Edward A. Ross: Social Development And Social Control, 2017 Cleveland State University
Edward A. Ross: Social Development And Social Control, Ernest M. Oleksy
The Downtown Review
With a foundation in philosophy and history, core concepts of sociology and criminology that were initially posited over a century ago are still useful in understanding the workings of today's society. The contributions of Edward A. Ross have helped latter day researchers centralize their studies of polycentric topics by using social control as an omnipresent social fact. By comparing Ross's descriptions of 19th century society and the researcher's descriptions of 21st century society, a continuous understanding of a heavily pluralistic discipline comes to life.
Roadblocks To The Implementation Of Problem-Oriented Policing In Montevideo, 2017 CUNY John Jay College
Roadblocks To The Implementation Of Problem-Oriented Policing In Montevideo, Federico Del Castillo
In the broad context of Uruguay’s police reform, the Ministry of Interior is implementing a pilot Problem-Oriented Policing (POP) program in Montevideo since late 2012. This research examined the obstacles confronted by the program throughout its implementation. Using a grounded theory approach, qualitative data was collected through 20 semi-structured interviews with members of the Uruguay National Police (UNP) of different ranks. Findings were analyzed based on the following categories: a) contextual factors; b) theoretical and practical inaccuracies; c) characteristics, skills and actions of project managers; d) resistance and motivational issues; e) resources; f) external support and cooperation. Consistent with ...
Discourse At The International School Of Asia In Karuizawa: Language And Practice, 2017 SIT Graduate Institute
Discourse At The International School Of Asia In Karuizawa: Language And Practice, Merisa Muharemovic
Leadership as a form of practice unbound by social position is not a concept commonly taught to students within formal education institutions. It is even less comonly an object of Foucauldian critical discourse analysis, which is the approach that this capstone paper uses to take a closer look at the discourse of student leadership at a newly founded, private, international boarding high school in Japan: UWC ISAK Japan. By doing so it explores the relationship between the language and practice of leadership – a program which, on paper, seems critically liberating, but upon analysis also reveals important contradictions. Through the lense ...
Impacts Of Anti-Corruption Interventions: Measures In The Shipping Industry, 2017 World Maritime University
Impacts Of Anti-Corruption Interventions: Measures In The Shipping Industry, Mirana Rabarijaona
World Maritime University Dissertations
No abstract provided.
Decision Making: Do People With Dark Triad Traits Utilize Advice?, 2017 Middle Tennessee State University
Decision Making: Do People With Dark Triad Traits Utilize Advice?, Elizabeth D. Mcnamara, Alexander T. Jackson, Aneeqa T. Thiele, Stacey M. Stremic, Satoris S. Howes Dr., Michael Hein, Mark C. Frame
River Cities Industrial and Organizational Psychology Conference
This research study seeks to gain a better understanding of the effects of the dark triad (narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy) on advice taking. This research examined whether or not the dark triad traits result in working professionals being more or less likely to accept advice when making a decision. Past research has shown that outcomes are generally more favorable when the person who is making the decision takes the advice of another person into consideration. Despite this fact, I hypothesized that people with higher narcissistic or psychopathic traits will not accept advice when making a decision. Additionally, I hypothesized that Machiavellians ...
“First, Do No Harm”: Old And New Paradigms In Prehospital Resuscitation In The Aquatic Domain, 2017 Lady Cilento Children's Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
“First, Do No Harm”: Old And New Paradigms In Prehospital Resuscitation In The Aquatic Domain, John H. Pearn, Richard Charles Franklin
International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education
The balance between benefit and risk is central to the work of all those involved in aquatic services. The Hippocratic exhortation of Primum non nocere, “First, do no harm,” has a history of over 2000 years. Superficially, all would support this dictum, but harm can result from inaction. The balance between no or little intervention on the one hand and proactive intervention with iatrogenic risk on the other is complex and enduring. Risk implies that one does not have all the information available to know the exact likelihood of an outcome, a common situation involving rescue, first aid, and resuscitation ...
Once Bitten, Thrice Wise: The Varying Effects Of Victimization On Routine Activities And Risk Management, 2017 Loyola University Chicago
Once Bitten, Thrice Wise: The Varying Effects Of Victimization On Routine Activities And Risk Management, J. Michael Vecchio
J. Michael Vecchio
While the relationship between offending and victimization is well established, less is understood about what contributes to the varied effects of victimization on future behavior. Drawing on qualitative interviews from a sample of at-risk men, the study explores recognized and unrecognized effects of victimization on subsequent behavior and management of lifestyle risks both within and across narratives. Findings demonstrate a range of perceived effects on behavior and risk management, with the presence or absence of substantive effects related to whether the event was both severe and directly attributable to involvement in at-risk behavior. Consequences for the victimization–termination hypothesis are ...
