Day

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation investigates whether NYC employers adhered to Ban the Box by removing the question about criminal history from employment forms, by refraining from inquiring about an applicant’s criminal record during the interview process, and by complying with other aspects of the policy. The study also documents employer perspectives on Ban the Box and on the hiring of individuals with criminal convictions, and examines whether more individuals with a criminal record were hired after the policy was implemented.

Using a mixed-methods approach, surveys were administered to companies in the nonprofit and private sectors, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with ...


Awareness And Perception Of Cybercrimes And Cybercriminals, Hannarae Lee, Hyeyoung Lim Feb 2019

Awareness And Perception Of Cybercrimes And Cybercriminals, Hannarae Lee, Hyeyoung Lim

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Awareness is a starting point to recognize, understand, or know a situation or fact, and the perception makes a difference in how to deal with it. Although the term cybercrime may not be new to the most public and the police, not all of them are well aware of the nature and extent of cybercrimes, cybercriminals, and cyber-victims, which in turn affects their perceptions of matters. The four papers in this issue of the International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence and Cybercrime empirically examine these important topics and discuss policy implications.


Phishing And Cybercrime Risks In A University Student Community, Roderic Broadhurst, Katie Skinner, Nicholas Sifniotis, Bryan Matamoros-Macias, Yuguang Ipsen Feb 2019

Phishing And Cybercrime Risks In A University Student Community, Roderic Broadhurst, Katie Skinner, Nicholas Sifniotis, Bryan Matamoros-Macias, Yuguang Ipsen

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

In an exploratory quasi-experimental observational study, 138 participants recruited during a university orientation week were exposed to social engineering directives in the form of fake email or phishing attacks over several months in 2017. These email attacks attempted to elicit personal information from participants or entice them into clicking links which may have been compromised in a real-world setting. The study aimed to determine the risks of cybercrime for students by observing their responses to social engineering and exploring attitudes to cybercrime risks before and after the phishing phase. Three types of scam emails were distributed that varied in the ...


Examining Perceptions Of Online Harassment Among Constables In England And Wales, Thomas J. Holt, Jin R. Lee, Roberta Liggett, Karen M. Holt, Adam Bossler Feb 2019

Examining Perceptions Of Online Harassment Among Constables In England And Wales, Thomas J. Holt, Jin R. Lee, Roberta Liggett, Karen M. Holt, Adam Bossler

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

The ubiquity of the Internet and computer technology has enabled individuals to engage in bullying, threats, and harassing communications online. Limited research has found that local line officers may not view these offenses as serious compared to real world crimes despite their negative physical and emotional impact on victims. The perceptions of officers can produce poor interactions with victims during calls for service, particularly victim blaming, which can reduce citizens’ confidence in police agencies generally. However, local law enforcement agencies are increasingly mandated to respond to these cases, calling to question how their views may impact the community. This study ...


The Profile Of The International Cyber Offender In The U.S., Lora I. Hadzhidimova, Brian K. Payne Feb 2019

The Profile Of The International Cyber Offender In The U.S., Lora I. Hadzhidimova, Brian K. Payne

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

This study explores the characteristics of international cyber offenders prosecuted in the U.S. Our findings to a large extent correspond with general studies about cyber offenders with a few important exceptions. First, the average age of the offenders in our study is slightly higher than others that do not focus exclusively on international offenders. Second, while this research confirms that China is among the leading country in committing cybercrimes when it comes to committing particular types of cybercrimes, the offenders come from other countries as well such as Romania, Estonia, Ukraine, South Africa, and Nigeria. Third, our results show ...


Cybercrime And Digital Forensics: Bridging The Gap In Legislation, Investigation And Prosecution Of Cybercrime In Nigeria, Kabiru H. Mohammed, Yusuf D. Mohammed, Abiodun A. Solanke Feb 2019

Cybercrime And Digital Forensics: Bridging The Gap In Legislation, Investigation And Prosecution Of Cybercrime In Nigeria, Kabiru H. Mohammed, Yusuf D. Mohammed, Abiodun A. Solanke

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

The advancement of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) opens new avenues and ways for cybercriminals to commit crime. The primary goal of this paper is to raise awareness regarding gaps that exist with regards to Nigeria’s capabilities to adequately legislate, investigate and prosecute cases of cybercrimes. The major source of cybercrime legislation in Nigeria is an act of the National Assembly which is majorly a symbolic legislation rather than a full and active legislation. In perusing these avenues of inquiry, the authors seek to identify systemic impediments which hinder law enforcement agencies, prosecutors, and investigators from properly carrying out ...


Canada's Missing And Murdered Indigenous People And The Imperative For A More Inclusive Perspective, John G. Hansen, Emeka E. Dim Jan 2019

Canada's Missing And Murdered Indigenous People And The Imperative For A More Inclusive Perspective, John G. Hansen, Emeka E. Dim

The International Indigenous Policy Journal

The National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls (MMIWG) emerged to bring attention to the overrepresentation of missing and murdered Indigenous women in Canada. It has raised awareness about systemic racism and sexism as well as social and economic conditions experienced by Canada's Indigenous population. Yet, research shows that Indigenous males are the most likely to be murdered in Canada (Mulligan, Axford, & Soecki, 2016). Since Indigenous men are going missing and are murdered in disturbing numbers, and they are fathers, brothers, and sons to Indigenous women and girls, it is understandable that many in the Indigenous ...


