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Social Control, Law, Crime, and Deviance Commons

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1398 full-text articles. Page 1 of 41.

Trigger Crimes & Social Progress: The Tragedy-Outrage-Reform Dynamic In America, Paul H. Robinson, Sarah M. Robinson 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Trigger Crimes & Social Progress: The Tragedy-Outrage-Reform Dynamic In America, Paul H. Robinson, Sarah M. Robinson

Faculty Scholarship

Can a crime make our world better? Crimes are the worst of humanity’s wrongs but, oddly, they sometimes do more than anything else to improve our lives. It is often the outrageousness itself that does the work. Ordinary crimes are accepted as the background noise of everyday existence but some crimes make people stop and take notice – because they are so outrageous or so heart-wrenching.

This brief essay explores the dynamic of tragedy, outrage, and reform, illustrating how certain kinds of crimes can trigger real social progress. Several dozen such “trigger crimes” are identified but four in particular are ...


Yakuza Past, Present And Future: The Changing Face Of Japan's Organized Crime Syndicates, Silke Higgins 2017 San Jose State University

Yakuza Past, Present And Future: The Changing Face Of Japan's Organized Crime Syndicates, Silke Higgins

Silke P. Higgins

While Japanese crime syndicates are deeply entrenched in the history and culture of Japan, much of what is known in the Western world about the Yakuza is primarily the result of stereotyping generated by media-driven sensationalism and lowbudget motion pictures. Judgment on the crime syndicates' continued existence, modes of operation, and relatively high visibility in Japan is oftentimes passed based on socio-cultural perceptions of deviance that differ from those in Japanese culture. Taking the form of a book review essay, this paper aims to re-introduce the reader to Japan's crime syndicates with the goal of replacing stereotypes and myths ...


Rationing Criminal Justice, Richard A. Bierschbach, Stephanos Bibas 2017 Cardozo Law School

Rationing Criminal Justice, Richard A. Bierschbach, Stephanos Bibas

Faculty Scholarship

Of the many diagnoses of American criminal justice’s ills, few focus on externalities. Yet American criminal justice systematically overpunishes in large part because few mechanisms exist to force consideration of the full social costs of criminal justice interventions. Actors often lack good information or incentives to minimize the harms they impose. Part of the problem is structural: criminal justice is fragmented vertically among governments, horizontally among agencies, and individually among self-interested actors. Part is a matter of focus: doctrinally and pragmatically, actors overwhelmingly view each case as an isolated, short-term transaction to the exclusion of broader, long-term, and aggregate ...


Denial Of Harm: Sex Trafficking, Backpage, And Free Speech Absolutism, Jody Raphael 2017 DePaul University College of Law

Denial Of Harm: Sex Trafficking, Backpage, And Free Speech Absolutism, Jody Raphael

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


A Visit To The Doctor: Preparation For Activism, Simone Watson 2017 University of Rhode Island

A Visit To The Doctor: Preparation For Activism, Simone Watson

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


Alice Paul Awards For Women Who Have Worked To Confront Men's Violence Against Women, Robert Brannon 2017 Committee on Feminist Movement History, National Organization for Men Against Sexism

Alice Paul Awards For Women Who Have Worked To Confront Men's Violence Against Women, Robert Brannon

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


Cumulative Sexual Victimization And Mental Health Outcomes Among Incarcerated Women, Jennifer Hartsfield, Susan F. Sharp, Sonya Conner 2017 Bridgewater State University

Cumulative Sexual Victimization And Mental Health Outcomes Among Incarcerated Women, Jennifer Hartsfield, Susan F. Sharp, Sonya Conner

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

This research explores the relationship between three different types of self-reported sexual victimization and subsequent mental health problems in a sample of incarcerated women. Previous literature establishes a link between victimization histories and poor mental health outcomes. This study focuses on sexual victimization experienced as a child, as an adolescent and as an adult, both individually and cumulatively, in relation to entering prison with a mental health diagnosis as well as reporting current depressive symptoms while incarcerated. Each type of victimization is significantly related to both prior mental health diagnosis and current depression in prison. Furthermore, there is an additive ...


Unsealed Fate: The Unintended Consequences Of Inadequate Safeguarding Of Juvenile Records In Maine, Susan Hawes, Erica King, Mara Sanchez, George Shaler 2017 Cutler Institute for Health and Social Policy

Unsealed Fate: The Unintended Consequences Of Inadequate Safeguarding Of Juvenile Records In Maine, Susan Hawes, Erica King, Mara Sanchez, George Shaler

Justice Policy

The purpose of this report is to provide policy makers, the public and other juvenile justice system practitioners (law enforcement, Maine Department of Corrections, attorneys and judges) with information about the impact of juvenile justice involvement on young people who have come into contact with the justice system. The goal of this report is to provide policy makers, the public and juvenile justice system practitioners with research about what those closest to the system understand about how records are handled and accessed, the impact of juvenile records and what improvements could be made that are consistent with the rehabilitative and ...