Youth Gangs: An Overview Of Key Findings And Directions For The Future, 2017 University of Missouri - St Louis
Youth Gangs: An Overview Of Key Findings And Directions For The Future, Terrance J. Taylor, J. Michael Vecchio
J. Michael Vecchio
Youth gangs have received considerable attention for many decades. Undoubtedly, their disproportionate involvement in violence is one main reason for this attention. While gang members spend most of their lives engaging in the same types of behaviors as other youth (sleeping, eating, playing video games, going to school), they are also much more likely than non-gang members to be involved in violence and other criminal activity. Indeed, scholars have often highlighted the functional nature of violence as it pertains to gangs. Gangs come in a variety of forms: prison gangs, outlaw motorcycle gangs, extremist groups, and drug trafficking organizations, among ...
Leaving The Gang: A Review And Thoughts On Future Research, 2017 Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis
Leaving The Gang: A Review And Thoughts On Future Research, Dena C. Carson, J. Michael Vecchio
J. Michael Vecchio
Researchers have examined aspects of gangs and their members for almost a century. This work, however, focuses primarily on youth prior to joining as well as during gang involvement. While comparatively less is known about the leaving processes, work in this area has been increasing in recent years. This chapter will discuss the growing body of research on the processes associated with leaving the gang. Specifically, it will review difficulties associated with defining gang desistance, theoretical perspectives on desistance, variations in motives, methods, and consequences of leaving, barriers to desistance, as well as make recommendations for policy and future research.
Child And Adolescent Commercial Sexual Exploitation In Mexico: The Exploiters And The State, 2017 National Autonomous University of Mexico
Child And Adolescent Commercial Sexual Exploitation In Mexico: The Exploiters And The State, Sonia M. Frias, Mariajosé Gómez-Zaldívar
Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence
Commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is a form of violence in which children, mainly girls and female adolescents, are reduced to sexual objects for rent. In this study, we argue that the concept of who is an exploiter must be broadened to include everyone who directly or indirectly benefits from CSEC. This paper is based on life stories of 10 female residents from a shelter, which we call Casa Libertad (a fictitious name) in Mexico City, for female victims of violence. Researchers also used semi-structured interviews with experts on CSEC to examine the exploiters' profiles. The research challenges the ...
International Black-Market Organ Trade, 2017 Gettysburg College
International Black-Market Organ Trade, Marni E. Graznow
The human organ trade is a global epidemic as citizens of developed-countries look to developing-countries to find organ donors, specifically exploiting the poor for their own personal gain. The impoverished organ donors are treated in an inhumane manner, as they are often left with serious medical complications and are not treated equally in the transaction.
Ted Kaczynski: Evil Or Insane?, 2017 Gettysburg College
Ted Kaczynski: Evil Or Insane?, Drew C. Warren
Explores the life of the infamous Unabomber, and demonstrates why his manifesto on society and his extraordinary intelligence makes him the most unique and brilliant serial killer in United States history.
Book Reviews: Recent Books On Pornography: From Discussions Of Harm To Normalization, 2017 Brooklyn College CUNY
Book Reviews: Recent Books On Pornography: From Discussions Of Harm To Normalization, Robert Brannon
Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence
Nine books addressing the specific harms linked to adults’ viewing of heterosexual pornography are examined. All were published since 2010, and range from some that are opposed to all pornography, to others that approve of pornography. The books differ considerably in scope, quality, and scientific rigor. Several include discussions of the feminist anti-pornography movement, in the U.S. and worldwide, from 1975 to the present. These accounts range from criticism of the anti-pornography movement to praise and appreciation. This collection of books provides a useful view of the remarkable diversity of thought about all issues connected with pornography’s effects ...
The Most Desired Positions: Brazilian Female Drug Traffickers In Inferno And Falcão: Mulheres E O Tráfico, Carolina Castellanos Gonella
Faculty and Staff Publications By Year
In order to analyze the gender performance and empowerment of Brazilian female drug traffickers, this article compares the character of Marta in Patrícia Melo’s novel Inferno(2000) with the testimonies of four real female drug traffickers collected in MV Bill and Celso Athayde’s book Falcão: Mulheres e o tráfico (2007). It argues that while female drug traffickers highlight their experience and use their kinship relations, Marta’s access to power and gender transgression are temporary because her community and other drug traffickers do not support her. The article also proposes the term “the most desired positions” to replace ...
