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Criminal Backgrounds Of Sextraffickers - Abstract, Alexis Piccirillo, Amelia Davis, Emily Markey, Donna M. Hughes Dr. 2016 Independent

Criminal Backgrounds Of Sextraffickers - Abstract, Alexis Piccirillo, Amelia Davis, Emily Markey, Donna M. Hughes Dr.

Donna M. Hughes

Less is known about perpetrators of sex trafficking compared to the victims. The aim of
this study is to learn more about sex traffickers by analyzing the criminal backgrounds of
offenders arrested for sex trafficking crimes. Between 2009 and 2015, there were 22
cases of sex trafficking involving 38 traffickers in Rhode Island. Criminal background
records are publicly available in Rhode Island, so the records for each sex trafficker were
retrieved from the Rhode Island Judiciary Criminal Information online database. In
addition, information on previous convictions was extracted from sentencing memoranda
and other court documents available from Rhode Island Superior ...


Identification Of Victims In Cases Of Sex Trafficking - Abstract, Donna M. Hughes Dr. 2016 University of Rhode Island

Identification Of Victims In Cases Of Sex Trafficking - Abstract, Donna M. Hughes Dr.

Donna M. Hughes

Identifying victims of sex trafficking can be challenging for law enforcement. To determine how victims were identified in cases of sex trafficking that resulted in criminal charges, this study analyzed the records from prosecuted cases of sex trafficking to determine how the victims were identified. The analysis used primary documents, including police narratives, witness statements, indictments, plea bargains, and sentencing memoranda retrieved from the Superior Court and the U.S. District Court in Rhode Island. Between 2009 and 2015, there were 22 cases of sex trafficking involving 38 traffickers. In these cases, at least 30 victims were identified. The public ...


What's Wrong With Sentencing Equality?, Richard A. Bierschbach, Stephanos Bibas 2016 Cardozo Law School

What's Wrong With Sentencing Equality?, Richard A. Bierschbach, Stephanos Bibas

Faculty Scholarship

Equality in criminal sentencing often translates into equalizing outcomes and stamping out variations, whether race-based, geographic, or random. This approach conflates the concept of equality with one contestable conception focused on outputs and numbers, not inputs and processes. Racial equality is crucial, but a concern with eliminating racism has hypertrophied well beyond race. Equalizing outcomes seems appealing as a neutral way to dodge contentious substantive policy debates about the purposes of punishment. But it actually privileges deterrence and incapacitation over rehabilitation, subjective elements of retribution, and procedural justice, and it provides little normative guidance for punishment. It also has unintended ...


Can Racially Unbiased Police Perpetuate Long-Run Discrimination?, Helle Bunzel, Philippe Marcoul 2016 Iowa State University

Can Racially Unbiased Police Perpetuate Long-Run Discrimination?, Helle Bunzel, Philippe Marcoul

Helle Bunzel

We develop a stylized dynamic model of highway policing in which a non-racist police officer exhibits a cognitive bias: relative overconfidence. The officer is given incentives to arrest criminals but faces a per stop cost which increases when the racial mix of her stops differs from that of the population. Every period, she observes the racial composition of jail inmates (generated from arrests made by her peers) and forms estimates about the crime rates of each race. In some settings, her overconfidence leads her to overestimate the crime rate of one race relative to another causing the long-run racial composition ...


Assessing The Efficacy Of A Modified Therapeutic Community On The Reduction Of Institutional Write-Ups In A Medium Security Prison, Lee Wayne Maglinger, Aaron W. Hughey, Monica Galloway Burke 2016 Kentucky Department of Corrections, Owensboro

Assessing The Efficacy Of A Modified Therapeutic Community On The Reduction Of Institutional Write-Ups In A Medium Security Prison, Lee Wayne Maglinger, Aaron W. Hughey, Monica Galloway Burke

Aaron Hughey

This study explored the impact a modified TC (Therapeutic Community) had on reducing institutional disorder as documented by institutional write-ups. The number of institutional write-ups exhibited by clients participating in a modified TC was compared with the number of write-ups exhibited by inmates in five non-treatment units over a four-year period. ANOVA (analysis of variance) revealed that the number of write-ups exhibited by clients in the TC was significantly lower than the number exhibited by inmates in the other five dorms (F(4, 24) = 5.61, p < 0.002).Further, when examined by category of offense (major/minor), it was ...