Financial Barriers And Utilization Of Medical Services In Prison: An Examination Of Co-Payments, Personal Assets, And Individual Characteristics, Brian R. Wyant Phd, Holly M. Harner Jan 2019

Financial Barriers And Utilization Of Medical Services In Prison: An Examination Of Co-Payments, Personal Assets, And Individual Characteristics, Brian R. Wyant Phd, Holly M. Harner

Journal for Evidence-based Practice in Correctional Health

Although research has found that requiring incarcerated individuals to pay fees for medical service decreases use, there are still important unanswered questions about this association: 1) Is the copayment fee a barrier to those seeking medical attention? 2) If so, what individual factors are associated with viewing the copayments as the reason to avoid seeing a medical professional? Using 2012 survey data collected from 45 incarcerated persons housed in a maximum security prison on the East Coast, it was discovered that over 70% of the men surveyed reported avoiding medical services at least once in the past three months due ...


Cowan, Gilbert, 1903-1969 (Sc 3316), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives Jan 2019

Cowan, Gilbert, 1903-1969 (Sc 3316), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives

MSS Finding Aids

Finding aid only for Manuscripts Small Collection 3316. Letters, 28 July and 18 November 1931, of Gilbert Cowan, written to his brother Finley Cowan in Cannons Mill, Clinton County, Kentucky, while Gilbert was an inmate at the Kentucky State Reformatory in Frankfort, Kentucky. He asks Finley to help arrange a recommendation for him to the superintendent of the prison school, and doubts that he, unlike other inmates, will be able to apply for a reduced sentence. He also wishes he could attend church with Finley in order to “get me a gal.” The institutional letterhead includes rules governing inmate letter-writing ...


The Use Of Compassionate Release Policies For Elderly Offenders, Lindsey Martin Jan 2019

The Use Of Compassionate Release Policies For Elderly Offenders, Lindsey Martin

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

This research examined the use of compassionate release policy in response to the fastest-increasing segment of the prison population- elderly offenders. Though this policy is an approach to this problem, there was little available research regarding which correctional organizations in the United States adopt compassionate release and how it is used. The purpose of this nonexperimental comparative quantitative study was to examine the use of the policy in neighboring and distant state correctional systems relative to those organizations that used the policy more frequently to determine if the leader-laggard theory of policy diffusion was an effective policy-implementation framework. The research ...


Marijuana Legalization And Traffic Fatalities Involving Cannabinoids, Mark Lewn Hake Jan 2019

Marijuana Legalization And Traffic Fatalities Involving Cannabinoids, Mark Lewn Hake

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Washington State and Colorado were the first states to legalize recreational marijuana. According to the Washington Traffic Safety Commission, the number of drivers who tested positive for marijuana in traffic fatalities increased 48% from 2013 to 2014, and marijuana legalization may have influenced this increase. Since marijuana legalization is new to the United States, the effects of this change in policy are untested in the literature. The purpose of this quantitative study using a regression point displacement design was to examine the relationship between traffic fatalities involving cannabinoids in Washington State before and after marijuana legalization. Rational choice theory and ...


Exploring The Factors Responsible For Occupational Stress Among Police Officers In Nigeria, Ahmed Lateef Jan 2019

Exploring The Factors Responsible For Occupational Stress Among Police Officers In Nigeria, Ahmed Lateef

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Over 90 percent of police officers in Nigeria are confronted with psychological illness and injuries as a result of occupational stress, which is compounded by a lack of attention to police officer welfare by government, insufficient annual leave, and poor salaries that contribute to poor performance. Using Karasek's demands on decision and control model as the foundation, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the impact of occupational stress on police officers in a metropolitan police agency in Nigeria. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 15 senior police officers who had at least 20 years experience ...


Recent Parolees Participating In An Adult Basic Education And Work Skills Program, Charles Jenkins Jan 2019

Recent Parolees Participating In An Adult Basic Education And Work Skills Program, Charles Jenkins

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Abstract

The issue addressed in this study was the increasing number of prisoners in U.S. prisons and the related issue of recidivism after release. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the experiences of 8 formerly incarcerated adults. The conceptual foundation of this study was based on Bandura's self-efficacy theory and Vygotsky's concept of the zone of proximal development and transformational learning. The research question for this study inquired about how released prisoners perceive their educational experiences in the MTM program. Participants were selected among adults who were incarcerated for at least 12 months and ...


Individuals Who Sell Drugs Placed In Treatment: The Perspective Of Their Counselors, Natasha Herbert Jan 2019

Individuals Who Sell Drugs Placed In Treatment: The Perspective Of Their Counselors, Natasha Herbert

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Individuals who sell drugs are often mandated by legal forces to substance abuse treatment because of their criminal offenses and the belief they may have a drug problem. Previous researchers have noted this population may be disruptive in the treatment process, but it has not been explored in depth. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to learn the lived experiences of counselors who work with individuals who report a primary problem of selling drugs, not substance abuse, who are mandated to a substance abuse treatment program. Thirteen semi structured interviews were conducted with counselors who have worked with individuals ...


Psychosocial Differences In Far Right, Far Left, Islamic, And Single Issue Lone Extremists, Tamara Marie Lamontagne Jan 2019

Psychosocial Differences In Far Right, Far Left, Islamic, And Single Issue Lone Extremists, Tamara Marie Lamontagne

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Acts of lone extremism are on the rise, yet little is known about who commits these acts. Research in this area has failed to delineate by extremist subtype. This has led to the misconception these acts and actors present with such variance psychosocially that they cannot be predicted. The purpose of this research was to assess whether statistically significant relationships exist between lone extremist subtypes on the psychosocial variables of mental illness, substance use, and having radicalized friends or family members. The conceptual framework for this study was De La Corte's psychosocial principles of terrorism, which addressed the social ...