Pathways To Self-Injury: A Qualitative Exploration Of Social Psychological Processes, Thomas W. Wojciechowski 2017 University of Florida

Pathways To Self-Injury: A Qualitative Exploration Of Social Psychological Processes, Thomas W. Wojciechowski

The Qualitative Report

Self-injury is a deviant behavior often understood as the intentional infliction of harm onto one’s own body that exists absent of suicidal. This study uses a qualitative methodology to examine the etiology and perpetuation of self-injury using the terminology of relevant social-psychological theories to determine which processes best describe a causal pathway leading to self-injury and its perpetuation after the onset of the behavior. Data obtained from 16 semi-structured interviews with former and current self-injurers indicate that the processes described in general strain theory, social learning theory, and social control theory are all important for understanding the etiology and ...


New Hampshire Juvenile Sex Trafficking Survivor Urges Representatives To Vote Against Decriminalized Prostitution, Darlene Pawlik, Donna M. Hughes Dr. 2017 University of Rhode Island

New Hampshire Juvenile Sex Trafficking Survivor Urges Representatives To Vote Against Decriminalized Prostitution, Darlene Pawlik, Donna M. Hughes Dr.

Donna M. Hughes

I am a juvenile sex trafficking survivor. I was sold here in New Hampshire and other states as well. This is happening now too. Even with a law against prostitution, the more egregious elements are prevalent. Trafficking is not separate from prostitution, it is just the darker side of the very same coin. 


Sex Industry Advocates Aim To Decriminalize Prostitution In New Hampshire, Kelly Roy-Williams, Lisa Thompson, Donna M. Hughes Dr. 2017 University of Rhode Island

Sex Industry Advocates Aim To Decriminalize Prostitution In New Hampshire, Kelly Roy-Williams, Lisa Thompson, Donna M. Hughes Dr.

Donna M. Hughes

There is an organized effort in New Hampshire to fully decriminalize prostitution. What that means is that all laws controlling the buying and selling of sex will be removed from the law books, making prostitution legal. Law enforcement and public officials will then have no control over if, when, and where prostitution occurs, whether it’s in massage parlors (often called spas), hotels, apartments, residences, or strip clubs. Because commercial sex will be legal, pimps and “sex workers” will be able to freely advertise prostitution services. Pimps will be able to openly recruit women and girls into prostitution, without fear ...


Bibliography Of Sources On Prostitution Decriminalization In Rhode Island, Donna M. Hughes Dr., Melanie Shapiro Esq 2017 University of Rhode Island

Bibliography Of Sources On Prostitution Decriminalization In Rhode Island, Donna M. Hughes Dr., Melanie Shapiro Esq

Donna M. Hughes

A bibliography of sources on the research we did on prostitution and sex trafficking and the advocacy work we did to end decriminalized prostitution. For 29 years prostitution was decriminalized in Rhode Island (if it occurred indoors). Sexual exploitation and violence against women and girls were integrated into economic development. The number of sex businesses grew rapidly and organized crime groups operated brothels and extorted money from adult entertainment businesses. Rhode Island became a destination for pimps, sex traffickers, and other violent criminals. The lack of laws impeded police from investigating serious crimes, including sex trafficking


Fitting-In: How Formerly Incarcerated New York City Black Men Define Success Post-Prison, Mika'il DeVeaux 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Fitting-In: How Formerly Incarcerated New York City Black Men Define Success Post-Prison, Mika'il Deveaux

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The problem of community reintegration emerged following the rise of the US prison population, which began in in the 1970s, disproportionately affecting US-born African American men. In this qualitative study, the researcher examined the perceptions of 17 formerly incarcerated New York City African American men to understand how they defined post-prison success after having been in the community at least three years in the wake of the era of mass (hyper) incarceration.

During the study, the researcher employed a constructivist grounded theory (Charmaz, 2006) approach using data from semi-structured interviews to identify factors that enabled these African American men to ...


The Poverty Of The Neuroscience Of Poverty: Policy Payoff Or False Promise?, Amy L. Wax 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

The Poverty Of The Neuroscience Of Poverty: Policy Payoff Or False Promise?, Amy L. Wax

Faculty Scholarship

Research in deprivation neuroscience has grown rapidly over the past 15 years. Studies in this field examine brain structure and function of individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds. Many attempt to link brain characteristics to behavioral and cognitive deficits found more commonly in deprived populations.