Eliminating Zero Tolerance Policies In Schools: Miami-Dade County Public School's Approach, Jeremy Thompson 2016 Brigham Young University Law School

Eliminating Zero Tolerance Policies In Schools: Miami-Dade County Public School's Approach, Jeremy Thompson

Brigham Young University Education and Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Making The Italian Other: Blacks, Whites, And The In Between In The 1895 Spring Valley, Illinois, Race Riot, Caroline Waldron Merithew 2016 University of Dayton

Making The Italian Other: Blacks, Whites, And The In Between In The 1895 Spring Valley, Illinois, Race Riot, Caroline Waldron Merithew

Caroline Merithew

This essay takes the Spring Valley, Illinois, race riot and observes how blacks, Italians, and other new immigrants attempted to empower themselves and lay claim to status at the "nadir" of race relations ill this country. The events leading up to the riot, the assault on the African-American community, and the aftermath of the attack led to vocal outcries against oppression. What constituted oppression, however, was open to interpretation. Furthermore, no group defined itself, or its other, in isolation. Rather, each side responded to the rhetoric of its "opponents" as well as of middle-class whites who became involved in the ...


The Prospects For Change: The Question Of Justice In A Law & Society Framework, Michael W. Raphael 2016 CUNY Graduate Center

The Prospects For Change: The Question Of Justice In A Law & Society Framework, Michael W. Raphael

Graduate Student Publications and Research

What is the law and society framework and where has it gotten us? A student in a classroom might raise their hand and offer "understanding legal pluralism" as a possible answer. However, the conceptual problem with legal pluralism is the coexistence of potentially conflicting bases of justification. Given this, desiring to understand how the law shapes the structural underpinnings of whichever "legal" phenomena and its "ongoing transformation", is nevertheless an immense achievement that stops short of its underlying goal – the achievement of human dignity through human rights. For example, to talk about 'multi-stakeholder consultations' and other pithy phrases that describe ...


Capitalism, Social Institutions, And Pathways To Crime: Reconstructing Institutional Anomie Theory, Amanda Marie Smith 2016 Western Michigan University

Capitalism, Social Institutions, And Pathways To Crime: Reconstructing Institutional Anomie Theory, Amanda Marie Smith

Dissertations

Messner and Rosenfeld (1994; 2013) developed the Institutional Anomie Theory (IAT) as an explanation for the high rates of serious crime in the United States. They theorize that high serious crime rates are the result of a culture that values material gain as the primary goal (i.e., the American Dream) with a weak social institutional structure. This study argues that IAT must be reconstructed because Messner and Rosenfeld: (1) discount religion as a social institution of importance, (2) exclude high inequality as a source of structural blockages, and (3) use the concept of the American Dream as a proxy ...


The One Exhibition The Roots Of The Lgbt Equality Movement One Magazine & The First Gay Supreme Court Case In U.S. History 1943-1958, Joshua R. Edmundson 2016 California State University - San Bernardino

The One Exhibition The Roots Of The Lgbt Equality Movement One Magazine & The First Gay Supreme Court Case In U.S. History 1943-1958, Joshua R. Edmundson

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The ONE Exhibition explores an era in American history marked by intense government sponsored anti-gay persecution and the genesis of the LGBT equality movement. The study begins during World War II, continues through the McCarthy era and the founding of the nation’s first gay magazine, and ends in 1958 with the first gay Supreme Court case in U.S. history.

Central to the story is ONE The Homosexual Magazine, and its founders, as they embarked on a quest for LGBT equality by establishing the first ongoing nationwide forum for gay people in the U.S., and challenged the government ...


Attitudes And Perceived Barriers Of Police Officers Regarding The Lethality Assessment Protocol, Tanya M. Grant, Bronwyn Cross-Denny 2016 Sacred Heart University

Attitudes And Perceived Barriers Of Police Officers Regarding The Lethality Assessment Protocol, Tanya M. Grant, Bronwyn Cross-Denny

Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

This exploratory, qualitative research study examined the attitudes and barriers police officers identified in successful implementation of the Lethality Assessment Protocol (LAP), a collaborative intervention between police departments and domestic violence advocacy agencies in the State of Connecticut. Focus groups were conducted at three police departments to identify officers’ perception of LAP. Officers (N=22) were recruited through an individual contact at the police department. Responses to focus group questions identified both system-wide and individual police department barriers. Officers generally support the protocol and believe it has beneficial intent and purpose. Barriers identified include timing of the implementation, lack of ...


The State Of The States: The Continuing Struggle To Criminalize Revenge Porn, 2016 Brigham Young University Law School

The State Of The States: The Continuing Struggle To Criminalize Revenge Porn

BYU Law Review

No abstract provided.