A Real Options Approach To Criminal Careers, 2017 FURG and PPGOM/UFPel
A Real Options Approach To Criminal Careers, Cristiano Aguiar De Oliveira, Giácomo Balbinotto Neto
The Latin American and Iberian Journal of Law and Economics
This paper proposes a dynamic model based on real options to evaluate the criminal career. In the model, individuals can choose the best moment to engage in crime (illegal activity). The model proposed allows the evaluation of the impact of different risk preferences, punishment probability, punishment severity and, mainly time discount in the individual’s decision. Through model calibration it is possible to observe that the option for a criminal career depends on a high return in the illegal activity even when individuals are risk neutral and when they have a low time discount. The paper also discusses youth participation ...
Restorative Justice: A Look At Victim Offender Mediation Programs, 2017 Fordham University
Restorative Justice: A Look At Victim Offender Mediation Programs, Katie L. Moran
21st Century Social Justice
This report conceptualizes the effectiveness and benefits of utilizing the restorative justice model of Victim Offender Mediation (VOM) within the criminal and juvenile justice systems to serve the rights of victims, offenders, and society more justly. Victim Offender Mediation is discussed as a possible alternative justice model which reframes the victim-offender relationship to foster and respect the dignity and worth of each participant. This restorative justice model combats victims’ feelings of helplessness by giving them back their voice, while having the potential to specifically offer relief to those secondarily victimized by the legal system in cases of simple rape. Offenders ...
Tragedy, Outrage & Reform: Crimes That Changed Our World: 1983 – Thurman Beating - Domestic Violence, 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School
Tragedy, Outrage & Reform: Crimes That Changed Our World: 1983 – Thurman Beating - Domestic Violence, Paul H. Robinson, Sarah M. Robinson
Can a crime make our world better? Crimes are the worst of humanity’s wrongs but, oddly, they sometimes do more than anything else to improve our lives. As it turns out, it is often the outrageousness itself that does the work. Ordinary crimes are accepted as the background noise of our everyday existence but some crimes make people stop and take notice – because they are so outrageous, or so curious, or so heart-wrenching. These “trigger crimes” are the cases that this book is about.
They offer some incredible stories about how people, good and bad, change the world around ...
Trigger Crimes & Social Progress: The Tragedy-Outrage-Reform Dynamic In America, 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School
Trigger Crimes & Social Progress: The Tragedy-Outrage-Reform Dynamic In America, Paul H. Robinson, Sarah M. Robinson
Can a crime make our world better? Crimes are the worst of humanity’s wrongs but, oddly, they sometimes do more than anything else to improve our lives. It is often the outrageousness itself that does the work. Ordinary crimes are accepted as the background noise of everyday existence but some crimes make people stop and take notice – because they are so outrageous or so heart-wrenching.
This brief essay explores the dynamic of tragedy, outrage, and reform, illustrating how certain kinds of crimes can trigger real social progress. Several dozen such “trigger crimes” are identified but four in particular are ...
The Triple-C Impact: Responding To Childhood Exposure To Crime And Violence, 2017 University of Pennsylvania
The Triple-C Impact: Responding To Childhood Exposure To Crime And Violence, Michal Gilad
The article is the first to take an inclusive look at the monumental problem of crime exposure during childhood, which is estimated to be one of the most damaging and costly public health and public safety problem in our society today. It takes-on the challenging task of ‘naming’ the problem by coining the term Comprehensive Childhood Crime Impact or in short the Triple-C Impact. Informed by scientific findings, the term embodies the full effect of direct and indirect crime exposure on children due to their unique developmental characteristics, and the spillover effect the problem has on our society as a ...
The Effects Of Employment On Recidivism Among Delinquent Juveniles, 2017 East Tennessee State University
The Effects Of Employment On Recidivism Among Delinquent Juveniles, Leigh Kassem
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Current research indicates an association between intense adolescent work (twenty hours or more per week) and delinquent behavior. It has been widely speculated that this relationship is spurious, occurring only as a result of other factors which are common to both offending and intense employment. The current study attempts to fill a gap in the literature by utilizing the Pathways to Desistance dataset to examine the evolution of the relationship between work and self-reported offending in a longitudinal sample of juvenile offenders. Work intensity and consistency, social capital, and expectations for success were analyzed as potential predictors of recidivism or ...