The article assesses claims by neuroscientists and policy-oriented commentators that deprivation neuroscience can help generate more effective strategies for addressing poverty and deprivation. It concludes that research in this field has no unique practical payoff for reducing or alleviating poverty and its effects, over and above what is known or can be discovered from behavioral science and ...


Is Male Androphilia A Context-Dependent Cross-Cultural Universal?, Raymond B. Hames, Zachary H. Garfield, Melissa J. Garfield 2017 University of Nebraska Lincoln

Is Male Androphilia A Context-Dependent Cross-Cultural Universal?, Raymond B. Hames, Zachary H. Garfield, Melissa J. Garfield

Anthropology Faculty Publications

The cross-cultural ethnographic literature has traditionally used the label male “homosexuality” to describe sexual relationships between biological males without considering whether or not the concept encompasses primary sexual attraction to adult males. Although male androphilia seems to be found in all national populations, its universal existence in tribal populations has been questioned. Our goal is to review previous cross-cultural classifications and surveys of male same sex behavior to present a system that does justice to its varied expressions, especially as it is informed by contemporary sexuality research. Previous comparative research does not effectively distinguish male same sex behavior from male ...


Cognitive Sociology, Michael W. Raphael 2017 CUNY Graduate Center

Cognitive Sociology, Michael W. Raphael

Publications and Research

Cognitive sociology is the study of the conditions under which meaning is constituted through processes of reification. Cognitive sociology traces its origins to writings in the sociology of knowledge, sociology of culture, cognitive and cultural anthropology, and more recently, work done in cultural sociology and cognitive science. Its central questions revolve around locating these processes of reification since the locus of cognition is highly contentious. Researchers consider how individuality is related to notions of society (structures, institutions, systems, etc.) and notions of culture (cultural forms, cultural structures, sub-cultures, etc.). These questions further explore how these answers depend on learning processes ...


Health And Safety Overregulation, Michael Lewyn 2017 Touro Law Center

Health And Safety Overregulation, Michael Lewyn

Michael E Lewyn

Anti-jaywalking laws are designed to protect the safety of pedestrians. Similarly, police and child protection officials punish parents who allow their children to walk to school, in the name of child safety. This speech criticizes these policies and their justifications.


Strict Liability's Criminogenic Effect, Paul H. Robinson 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Strict Liability's Criminogenic Effect, Paul H. Robinson

Faculty Scholarship

It is easy to understand the apparent appeal of strict liability to policymakers and legal reformers seeking to reduce crime: if the criminal law can do away with its traditional culpability requirement, it can increase the likelihood of conviction and punishment of those who engage in prohibited conduct or bring about prohibited harm or evil. And such an increase in punishment rate can enhance the crime-control effectiveness of a system built upon general deterrence or incapacitation of the dangerous. Similar arguments support the use of criminal liability for regulatory offenses. Greater punishment rates suggest greater compliance.

But this analysis fails ...


Mapping American Criminal Law Variations Across The 50 States: Ch. 14 Insanity Defense, Paul H. Robinson, Tyler Scot Williams 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Mapping American Criminal Law Variations Across The 50 States: Ch. 14 Insanity Defense, Paul H. Robinson, Tyler Scot Williams

Faculty Scholarship

It is common for criminal law scholars from outside the United States to discuss the “American rule” and compare it to the rule of other countries. As this volume makes clear, however, there is no such thing as an “American rule.” Because each of the states, plus the District of Columbia and the federal system, have their own criminal law, there are fifty-two American criminal codes.

American criminal law scholars know this, of course, but they too commonly speak of the “general rule” as if it reflects some consensus or near consensus position among the states. But the truth is ...


Mapping American Criminal Law Variations Across The 50 States: Ch. 20 Statutory Rape, Paul H. Robinson, Tyler Scot Williams 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Mapping American Criminal Law Variations Across The 50 States: Ch. 20 Statutory Rape, Paul H. Robinson, Tyler Scot Williams

Faculty Scholarship

It is common for criminal law scholars from outside the United States to discuss the “American rule” and compare it to the rule of other countries. As this volume makes clear, however, there is no such thing as an “American rule.” Because each of the states, plus the District of Columbia and the federal system, have their own criminal law, there are fifty-two American criminal codes.

American criminal law scholars know this, of course, but they too commonly speak of the “general rule” as if it reflects some consensus or near consensus position among the states. But the truth is ...


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