Entitlement And Anguish: An Analysis Of Masculinity And Misogyny In American School Shootings, Sara Aubrey Tyberg 2016 Dickinson College

Entitlement And Anguish: An Analysis Of Masculinity And Misogyny In American School Shootings, Sara Aubrey Tyberg

Honors Theses By Year

Why are school shooters almost exclusively young, white men who frequently reveal contempt for women when committing their deadly crimes? I propose that the social construction of hegemonic masculinity informs perpetrators’ misogynistic attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs and contextualizes their self-righteous desire to commit acts of violence against others. School shootings are undeniably gendered acts of violence. To examine this phenomenon, I use qualitative case study analysis to analyze ten school shootings in the United States committed by men within the last eighteen years.

My analysis reveals the complex relationship between gender role expectations, male socialization, and violence. Hegemonic masculinity enforces ...


The American Nightmare: Land Of The Incarcerated, Jamara Bernard 2016 California State University, Monterey Bay

The American Nightmare: Land Of The Incarcerated, Jamara Bernard

Capstones and Theses

A collection of poems focusing on the mass incarceration of African-American men and how the prison industrial complex is designed to legally exploit prisoners specifically for profits. Along with a reflective essay about the history of legal discrimination and the creative process by which the poems were created. Then how it ties in with the capstone course theme of race, gender, class, feminist theory, and social justice.


How To Incite Crime With Words: Clarifying Brandenburg’S Incitement Test With Speech Act Theory, 2016 Brigham Young University Law School

How To Incite Crime With Words: Clarifying Brandenburg’S Incitement Test With Speech Act Theory

BYU Law Review

No abstract provided.


False Promises: The Failure Of Secure Communities In Miami-Dade County, Alex Stepick, Steve Held, Cynthia S. Hernandez, Cheryl Little, Susana Barciela 2016 Portland State University

False Promises: The Failure Of Secure Communities In Miami-Dade County, Alex Stepick, Steve Held, Cynthia S. Hernandez, Cheryl Little, Susana Barciela

Alex Stepick

This report addresses the impact on Miami-Dade County of the Secure Communities program, currently one of the primary federal immigration enforcement programs administered by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) through Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). DHS claims that the program prioritizes the removal of convicted criminal aliens who pose a danger to national security or public safety, repeat violators who game the immigration system, those who fail to appear at immigration hearings, and fugitives who have already been ordered removed by an immigration judge.


Ri Should Target Sex Buyers, Donna M. Hughes Dr. 2016 University of Rhode Island

Ri Should Target Sex Buyers, Donna M. Hughes Dr.

Donna M. Hughes

Men who buy sex----and they are only a small minority of men---are responsible for the crime of sex trafficking continuing to thrive. When sex traffickers find victims and coerce them into prostitution, they are serving the sex buyers, who pay them well for finding and marketing the victims to them.

For years, analysts have studied sex trafficking to determine the best way to combat this modern form of slavery. Today, a consensus is forming among advocates and law enforcement that to combat sex trafficking, the focus has to be on men who buy sex as much as on the pimps ...


Coming Home: Challenges Related To Reentry And Recidivism For Previously Incarcerated New Mothers, Sarah Ross Perry 2016 College of William and Mary

Coming Home: Challenges Related To Reentry And Recidivism For Previously Incarcerated New Mothers, Sarah Ross Perry

College of William & Mary Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis explores the intersection of motherhood, recidivism, and the reentry process for recently incarcerated new mothers. Women were recruited from the Healthy Beginnings Project, a program that works with pregnant, incarcerated women from correctional institutions in the Williamsburg area to provide perinatal education and support. Completed intake and postpartum surveys (n=103) were analyzed for quantitative data on the incremental ability of maternal, psychological, and contextual stressors to predict new mothers' likelihood to recidivate. 34.3% (n=34) of the new mothers recidivated when the child was one to twelve months old. None of the summed stressor variables were ...


How Code Enforcement Mitigates Hoarding In The Community, Jason Gibilisco 2016 San Jose State University

How Code Enforcement Mitigates Hoarding In The Community, Jason Gibilisco

Master's Projects

No abstract provided.


Rape And Sexual Violence: Questionable Inevitability And Moral Responsibility In Armed Conflict, Katherine W. Bogen 2016 Clark University, University of Pittsburgh

Rape And Sexual Violence: Questionable Inevitability And Moral Responsibility In Armed Conflict, Katherine W. Bogen

Scholarly Undergraduate Research Journal at Clark

Wartime sexual violence is a critical human rights issue that usurps the autonomy of its victims as well as their physical and psychological safety. It occurs in both ethnic and non-ethnic wars, across geographic regions, against both men and women, and regardless of the “official” position of commanders, states, and armed groups on the use of rape as tactic of war. This problem is current, pervasive, and global in spite of the status of wartime sexual violence perpetration as a crime against humanity and the capacity of the international criminal court to indict offenders. Though some scholars have argued that ...


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